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Selective Reading

Reading Endorsement Class

Meredith Brown

on 4 August 2013

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Transcript of Selective Reading

Theoretical Perspectives
Selective Reading
School Demographics
Bartlett Middle School
Savannah, GA
Title 1 School
Recent History:
Bartlett was reorganized 3 years ago by adding the Center for Advanced Learning, CFAL, magnet to serve students that met admission requirements. The school still serves it's zoned, or residential population, in addition to the CFAL students.

This year, the district is once again reorganizing Bartlett and turning it into the STEM Academy beginning in 2013. All staff will once again reapply or be reassigned to a new school in Chatham County.
Grades Served by Reading Endorsed Teachers:
Subject Areas by Reading Endorsed Teachers:
Math and Social Studies
How Do We Create Strategic Readers in Our Content Areas?
Use test data to help identify the reading needs of the middle school student and sharing the information with all teachers
Merge Common Core standards into every classroom
Provide the teacher with strategies and skills so that they may model reading and writing in their content areas
Strategic Learning: Theorists Perspective
Teacher promotion of reading and writing is fundamental in getting students to learn how to become strategic readers. The theories provided by

Albert Bandura


Lev Vygotsky

have both developed models on the social development of a child and the process of learning new ideas and things through teacher modeling.
Bandura and Vygotsky:
Scaffolding is the way which humans learn. If we want our students to be able to read and understand in their content areas then the teacher must model this behavior. The Guided Reading Procedure would be the most effective for beginning to teach new terms and vocabulary to our students. This would be reinforced through minilessons to help develop the individual needs of students, (Cecil & Gipe, p. 17).
Problems with Literacy in the Classroom
Reading for Meaning!
A Research Based Project on Selective Reading in the Classroom
Bartlett Middle School
Historical Perspective
The Reading Process
Instructional Method
Today’s issue is focused on reading for content. Content reading is different than novel reading. Content area reading is written in expository, or informational, form while novels are written in the form of a narrative. The United States needs to focus on strategies that will help our students be successful as selective readers in the classroom.
Reading, testing, and data has been a topic of debate amongst reformers, starting primarily in the early twentieth century. The debate, amongst early reformers, was centered on testing and what to do with the results. Testing in the 1930s was too common and segregated the population (History of Education, p.10).
The Teacher will demonstrate how to become Strategic Readers through modeling the behavior in the classroom.
Guided Reading Procedure:
Think alouds will be used to help students express their thought process while reading informational texts.
1. Shared reading.
The students will engage in reading texts out loud while the teacher is present to help with definition and pronunciation.
2. Literature Response Groups.
This would require a written response to the informational text just read to help ensure comprehension. Students can share their thoughts on the reading passage through writing, drawing or diagrams/organizers.
Teachers will create these to meet the individual needs of students to help with vocabulary and comprehension.
Buehl, D. (2011). Mentoring Students in Disciplinary Literacy. In Developing Readers in the Academic Disciplines (pp. 1-30). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Collins, J.L., & Madigan, T.P. (2010). Using Writing to Develop Struggling Learners' Higher Level Reading Comprehension. In J.L. Collins, & T.G. Gunning (Eds.), Building Struggling Students' Higher Level Literacy (pp. 103-124). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Ellery, V., & Rosenboom, J.L. (2009). Vocabulary: Making Meaningful Connections. In Sustaining Strategic Readers (pp. 77-110). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Ivey, G. (2010). Making Up for Lost Time: Connecting Inexperienced Teenage Readers With Books. In K. Dunsmore, & D. Fisher (Eds.), Bringing Literacy Home (pp. 245-261). Newark, DE: International Reading Association
Ogle, D. (2009). Reading Comprehension Across the Disciplines: Commonalities and Content Challenges. In S.R. Parris, D. Fisher, & K. Headley (Eds.), Adolescent Literacy, Field Tested (pp. 34-46). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Parris, S.R., & Taliaferro, C. (2009). Successful Secondary Teachers Share Their Most Effective Teaching Practices. In S.R. Parris, D. Fisher, & K. Headley (Eds.), Adolescent Literacy, Field Tested(pp. 219-227). Newark, DE: International Reading Association
Sadler, C. (2001). Introduction. In Comprehension Strategies for Middle Grade Learners (pp. 1-2). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Taliaferro, C., & Parris, S.R. (2009). Successful Teachers Share Advice for Motivating Reluctant Adolescents. In S.R. Parris, D. Fisher, & K. Headley (Eds.), Adolescent Literacy, Field Tested (pp. 157-167). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Waters, K.C. (2010). School, Home, and Community: A Symbiosis for a Literacy Partnership. In J.L. Collins, & T.G. Gunning (Eds.), Building Struggling Students' Higher Level Literacy (pp. 285-301). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
How Major Components of Reading are Integrated in the Reading Process

In strategic reading for content, the reading process is specifically tied to comprehension. All of the components of reading – phonics, phonemic awareness, fluency, vocabulary, background knowledge, and motivation – must be reinforced for the goal of comprehension. When a middle school content teacher assigns reading, the purpose is comprehension of the content so that the content is learned and retained.
Reading Process, cont
The major components of reading combine to create fluency in a reader. Mastery of phonemic awareness, word identification, and phonics (using syllabication, morphology, and etymology) allows students to recognize words, determine their meanings, remember spelling, and improve pronunciation and writing. These are integral in achieving comprehension during the reading process. Without these skills, reading becomes frustrating and intimidating for students.
Reading Process, cont
Most research shows that the key to comprehending the written word lies in the spoken word. Mastery of vocabulary, visualization, and background knowledge are all triggered by the discussion that takes place before, during, and after reading. The teacher’s job is to make sure that the questions asked and conversation that takes place are focused.
1. Allow students to talk and discuss. Even with the emphasis on student discussion, teachers still do most of the talking during class. Asking questions that allow students to use content vocabulary facilitates familiarity with unfamiliar terms. Providing an opportunity for students to use content vocabulary in meaningful discussion and conversation helps them master the term, usage, and meaning.
Reading Process, cont
2. Students need to hear unfamiliar vocabulary repeated often and in meaningful context to grasp and use the terms correctly. They also need to see the word written in context to recognize it and its correct spelling in order to use it in their own writing.

