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Phonetics & Phonology

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by

Thuy Le

on 22 October 2014

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Transcript of Phonetics & Phonology

Elision
Stress
Stress
: spoken with
greater energy
, and stands out in a word, phrase or sentence


Sentence stress
:

1. Content words are stressed
2. Structure words are unstressed
3. Time between stressed words is always the same
Stress + Rhythm
Rhythm
Definition
Rhythm is a
relatively equal beat between stressed syllables



English speech is
rhythmical



Stress time rhythm theory

Stressed syllables
tend to occur at relatively regular intervals
whether they are
separated by unstressed syllables or not.
Assimilation
Phonetics & Phonology
THANK YOU!
Group 1
Hanoi, Sep. 24, 2014

MEMBERS
1. Bùi Trung Anh
2. Bùi Thanh Huyền
3. Phạm Hà Phương
4. Lê Thanh Thúy
5. Nguyễn Quỳnh Trang
6. Vũ Minh Trang
The Song Our Team Choose
Yesterday Once More - The Carpenters
Album: Now & Then (1973)
When I was
young
/
I'd
listened
/ to the radio
Waitin'
for my/
favorite songs
When they
played
/ I'd
sing along
It
made
me/
smile

Those/ such were such
happy times
And not so
long
/ ago
How I
wondered
/
where
they'd
gone
But/ they're/
back again
Just like/ a
long lost friend
All the
songs
/ I loved so
well

(*) Every Sha-la-la-la
Every Wo-wo-wo
Still
shines
Every shing-a-ling-a-ling
That they're/
starting
/ to
sing
So
fine


When they
get
/ to the
part
Where
/ he's
breakin'
/her
heart
It/ can really
make
/ me
cry
Just like before
It's
yesterday
/
once
more

Lookin' back
/ on
how
/ it was
In years/
gone
by
And/ the
good times
/ that I had
Makes
/
today
/ seem rather
sad
So much/ has
changed

It was /
songs
of
love
/ that
I would
sing
/ to then
And/ I'd
memorize
/ each
word
Those old
melodies
Still
sound
/ so
good
/ to me
As they
melt
/ the
years
away

All
my/
best

memories
Come back
/
clearly/
to me
Some /can even/
make
me
cry
Just like before
It's/
yesterday
once more

Stress - Sentence Stress
1. Contented words are stressed

2. Structured words are unstressed

3. The time between stressed words are always the same
Background of Elision
Rules for Elision in "Yesterday Once More"
Elision is the disappearance of sounds in speech
. Under certain circumstances, sounds disappear. A phoneme may be realized as zero or having zero realization or be deleted.
Rules for Elision in "Yesterday Once More"
4 rules for elision appearing in this song.
/ -nd /, /-md/ + lenis stop, nasal => / -n /
The phrase
“and not”

[ænnnot]
in the sentence
“Those were such happy times and not so long ago”

/ -st / + stop, fricative, nasal => / -s /

Aspirated stops + weak vowel /ə / => aspirated stop
Loss of final / v / in OF + consonant
The phrase
“of love”

[əlʌv]
in the sentence
“ It was songs of love that I would sing to then”.
The phrase
“lost friend”

[ lɒsfrend ]
in
“Just like a long lost friend”

The phrase
“best memories

[besmeməriz]
in
“All my best memories come back clearly to me”
In word
“today”

[tdeɪ]
of the phrase
“makes today seem rather sad”
Word Stress
: is an
extra force
put on a particular syllable of the word
Ex : ‘listened, ‘radio, ‘favourite, ‘happy,’ wonder, a’gain, ‘really, be’fore, ‘yesterday, ‘memories, ‘clearly
Assimilation is something which varies in extent according to speaking rate and style; it is more likely to be found in rapid, casual speech and less likely in slow, careful speech.
"Yesterday Once More" is quite a slow and melodious song; as a result, we can only see a few phrases containing assimilation in it.


/g/ replaces /d/
:
"they’d gone"

("How I wondered where they’d gone")

/d/ replaces /th/
:
"and the"

("And the good times that I had")

/m/ replaces /d/
:
"I’d memorize"

("And I’d memorize each word")
;
"old melodies"

("Those old melodies")
/t/ replaces /th/
:

/m/ replaces /n/
:
"even make"

("Some can even make me cry")
Say this sentence with no linking
"Now it is a time for all of us to pack it in."
Linking
Consonant & Vowel
Consonant & Consonant
Vowel & Vowel
When a word ending in a vowel sound is next to one beginning with a vowel sound, they are connected with a glide between the two vowels.
T, D,S or Z + Y
When we say a sentence in English, we join or "link" words to each other. Because of this linking, the words in a sentence do not always sound the same as when we say them individually. Linking is very important in English.
There are
four
types of linking.
Words are connected when a words ends in a consonant sound and the next word starts with a vowel sound
My name is Ann.
/
my nei mi zæn/
Example
Words are connected when a word ends in a consonant sound and the next word starts with a consonant that is in a similar position.
Example
I've been late twice.
/äivbin lei(t)twais/
Example
Go away.
/gou(w)ə'wei/
T+Y=CH
Eg: Can't you do it?

D+Y=J
Eg: Did you like it?

Z+Y=ZH
Eg: How's your family?
When I/

was young
I'd listen to the radio
Waitin' for my favorite songs
When they

played I'd

sing along
, it made me smile

Those were such happy
times and
not so
long ago
How I wondered where they'd gone
But they
're
back again
just
like a
long lost friend
All the
songs I
loved so well
[...]

When they
get to
the part
Where he's
breakin' her heart
It can really make me cry, just like before
It's yesterday
once more

Lookin'
back on
how it
was in
years gone by
And the good times
that I
had
Makes today seem rather sad, so much has changed.

It was
songs of
love that I would sing to then
And I'd

memorize each
word
Those old

melodies still
sound so good to me
As they melt the
years away
[...]

Thank you for listening to our presentation!
Now is a time for all of us to pack it in.
Full transcript