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COLONIAL AMERICA and A REVOLUTION
Transcript of COLONIAL AMERICA and A REVOLUTION
- describing the religious and economic events and conditions that led to the colonization of America.
- describing life in the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern colonies, with emphasis on how people interacted with their environment to produce goods and services, including examples of specialization and interdependence.
- describing colonial life in America from the perspectives of large landowners, farmers, artisans, women, free African Americans, indentured servants, and enslaved African American.
- identify the political and economic relationships between the colonies and Great Britain.
- identify the issues of dissatisfaction that led to the American Revolution
- identify how political ideas shaped the revolutionary movement in America and led to the Declaration of Independence
- describing key events and the roles of key individuals in the American Revolution, with emphasis on GW, BF, TJ. and PH.
- explaining how the colonists were able to defeat Great Britain.
Colonies in North America were established for religious and economic reasons.
We are going to look at some of the settlements and the reasons they were established
The Lost Colony
was established as an economic venture
England’s first attempt at a colony was Roanoke Island, which was off the coast of present day North Carolina.
Queen Elizabeth I offered the job to Sir Walter Raleigh first.
Sir Raleigh soon raised enough money to send seven English ships to America in 1585. On one of these ships was a man named John White (remember this name)
The first winter in the New World was very difficult. Freezing temperatures, starvation, and illness were becoming very common amongst the "settlers" so they returned to England.
In 1587, a second attempt was made to establish a colony at Roanoke Island
The group had a hard time establishing a permanent settlement. When the colony ran out of supplies, a man named John White returned to England to replenish.
White finally made the journey back to the Roanoke Colony in the year 1590. Upon his arrival he took notice that everyone from the colony was GONE!
The only clue he could find was the word "CROATOAN" carved into a tree.
Croatoan was a Native American tribe that lived nearby. No one knows what happened to the colonists of the "LOST COLONY," but that is how it earned it's name.
Before we look into Jamestown, we need to understand a brief history of England and what's going on with the crown...
He set up something called
The Virginia Company was a joint stock corporation charged with the settlement of Virginia.
It had the power to appoint the Council of Virginia, the Governor and other officials, and the responsibility to provide settlers, supplies, and ships for the venture.
job of sailing
to the new
Well that sounds
swell! I accept
I wonder if
it's warm back
Once White arrived in England he was staled in his return back to Roanoke by a War going on between Spain and England.
So after Queen Elizabeth passed away in 1603, her 3rd cousin, James, from Scotland, took over as King of England.
found in 1607 by John Smith and the Virginia Company as an economic venture. Jamestown is the first permanent English settlement in North America.
was settled by
from the Church of England in 1620, who wanted to avoid religious persecution.
Again, back in England...
The year is 1620, King James is still the King of England.
A group of Pilgrims, they set sail from England in hopes of settling in the New World so they could practice their religion without the threat of being persecuted.
They came across the Atlantic Ocean on a boat called the Mayflower
Massachusetts Bay Settlement
was settled by the Puritans to avoid religious persecution as well.
Massachusetts Bay was one of the original English settlements in present-day Massachusetts. It was settled in 1630 by a group of about 1,000 Puritan refugees from England under Governor John Winthrop.
Back in England...
Charles I, son of James I was king
There were several communities set up at Massachusetts Bay.
The most famous two would have to be Boston and Salem.
In 1692, the famous Salem Witch Trials
were carried out in Salem, Massachusetts.
-December 16, 1773, Samuel Adams and the Sons of Liberty boarded three ships in the Boston harbor and threw 342 chests of tea overboard.
- The Boston Massacre was a street fight that occurred on
March 5, 1770, between a "patriot" mob, throwing snowballs, stones, and sticks, and a squad of British soldiers. Several colonists were killed and this led to...
TO BE CONTINUED...
The Pennsylvania Settlement
was settled by the
, and a man named
. They wanted freedom to practice their faith without interference.
So what's a Quaker?