3. Before reading, ask questions that will trigger student interest as well as their background knowledge to focus their thinking before beginning reading assignment.
Reading Process, cont
4. Before reading, ask questions that allow students to visualize and predict. Students who can visualize some aspect of their assigned reading and make predictions about the content are apt to approach it more positively and confidently. At the same time, this type of questioning models what students should do on their own as they read independently.
5. Provide students with a short list of questions to ask themselves while reading, not so much to assess comprehension, but to guide comprehension. Questions that will provoke visualization of content, draw on prior knowledge, or inquire about related word families not only aid in comprehension, but remind students of strategies to always use when they are reading independently.
How Will They Help?
1. Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR). Students must be able to identify and “fix-up” their weaknesses in order to improve. Using the fix-up strategies of restating, re-reading, looking forward to text not yet read, and focusing on highlighted phrases and vocabulary, students can solve their own problems.
2. Think-Aloud. Students use comprehension monitoring before, during, and after reading to tap into prior knowledge, visualization, and word comprehension to help them identify comprehension problems and reinforce content they grasp.
3. Reciprocal Teaching. Students take turns reading one paragraph aloud in small groups. They create a summary of the reading, generate questions, discuss unclear vocabulary and how they can determine its meaning, predict content of the following paragraph and explain prediction, then repeat with following paragraphs.
These strategies will help students specifically master the content gained through reading as well as the vocabulary, root meanings, and word families that contribute to fluency. In general terms, students will learn reading strategies that make them more confident and competent independent readers.
Educational theorists Bandura and Vygotsky asserted that learning occurs when teachers model a process. Using this theory, if we expect our students to read strategically in order to master content in specific academic courses, teachers must model various strategies for students to use. These strategies will help students identify vocabulary and required content, improve students’ reading comprehension, allow students to identify their reading weaknesses, and increase their speaking and writing skills. At the same time, we can use data to determine student deficiencies, focus on specific needs, and measure improvement. Recognizing that reading comprehension is the key to success in strategic reading and implementing effective strategies in the classroom, we can hope to affect a positive change in the lives of our students.
Reading is a process of constructing meaning by interacting with text; as individuals read, they use their prior knowledge/experience along with clues from the text to construct meaning. Research indicates that effective or expert readers are strategic (Baker & Brown, 1984a, 1984b). This implies that they have purposes for their reading and adjust their reading to each purpose and for each reading task. Strategic readers use a variety of strategies and skills as they construct meaning (Paris, Wasik, & Turner, 1991) hence this allows much for differentiation. Collaborative Strategic Reading, CSR, is great for kids with learning disabilities because they contribute to their groups and feel successful, and they get the help they need with their reading. It also is an excellent technique for teaching students reading comprehension and building vocabulary and also working together cooperatively.
Differentiation/Diversity/Community, cont.
The implementation of strategic reading allows the learner to be more involved in his/her learning as they have a specific purpose for reading and have a goal which they can predict and this will allow for varied teaching strategies and a wealth of collaboration. Having in mind the exact purpose for which they are reading helps students to utilize the appropriate strategies for the nature of literacy. The goal of all reading instruction is to help students become expert readers so that they can achieve independence and can use literacy for lifelong learning and enjoyment. As the teacher is responsible to teach this strategy we tap into the diverse needs and interests of our students as we develop cognitive and comprehension skills. Though students are all reading for a purpose they may all have varied outcomes and this is dependent on their experience, background and culture.
Differentiation/Diversity/Community, cont.
Collaboration will allow students with linguistic barriers to share and learn from each other as well as those with cultural barriers.

If this strategy is a school wide goal then all parties must be trained and this process should be visible daily even in the way we communicate with our students in all aspects of school life.

For this process to be successful then all teachers should support the strategic reader model for comprehension instruction which implies that teachers will demonstrate for students strategies that help them actively process text. For example, relating to prior experiences, predicting, clarifying, summarizing, and making inference.
Differentiation/Diversity/Community, cont.
The community can be involved in helping students develop a deeper understanding. For example if students had to create and imagery of a cotton farm and had a farmer from the community comes to show how its grown and have hands on experience then this will create more meaning towards learning. The people from community can be used as a resource as well encouraging parents to develop strategic readers through workshops offered in PTA
Historical Perspective, cont
Testing is not going anywhere so educators should be required to use the data in helping guide their instruction. The youth today struggle with selective reading, but data can be used to help bridge this gap.

Modeling instruction is the key to changing the way our students have historically tackled content literacy. The key reformers to this strategy were Albert Bandura and Lev Vygotsky. Both of these theorists believed that teacher modeling the behavior they expect from their students is key in changing their behaviors.
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