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SLI vs. SLD
Transcript of SLI vs. SLD
“(11) Speech or language impairment means a communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.” [34 CFR §300.8(c)(11] Specific Learning Disability A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using spoken or written language.
It may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, read, write, spell, and/or to perform mathematical calculations.
The term does not include learning problems which are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor impairments; intellectual disabilities; emotional disturbance; or environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. 55% of school age
Language delay affects 5-10% of children
With language delay, children’s language is developing in the expected
sequence, only at a slower rate.
In contrast, speech and language disorder refers to abnormal language development. In determining the existence of a specific learning disability, the following must be present: What is the difference between SLI and SLD?
Activity: Write in what you know about each disorder Activity: Four Major Areas in which it occurs:
- Articulation Impairment: difficulty making particular sounds; sounds may be changed, added, omitted, or distorted thus affecting speech intelligibility.
- Fluency Disorder: disruption in the rhythm and flow of speech e.g., stuttering
- Voice Disorder: abnormal quality to pitch, resonance, or loudness in speech.
- Language Disorder: impairment in the ability to express needs, ideas, or information and/or comprehension of what others are saying. A communication disorder that adversely affects a child's ability to talk, understand, read, and write.
Speech: articulation, fluency, and voice disorders
Language: morphological, phonological, semantic, syntactic & pragmatic deficits Delays and disorders may range from so subtle that they have little or no impact on daily living and socialization to the inability to produce speech or to understand and use language. The child fails to achieve at the proper age and ability levels when given appropriate learning experiences and age-appropriate instruction in one or more of the following areas when provided
- Oral expression
- Listening comprehension
- Written expression
- Basic reading skill
- Reading fluency skills
- Reading comprehension
- Mathematics calculations
- Mathematics reasoning Prevalence: 47%
It is the quantity, intensity, and duration of these behaviors that lead to problems in school and elsewhere.
It should also be noted that boys are four times more likely to be labeled with a learning disability than girls. The reason for this has not yet been determined by researchers. Criterion for Diagnosis: SLD The child does not achieve adequately for the child’s age or to meet State-approved grade-level standards
...when provided with learning experiences and instruction appropriate for the child’s age or state-approved grade level standards…
The child does not make sufficient progress to meet age or state approved grade-level standards
… when using a process based on the child’s response to scientific, research-based intervention. • Oral expression
• Listening comprehension
• Basic reading skills
• Reading fluency
• Reading comprehension
• Written language
• Basic mathematical skills
• Mathematical reasoning SLD Criteria must be met in one or more of the following areas: Profile 1 Profile 2 Client: Chandler Bing
Age: 11 years old
Primary language: Spanish
KABC-II: Average range
VMI-6: Low average range
TAPS-3: Phonological (77); Memory (64); Cohesion (83); Overall (72)
WISC-IV (Spanish): Verbal Comprehension (89); Perceptual reasoning (100); Working Memory (71); Processing Speech (103); Full Scale (88)
WRAML-2: Verbal Memory (85); Visual Memory (97); Attention/Concentration (82); General Memory (84)
• Oral Expression / Expressive Language
• Listening Comprehension / Receptive Language
• Pre-Literacy/Early Literacy Skills Areas of Significant Overlap Between
SLD and SLI Name: Pedro
Age: 7 years old
Primary language: Spanish & English (Parent report: 75% English at home)
CELF-4 English Core Language Subtests: Scaled Score of 5
CELF-4 Spanish Core Language Subtests: Scaled Score of 12
Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation (GFTA)-English: <1%ile (consistent errors: cluster reduction, stopping, final-syllable deletion)
Comprehensive Probes of Articulation & Phonology-Spanish: Over 50% of words in error (Consistent errors in final consonant deletion, dentalization, stopping and cluster reduction.)
English Narrative Sample: Low MLU, and NDW, frequent errors in irregular past tense, omitted words and possessive.
Spanish Narrative Sample: Normal MLU and NDW, use of complex/embedded sentences, variety of word forms including present, past progressive, preterite, reflexive, future.
Parent/Teacher Interviews: Relatively strong math skills, very low reading skills (Mid-Kinder level), low motivation and attention in class. The final determination of primary disability is made by the multidisciplinary eligibility team and is based on the body of evidence.
Even if the primary diagnosis is SLD:
A child with a disability, as defined in Section 2.08 of these Rules, shall be entitled to receive speech-language pathology services as specially designed instruction if the child’s IEP Team determines that the child needs speech-language pathology services in order to receive a free appropriate public education. Final Determination... Interference with oral and/or written communication in academic and social interactions in his/her primary language.
Demonstration of undesirable or inappropriate behavior as a result of limited communication skills.
The inability to communicate without the use of assistive, augmentative/alternative communication devices or systems.
SLI is a Deficit Disability in one or more of the three areas: Articulation; Fluency; and Voice. Developmental & Medical history
Oral Mechanism Exam
Language Samples (in primary and secondary language)
Standardized/criterion based tests SLI Assessment