Well, Webster's dictionary says that it is a member of the Religious Society of Friends, a Christian group founded by George Fox around year 1650. The central belief is the doctrine of the Inner Light. Quakers reject sacraments, ritual, and formal ministry. The group holds meetings at which any member may speak.
was settled by people who had been in debtors' prisons in England. They hoped to experience
freedom and start a new life in the New World
In the 1730s, England founded the last of its colonies in North America.
The project (Georgia) was the idea of James Oglethorpe, a former army officer. After Oglethorpe left the army, he devoted himself to helping the poor and debt-ridden people of London, whom he suggested to start settling in America.
Oglethorpe chose to name the place of settlement Georgia, named for the new King.
Meanwhile, back in England, several Kings and Queens had come and gone from the crown.
The year is 1732 and
King George II was now king
There were some enemies of England around their new found land of Georgia.
These enemies included the Spanish in Florida, the French in Louisiana and along the Mississippi River, and these Indian allies each group had acquired so far throughout the regions.
Life in the colonies was shaped by the
of the settlements.
existed among the colonies in the production of goods and services using all 3 types of resources.
Focusing on one or a few products.
Two or more people depending on each other for goods and services.
Specialization caused the colonies to be interdependent
timber, fish, and
Before we move on too far, 2 things need
builders, sailors, farmers, and fishermen
: tools and buildings
is moderate summers and cold winters
Examples of Interdependence
New England colonies depended on the
colonies for crops such as tobacco, rice, cotton, and indigo. Also, since New England was in the ship building business, the Southerners provided lumber, tar, and pitch.
New England colonies depended on the
colonies for livestock and grains.
Social and Political approach
The difference between a Pilgrim and a Puritan
- Wanted to separate from the Church of England
Wanted to change some practices of the Church of England
-Came to North America for religious purposes
- Settled in what is now Massachusetts
Villages and churches were centers of life. Groups of religious separatists and reformers gathered in town meetings.
Skilled and Unskilled Workers
Coastal Plains / Lowlands
Harbors and Bays
Examples of Interdependence
The Mid-Atlantic colonies traded with the Southern and New England colonies to get the products they did not produce.
The Mid-Atlantic colonies depended on the
for tobacco, rice, cotton, indigo, and forest products.
The Mid-Atlantic colonies depended on
New England colonies
for metal tools and equipment.
Mild winters and moderate summers
Social Life and Politics
Diverse lifestyles and religions
Most people lived and socialized in villages and cities.
Free Farmers and planters
and Good Harbors
Southern Colony Climate
Humid, with mild winters and hot summers
and also, the South has longer growing seasons.
Tar from forest products
Examples of Interdependence
The southern colonies depended on the New England colonies for manufactured goods, including metal tools and equipment.
The Southern Colonies depended on the Mid-Atlantic colonies for grains and other agricultural products not plentiful in the South
Social and Political
Fewer/Schools and Cities
Church of England
of the Southern Colonies
governments enforced most laws.
in the New England Colonies
for the Mid-Atlantic Colonies
of our notes. Title it
PEOPLE of the Colonies
The colonies were made up of different groups of people whose lives varied greatly depending on their social position.
Lived predominately in the South
Relied on indentured servants and/or slaves
Were educated in some cases
Had rich social culture
Worked the land according to the region
Relied on family members for labor
Worked as craftsmen in towns and on plantations
Artisans lived in
Women were caretakers, house workers, and home makers
women were not allowed to vote
Women had few opportunities to get an education
Free African Americans
Free African American men were allowed to own land
African American men had freedom and could work for pay and decide how to spend their money
African Americans were not allowed to vote
- men and women who did not have money for passage to the colonies and who agreed to work without pay for the person who paid for their passage.
Were free at the end of their contract
Enslaved African Americans
Men, women, and children were captured in their native Africa and sold to slave traders...
then they were shipped to the colonies...
then they were sold into slavery.
Slaves were owned as property for life without any rights.
Many were born into slavery
On a side note, a man named
is known as one of the first and most contributing settlers of the Jamestown Settlement.
John Rolfe arrived in Jamestown along with 150 other settlers in 1610, as part of a new charter organized by the Virginia Company.
