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Protestant Reformation-Matt Jones
Transcript of Protestant Reformation-Matt Jones
Causes of the Reformation
100 Years War
What Was the Reformation?
Prior to the Reformation all Christians in Europe were Roman Catholic
The (REFORM)ation was an attempt to REFORM the Catholic Church.
Individuals like Martin Luther wanted to get rid of the corruption and restore faith.
Ultimately reformers like Martin Luther and John Calvin established their own religions.
The Christian world fractured beyond repair.
Became a monk and an Educator in a Local University
He became troubled over life after death.
Luther turned to the Bible and Confession.
Within the Bible Luther took comfort in this verse:
Luther rejected the concept of good deeds.
Instead he came to the conclusion that faith in Jesus was all that was needed to ensure salvation.
Luther believed that no amount of good deeds nor any ritual was beneficial without a basic faith or belief.
King Henry VIII
Pope Leo X needed to raise money.
The Pope instructed Johann Tetzel to accomplish this.
Tetzel came up with the idea to sell indulgences.
95 Theses (1517)
Posted on the local churches in Germany.
A document that Luther wrote attacking the Catholic church on several accounts, 95 to be exact.
Diet of Worms(1521)
Luther attacked the church for :
The Sale of Indulgences
Extreme Power of the Pope
Extreme Wealth of the Church
Johan Gutenburg's printing press made it easy for Luther's beliefs to spread quickly throughout Europe.
Luther's ideas were greatly accepted by the average peasants of northern Europe.
While studying in France, Calvin converted to Protestantism
He began to write about theological reform.
Calvinism began in Geneva, Switzerland and spread.
Holland: DUTCH REFORM
Germany: REFORM CHURCH
An Indulgence was a pardon and it released sinners from performing a penalty for specific sins.
Tetzel made indulgences sound more appealing by leading people to believe that idulgences could buy salvation or a place in heaven.
Occurred after Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther.
Called by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V of Germany.
Luther was asked to recant.
The Edict of Worms was issued by Charles V as an Imperial Order.
It declared Luther to be an Outlaw and a Heretic.
Northern German Princes supported Luther and made formal PROTESTS to the Church and Charles V.
They became known as (PROTEST)ants- Protestants.
Eventually the name Protestants was applied to all people belonging to non-catholic churches.
Calvin beleived in the concept of Predestination.
He preached that God chooses very few people to save.
Those chosen have been chosen since the beginning of time.
Calvin believed that a Theocracy was the best form of Government.
A Theocracy is a form of government controlled by religious leaders.
Calvin's teachings became known as CALVINISM.
War erupted between Charles V and the German Protesting Princes.
Charles won the war in 1547.
He was unable to force the Protesting Princes back into the Catholic Church.
In 1555 he called all princes, Catholic and Protestants, to the city of Augsburg.
At this meeting it was established that the religion of the German State would be decided upon by its Ruler.
This settlement became known as the Peace of Augsburg.
King Henry VIII (1491-1547)
Henry VIII was motivated politically.
In 1521 Henry wrote a pamphlet attacking Martin Luther.
The Pope was impressed and gave him the title "Defender of the Faith".
Henry was obsessed with having a son.
Henry and his wife, Catherine of Aragorn, had only one living child, a daughter named Mary.
No woman had ever succesfully claimed the English throne.
Due to Catherine's age Henry was convinced that she would have no more children at the age of 42.
Catholic law did not allow for divorce.
The Pope did however, have the ability to annul a marriage if Henry could prove that the marriage had never been legal from the start.
Henry petitioned the Pope for an Annulment but was denied.
The Pope did this to Henry because he did not want to offend Catherine's powerful nephew, Charles V.
Henry solved his dilemma by calling Parliament into session in 1529.
Henry asked Parliament to pass a set of laws to end the Pope's authority in England.
This Parliament became known as the "Reformation Parliament".
In 1533 Henry married Anne Boleyn and Parliament annulled his marriage with Catherine.
In 1534 Parliament passes the ACT Of SUPREMACY.
This act completed the split from the Catholic Church.
The Act of Supremacy made the King of England the official head of England's Church.
Queen Elizabeth I (1533-1603)
Following King Henry VIII's death in 1547, England entered a period of religious unrest.
This religious unrest was caused by the transition of power from Henry to each of his three offspring.
Anne Boleyn's daughter Elizabeth came to the throne in 1558.
In 1559 Parliament set up a National Church at the request of Queen Elizabeth.
Parliament declared Elizabeth to be the head of the English Church, or ANGLICAN Church.
She wanted to establish a church that moderate Catholics and Protestants might both accept.
Church of England or
"For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith for faith,as it is written, "The righteous shall live by faith."