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Transcript of Science
Pinna - The pinna also known as the outer ear is used to collect sound waves
Ear Canal - The ear canal also known as the auditory canal is where the sound vibrations/waves travel down the canal and are amplified
Ear Drum - The ear drum is a thin membrane which picks up the vibrations of sound waves
Ossicles - These are the bones in the middle of the ear the Hammer, Anvil and Stirrup amplify the vibrations and pass them on to the cochlea
Cochlea - The cochlea is a long coiled tube in the inner ear filled with fluid. It picks up vibrations and changes them to electrical signals
Auditory Nerve - The auditory nerve connects the inner ear to the brain - it carries the electrical signals Anything that makes a sound is vibrating. Ear muffs help your ears by the hard shinny casing is to reflect most sound then the leftover sound that gets through that has to go through a inner casing which is a soft rubber full of holes which is hard for vibrations to travel through as they are absorbed. Sound The ossicles ( Small bones ) attached to the eardrum apmlify the sound. The auditory nerve carries the impulses to the brain, where they are interpreted as sound ! The ear drum vibrates. The Pinna ( Outer Ear ) collects the sound waves which then travel trough the Auditory Canal ( Ear Canal ) How The Ear Works Using the example of a guitar being plucked The guitar string is plucked causing the air particles around it to vibrate. The sound waves travel through the air The cochlea changes the sound vibrations into nerve impulses. THATS HOW WE HEAR ! Compression -Air Particles close together
Rarefaction - Air Particles spread out Each air particle only moves from side to side. This moving cause particles to collide with adjacentones passing the vibration along. Sound can travel if particles vibrate E.G - Air, Water, Glass, Iron, Rock all of these allow sound to pass through them. What sound can't travel through Sound cannot travel through a vacuum. A vacuum is a space with no particles in it. If there are no particles there is nothing to vibrate so sound cannot travel. All sounds travel at the same speed Pitch Pitch is how high or low sounding the sound is This is a High Pitch sound This is a Low Pitch sound There are many more waves arriving at your ear per second There are few waves arriving at your ear per second Sound travels at 330m every second Light travels at 300,000km every second What is an Echo Geology What are rocks Rocks are made of grains that fit together. Each grain in the rock is made from a mineral, which is a chemical compound. The grains in a rock can be different colors, shapes, size. Types of Rocks Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks often have layers showing the deposition of sediment at different time periods. Sedimentary rocks consist of lots of small grains.
Sedimentary rocks often have fossils trapped within them. Types of Deafness There are many types of Deafness here are some -
Conductive hearing loss occurs when sound vibrations don't go from the air around a person to the moving bones of the inner ear as well as they should. If something is blocking the ear canal, like ear wax, there is a conductive hearing loss. If there is fluid inside the inner ear where the bones are, like the fluid from an inner ear infection, there is a conductive hearing loss. If the bones of the ear get a buildup of calcium, from a disease perhaps, and they can't move as freely as they need to, there is a conductive hearing loss. Generally, conductive hearing loss doesn't cause a total inability to hear, but it does cause a loss of loudness and a loss of clarity. In other words, sounds are heard, but they are weak, muffled, and distorted.
Neural hearing loss (Nerve deafness) occurs when the auditory nerve, which goes from the inner ear to the brain, fails to carry the sound information to the brain. Neural hearing loss can cause a loss of loudness or a loss of clarity in sounds.
Mixed hearing loss is a combination of conductive and neural hearing losses. These are some of the many causes of deafness
Hereditary disorders - some types of deafness are hereditary, which means parents pass on flawed genes to their children. In most cases, hereditary deafness is caused by malformations of the inner ear.
Genetic disorders - genetic mutations may happen: for example, at the moment of conception when the father’s sperm joins with the mother’s egg. Some of the many genetic disorders that can cause deafness include osteogenesis imperfecta, Trisomy 13 S and multiple lentigines syndrome.
Prenatal exposure to disease - a baby will be born deaf or with hearing problems if they are exposed to certain diseases in utero, including rubella (German measles), influenza and mumps. Other factors that are thought to cause congenital deafness include exposure to methylmercury and drugs such as quinine.