He began experimenting with growing tobacco, eventually using seeds grown in the West Indies to develop Virginia’s first profitable export.
In 1614, Rolfe married the daughter of a local Native American chieftain, Matoaka, better known by her childhood nickname, Pocahontas.
The Colonies are
under my control!!
England joins two other countries to form Great Britain.
Great Britain established and attempted to maintain control over the colonies.
Wales and Scotland
became Great Britain
in the early 1700s.
The question we are going to answer in this section is:
How did Great Britain, located all the way over the Atlantic Ocean, have
control over the colonies?
But before we can answer the question, we need to know the definitions of two terms before we move on:
the science of the production, distribution, and consumption of money. The science of money.
science of forming, directing, and administrating government. The science of government.
So back to the original question...
Now that we have those two important
definitions, let's look at some of the
possible answers to the question
"HOW DID GREAT BRITAIN HAVE
CONTROL OVER THE COLONIES?"
are 3 ways Britain had
Great Britain imposed strict control over trade.
The colonies could only trade with England.
Before England joined Great Britain, they had passed trade laws for the colonies called the
The Navigation Acts
were a series of laws that restricted the use of foreign ships for trade between England
(soon to be Britain) and its colonies.
The Navigation Acts began in 1651.
The Navigation Acts reflected the policy of
keep all the benefits of trade inside the Empire, and minimize the loss of gold and silver
Great Britain taxed the colonies after the French and Indian War.
The war lasted from 1754-1763. It was nicknamed the 7 years war, but it really lasted for 9 years.
HOWEVER, wars are not cheap!! Britain had to "re-up" or restore their expenses from the war...
The Colonies had to trade their
FINISHED PRODUCTS or GOODS
made in Great Britain only.
there are 3
Colonists had to obey British laws, which were enforced by governors.
I say or
Colonial governors were appointed by the king or by the proprietor.
What do you think a proprietor is?
a person given ownership of a colony by the king and he has all rights of establishing a government and distributing land however he wants to.
Britain takes control
This is not #3, indent and write under #2
A colonial legislature made laws for each colony and was monitored by the colonial governor.
In simple terms, a group of British people called "
make the rules and laws for the colonies
Then, the governor of each colony would enforce the British laws made by "the legislature" upon the citizens in each colony.
Before the French and Indian War
After the French and Indian War
Great Britain's Reasons and Colonial Dissatisfaction
As Great Britain expanded control of the colonies, many colonists became dissatisfied with how things were going.
So, Great Britain had conquered the French and Indians during the French and Indian War,
the next step was to rebuild and expand.
The only problem with
rebuilding and expanding
is that it costs a lot of
Where do you think
that money is
going to come from?
for controlling the colonies
there are 3 main reasons
Great Britain imposed a long list of
on the colonists...
Taxing everything from sugar and tea all the way up to luxury items and even stamps.
All so they could
off the cost the of the French and
that they had just concluded.
Let's look at some of the most crucial taxes imposed upon the colonists by doing an activity!!
Great Britain desired to remain a world power
In the American Colonies, Great Britain's desire to remain a world power resulted in a conflict with
Great Britain forced the colonists to pay the cost of the French and Indian War.
Great Britain's reasons for taxation
(there are 2 main reasons)
To help finance the French and Indian War
To help finance the maintenance of British troops in the colonies.
(there are 5 topics of dissatisfaction)
Sources of Colonial Dissatisfaction
(there are 5)
The colonies had no representation in Parliament
(NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION)
Some colonists resented the power of the colonial governors.
Colonial Governors Enforced the Laws
Great Britain wanted strict control over colonial legislatures
The colonies opposed the British taxes
The Proclamation of 1763,
which followed the French and Indian War
, restricted the western movement of settlers.
This was to PREVENT future
wars with American Indians.
It is fair to say that
England (Britain) got a lot of new land after the French and Indian War.
So England (the British) came up with
some "new" ideas... to be continued
The Church of
glad we separated
COLONISTS MAD O'METER
Passing of the Navigation Act in 1651 wasn't that bad for the Colonists. This made sure that the colonist would be provided for with ships for importing and exporting.
For now, let's look at some maps to understand how much land was gained by Britain after winning the French and Indian War.
The Colonies had to trade their
FINISHED PRODUCTS or GOODS
made in Great Britain only. This wasn't too upsetting for the colonists because they had a guaranteed buyer/trade partner and the Colonists were being provided goods for survival.
TIME FOR WAR
Some of the political decisions were good for the colonists, because they had no idea how to start a new country.
THIS WAS OK IN THE BEGINNING for most
, but it didn't take long to change their minds.
The Acts that made'em Act
In October of 1651, the English Parliament passed its Navigation Act of 1651. These Acts were designed to tighten the government's control over trade between England, its colonies, and the rest of the world.
The Stamp Act was passed by the British Parliament on March 22, 1765. The new tax was imposed on all American colonists and required them to pay a tax on every piece of printed paper they used
Ship's papers, legal documents, licenses, newspapers, other publications, and even playing cards were taxed.
A law passed by the British Parliament in 1764 raising taxes on foreign developed sugar imported by the colonies. This gave British sugar growers in the West Indies a monopoly on the colonial market.
Acts of the British Parliament passed in 1767 that placed a tax on tea, paper, lead, paint, and other luxury goods. These goods were mostly imported by the American colonies.
(We'll see it again on the mad-o-meter soon)
An act of the British Parliament in
1773 that created a monopoly that was unfair to American tea merchants. This was the main cause of the Boston Tea Party.
(Mad-o-meter to come)
1774, these Acts were named by the colonists because they were outraged by the passing of the particular laws associated with it. The Acts said that the Massachusetts Bay port had to be closed.
This was a punishment for the Boston Tea Party.
These Acts also allowed for British soldiers to occupy towns in the Colonies.
Boston Tea Party
British Government is getting out of control
The Proclamation of 1763
Was put into place to prevent future wars with American Indians.
stated that the new territory owned by the British, west of the Appalachian Mountains, was off limits to any new settlement. The land was to be provided for the removed Native Americans.
March 5, 1770,
a deadly riot between colonists and British troops in Boston.
(mad-o-meter to come)
Boston Tea Party
December 16, 1773. An act of BOYCOTT toward the British government by American colonists. British government had given a British company the right to sell tea directly to the colonies, thereby undercutting American merchants.
Let's do an activity
In the study of history, written records and pictures provide important information. They describe or show what happened. Some may show an accurate description from many points of view. But others, not so much...
To find the point of view in a picture, follow these steps:
1.) Identify who made the picture. Did that
person see what happened or know about it only from the accounts of others?
2.) Think about the audience. For whom was the
picture meant? The pictures audience may have affected what was drawn and how it was drawn.
3.) Check for bias. Watch for clues that show one-
4.) Compare pictures of the same event, when possible. Comparing sources can give you more balanced information and help you identify bias.
Let's look at some pictures and answer some
Don't write anything yet. I'm going to
show you 2 pictures of the same event.
Then, we will answer some questions.
This engraving by Paul Revere
shows his view of the Boston
This picture of the Boston
Massacre is based on the
descriptions given during
the trial of the British Soldiers
who fired at the colonists.
1.) In what ways are the drawings alike?
How are they different?
2.) Which is more likely based on first
3.) For whom do you think Drawing A was
4.) Does Drawing A show bias? What
details in the picture might show Revere's feeling about the British?
5.) For whom do you think Drawing B is
Your turn to analyze pictures with a partner
Use these questions to guide your analyzing of the pictures.
1.) In what ways are the drawings alike? How are they different?
2.) Which is more likely based on first
3.) For whom do you think Drawing A was meant? Explain.
4.) Does Drawing A show bias? How? What details in the picture might show British feelings towards the Colonists?
5.) For whom do you think Drawing B is
Let's take a look at the Mad-o-Meter
Let's analyze a primary source dealing with the Stamp Act of 1765. First by yourself, then I'll chime in afterward...