Noise - loud noises (such as gunshots, firecrackers, explosions and rock concerts), particularly prolonged exposure either in the workplace or recreationally, can damage the delicate mechanisms inside the ear. If you are standing next to someone, yet have to shout to be heard, you can be sure that the noise is loud enough to be damaging your ears. You can protect your hearing by reducing your exposure to loud noise or wearing suitable protection such as ear muffs or ear plugs.
Trauma - such as perforation of the eardrum, fractured skull or changes in air pressure (barotrauma).Disease - certain diseases can cause deafness, including meningitis, mumps, cytomegalovirus and chicken pox. A severe case of jaundice is also known to cause deafness.Other causes - other causes of deafness include Meniere’s disease and exposure to certain chemicals. Causes of Deafness Removing wax blockage. Earwax blockage is a common reversible cause of hearing loss. Your doctor may remove earwax by loosening it with oil and then flushing, scooping or suctioning the softened wax out.
Hearing aids. If your hearing loss is due to damage to your inner ear, a hearing aid can help by making sounds stronger and easier for you to hear. An audiologist can discuss with you the potential benefits of using a hearing aid, recommend a device and fit you with it. In some cases, you may be satisfied with an inexpensive, over-the-ear microphone device available at electronic stores. You may need to try more than one device to find one that works well for you.
Cochlear implants. If you have severe hearing loss, a cochlear implant may be an option for you. Unlike a hearing aid that amplifies sound and directs it into your ear canal, a cochlear implant compensates for damaged or non working parts of your inner ear. If you're considering a cochlear implant, your audiologist, along with a medical doctor who specializes in disorders of the ears, nose and throat (ENT), can discuss the risks and benefits with you. Treatments of Deafness Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic rocks are rocks that are formed from other rocks under extreme heat and pressure How they are formed All of the different types of sediments compact together to make a sedimentary rock Types of sedimentary rocks Shale is a black colour, it is one of the most common sedimentary rocks. It is composed of silt or clay that has been compacted or squeezed together to form a solid rock. Shale is usually found in thin layers. Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary rock The extrusive igneous rock is formed out side of the volcano by lava.
The intrusive igneous rock is formed inside of the volcano by the hot magma Igneous Rocks A type of igneous rock Types of igneous rocks Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock.
It is produced when lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly with minimum crystal growth. How they are formed The magma rising causes extreme heat and all the layers pushing down on the rock is what forms Metamorphic rocks Types of metamorphic rocks Slate is a fine-grained, foliated, homogeneous metamorphic rock Metamorphic Rock Metamorphic rock This is how they are made This is a sedimentary rock formed under the sea Conglomerate is a rock with smaller rocks inside, it is a clastic sedimentary rock that forms the cementing of rounded cobble and pebble sized rock fragments. Conglomerate is formed by river movement or ocean wave action. Breccia is a black rock with white rocks in it, it is formed in a very similar fashion to conglomerate. The difference between the two rocks is that breccia rock fragments are very sharp and angular. These rock fragments have not been transported by water, wind, or glaciers long enough to be rounded and smoothed like in the conglomerate. Limestone is a black colour, it is the most abundant of the non-clastic sedimentary rocks. Limestone is produced from the mineral calcite (calcium carbonate) and sediment. The heat rising and the pressure from the weight of the overlaying rocks is what forms Metamorphic rocks Lots of metamorphic rock Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. Schist is a medium-grade metamorphic rock with medium to large grains of mica flakes Igneous Rocks Igneous rocks are formed from volcanoes. They can form underground from cooling magma. That's how intrinsic igneous rocks are made. Igneous rocks can also be formed above ground from cooling lava. That's how extrusive igneous rocks are formed.
Igneous rocks often contain crystals.
The slower the magma/lava cools the longer the crystals have to form = Larger crystals. The quicker magma/lava cools the less time the crystals have to form = Smaller crystals. How they are formed The side of a volcano Gabbro refers to a large group of dark, coarse-grained, intrusive igneous rocks Granite is a common type of intrusive, igneous rock Weathering Means the wearing away of rocks How rocks are weathered Rocks can be weathered by many things such as Rain, Wind, Fire, Water, Natural Disasters, Animals. All of these fit into categories. Biological Weathering The breakdown of rocks due to plants or animals Biological Weathering This is biological weathering by plants Physical Weathering This is physical weathering by rain Chemical Weathering This is chemical weathering by the acid rain raining on this over many years Chemical Weathering Chemical weathering is the breakdown of rocks due to atmospheric chemicals Physical Weathering Physical weathering is the breakdown of rocks due to direct contact with the atmosphere This is biological weathering by animals This is physical weathering by water and ice This is physical weathering by heat This is chemical weathering by the acid rain raining on this over many years This is chemical weathering by the acid rain raining on this over many years Amplitude Amplitude is how much a sound wave moves up and down ( Height ) An echo is when a sound strikes a surface, some sound is absorbed but some is reflected back. The echo is always quieter because some sound energy will be absorbed The red is the sound the blue is the echo SO WEAR YOUR EAR MUFFS WHEN AROUND VERY LOUD NOSIES How do rocks get eroded in rivers The constant smashing of the waves against the rocks. The sand grinding over the rocks the rock moving downstream.
This affects the size and shape of the rock because the waves change the shape and size. Onion Skin Weathering Onion Skin Weathering is a type of Physical weathering
It occurs when during the day the rock heats up and expands and then at night the rock gets cold and compacts and over many daily cycles of this the top layer will break off. Freeze Thaw Weathering Freeze Thaw Weathering is a type of Physical weathering
It occurs when during the day a small crack will fill up with water then at night the water will freeze and the crack will get bigger each day it will do this cycle until it will eventually crack off into two rocks The Rock Cycle Sedimentation creates layers or rock particles
Compaction and cementation presses the layers and sticks the particles together. This creates sedimentary rock.
Rocks underground that get heated and put under pressure are changed into metamorphic rock.
Rocks underground that get heated so much they melt turn into magma. Magma is liquid rock. Magma also comes from deeper inside the Earth, from an region called the mantle.
Pressure can force magma out of the ground. This creates a volcano. When the magma cools it turns into solid rock, called extrusive igneous rock.
Magma that cools underground forms solid rock called intrusive igneous rock.
Areas of rock can move slowly upwards, pushed up by pressure of the rocks forming underneath. This is called uplift.
Weathering breaks down rocks on the surface of the Earth. There are three types of weathering - physical, chemical and biological.
Wind and water move the broken rock particles away. This is called erosion.
Rivers and streams transport rock particles to other places.
Rock particles are deposited in lakes and seas, where they build up to form layers. This starts the process of sedimentation which will create sedimentary rock. THE ROCK CYCLE Light What is Light Light is a form of energy which comes from the nuclear reactions happening in the sun.
Some objects are a source of light energy E.G - Any star, fire, torch or TV is producing light.
Other objects reflect light E.G - Planets, satellites or the moon.
The sun releases many types of energy in the form of waves.
This is called The Electromagnetic Spectrum
The E.M.S The E.M.S There are a number of different waves in the E.M.S coming from the sun -
X - rays
Electromagnetic waves are made of two waves. The Electromagnetic Wave What happens to light ? When light rays hit an object they can be -
Absorbed ( Taken in by object )
Reflected ( Bounce off object )
Refracted ( Bent but pass through ) When light rays hit an object they may be - Transparent ( Let all light pass through )
Translucent ( Let some light pass through )
Opaque ( Let no light through ) Light and Shadows Because light can only travel in straight lines it can be blocked by objects that are opaque. If the light is blocked a shadow is formed Plane Mirrors The Angle of incidence and reflection are always the same
The image in a plane mirror is laterally innsested
The image is one you cannot touch it is not a real image it is a virtual image
The virtual image is as far behind the mirror as the object in front
Uses of Plane Mirrors -
Bathroom Mirrors, Periscopes, Camera, Binoculars Convex Mirrors The image is very small
Uses - Can see a large area in mirror
Road mirror on bend Concave Mirrors They focus the light rays all through one point called the focal point ( Focus )
Concave mirrors have light pass through the focus
Satellite Dish How Periscopes Work Your eye hits the mirror then bounces up onto the other mirror which leads up and out. ROY G BIV Light = White light is made from the spectrum colors
R - Red
O - Orange
Y - Yellow
G - Green
B - Blue
I - Indigo
V - Violet
Each light color has a different wave length Rainbows Rainbows are only seen after it has been raining. So there are lots of water particles in the air. When the light shines through a water particle it will be refracted Colored Light A white object will reflect all colors
A green object will only reflect green light and absorbs all other colors
A black object will not reflect any color and will absorb all colors BY
MIKAYLA BOURNE K Thanks For Watching