On your own sheet of paper, you are going to write down at let 3 observations you have about the drawing.
Record your thoughts about the particular thing that stood out to you.
Explain why you think the artist placed that particular piece in the drawing
This 1765 drawing
in New Hampshire
1.) The coffin
colonists' wish to
see the Stamp Act
2.) The figure made
of straw represents
a stamp tax
3.) This angry
to throw a rock at
the straw figure
WHY DO YOU THINK THE PROTESTERS PLACED A STRAW FIGURE HIGH ON A POLL?
Quartering Act of 1765
This Act said that colonists were required to accommodate any British soldier that needed it. Meaning, colonists had to provide food and shelter for any British soldier that needed it..
WRITE THIS ON THE BACK OF PART 5 NOTES
The Sons of Liberty
was an organization developed by Samuel Adams and Paul Revere to build anger and unity among the colonists after the Boston Massacre.
It was of patriots that was created in the Thirteen American Colonies. The secret society was formed to protect the rights of the colonists and to fight the abuses of taxation by the British government.
So the point of the Boston Tea Party was to Boycott British Tea.
To refuse to buy or use a product or service
Colonist form the First Continental Congress
After the Colonists declared several new acts "Intolerable," they formed what is known as the First Continental Congress in 1774.
Write this on the back of Part 5
First Continental Congress
was a meeting where colonists drafted petitions to send to King George III,
declaring that the colonists were being mistreated and that they were not going to settle for it any more.
"GIVE ME LIBERTY OR
GIVE ME DEATH!"
After the First Continental Congress was
and another document titled "Galloway's Plan" was also
, a man named Patrick Henry, from Hanover County, Virginia, made a speech that rallied up the colonials to go to war and to unite under one cause; LIBERTY!
Sons of Liberty formed
: The Revolutionary War begins
So there is no more king... NOW WHAT?
We go to War!
The war becomes
famously known as
the Revolutionary War
There are some key
events that occurred
during the Revolutionary
War... Let's take a look
We have already learned about
the Boston Massacre of 1770
... who can explain what that was?
We have learned about the
Boston Tea Party of 1773...
who can explain that?
We have also learned about the
First Continental Congress in
1774... Who can explain what
Soon after Patrick Henry's speech, in April of that same year, Britain was beginning to feel uneasy with how things were working out, and they began to sense that the colonists were preparing for
war. So the Red Coats move in for a closer look...
First to Lexington and then to Concord Massachusetts
The Battles of Lexington and Concord
fought on April 19, 1775, were the first armed conflicts of the American Revolutionary War.
The skirmish at Lexington and Concord and the humiliating retreat to Boston by the British Forces made it clear that Lord Cornwallis' military and diplomatic talents would be needed in the American colonies. In December, 1775 he was sent to the colonies.
the British had a victory. This victory was just enough for them to continue moving westward towards Concord. This is where
the famous "SHOT HEARD AROUND THE WORLD" occurred
In Concord, the British heard
a rumor that the Colonists were
hiding heavy artillery, so the
British meant to take it away.
Once the British arrived in Concord,
they were met by an expecting group
of armed Americans!
The Americans win their first battle of
the Revolutionary War, protecting their
armory in Concord, Massachusetts.
This victory sent the Red Coats back
to Boston to regroup and come up with
a new strategy of war.
King George III-
the British king during
the Revolutionary era,
with how things were going in Massachusetts,
so he sends a trusted "soldier" to the colonies
to take care of the "problem"
This trusted soldier was none other than the great General Lord Charles Cornwallis!
As both sides were playing out their war strategies, other Americans were hard at work preparing the legal side and getting ready to declare themselves
formally independent of British control.
And last but not least, we have already learned about Patrick Henry, the out spoken patriot and
his famous rally speech in March
of 1775 that inspired several Americans to fight for their beliefs...What was the title of his famous speech?
As British soldiers were
marching toward Lexington,
a man named
a Patriot made a daring ride to warn colonists of the British coming their way.
Let's revisit a primary source...
This is the original letter,
written by the leader of the
colonial army at Concord;
Two sides to the story: Let's read with
a partner two letters, one from the
British perspective and the other from
the Minutemen perspective. Then let's
answer some questions...
On July 4, 1776, the Approval of the Declaration of Independence
The colonies declared themselves to be independent from Britain.
A major author of the Declaration of Independence
issues the final draft.
In May of 1776,
championed the cause of independence and offered a resolution that amounted to a declaration of independence from Great Britain.
He was shortly thereafter a big supporter for the Declaration drafted by Thomas Jefferson.
was commander in chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War (1775-83)
and served two terms as the first U.S. president, from 1789 to 1797.
The colonist elected their leader as well, his
name was George Washington.
Many individuals played
important roles in shaping events of the American
Revolution and new political ideas led to a desire
Key philosophies in the Declaration
were based upon
ideas first expressed by European
Some of those Key Philosophies are:
People have certain
that can not be taken away)
and those are:
a.) Rights to life
b.) Rights to liberty
c.) Rights to pursuit happiness
People established government
to protect those unalienable rights
from the people
People have a right and a duty to
change a government
Another big name involved during this time frame
is Benjamin Franklin.
was a prominent
member of the Continental Congress; he helped frame the Declaration of Independence; and also
helped gain French support
towards the end of the war.
Notice how many important names were involved with the establishment of the Declaration of Independence...
56 delegates (political figures)
signed the Declaration of
was one of the best known poets of her time. She was
an enslaved African who wrote poems and plays supporting American Independence;
especially that of George Washington
In 1775, Wheatley wrote a poem about George Washington after he was named Commander and Chief of the Continental Army. The poem goes like this:
"Proceed, great chief, and with virtue on thy side,
Thy ev'ry action let the goddess guide.
A crown, a mansion, and a throne that shine,
With gold unfading, Washington! be thine."
Let's listen to a reciting of
the Declaration of Independence
and try to identify some of the
philosophies we just identified...
Back to the War...
The Battle of Saratoga
September 19, 1777
, An American victory that was a major turning point in the war.
Then, 4 years later, on October 19 1781; The
one and only,
British general surrenders at Yorktown.
June 17,1775 the famous Battle at Breed's Hill AKA Bunker Hill took place. This was a British victory that establish dominance over the "navyless" colonist.
The British took possession of both Breed's Hill and Bunker Hill. They had won the battle, but at a terrible cost: out of 2,200 troops, 268 British soldiers and officers had been killed; another 828 were wounded. The Americans also suffered heavy casualties with 115 killed and 305 wounded.
Back to the fighting...
The surrender at Yorktown
was the colonial victory over Lord Cornwallis with the help of the French, that marked the end of the Revolutionary War.
Two years later, on September 3, 1783, there was a signing of a famous document. This document is called the
"Treaty of Paris"
This document was recognized by the British and granted America it's independence.
Due to the French losing the
French and Indian war to the
British, the French thought they
could have their revenge on
the British by aiding the Colonial
THE MAJOR TURNING POINT
was in 1776, before the Declaration of Independence,
when the French realized the Americans could win and decided to help them
George Washington was admired by many people.
Some of his biggest supporter were pro-colonists, but others came from unexpected "citizens."
An example of one of those "citizens" is ...
So what do you think were some of the
advantages the colonials had in order to
win the war?
Well there were 3 major advantages
that you need to know...
to win the War:
1.) Some colonists' defended their own land,
principles, and beliefs.
2.) France gave the colonies support.
3.) We had a strong leader in
at least until
the next section
So let's do a quick activity with the Treaty of Paris.
There are 10 Articles, you will get with a partner/s and read an assigned article and summarize it into your own words.
For Article 2 a map to show the boundaries as they are stated in the Treaty
1.) Let's fill in our chart on our guided notes
about each settlement, their locations,
the reason it was settled, and the people
responsible for settling each place.
2.) Now, let's get out our maps and get
introduced to the 3 regions of England's
settlements in the New World.
Deep, Wide Rivers