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Info 2 Revision

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by

Jack Neill

on 8 June 2014

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Transcript of Info 2 Revision

What is ICT
ICT is the study of the technology used to handle information and aid communication

People and ICT systems
Components of an ICT system
Info 2 revision
Transfer of data in ICT systems (networks)
Safety and security of ICT systems
Internal and external threats
Legislation
Back-up and recovery
Uses of ICT
Factors affecting the use of ICT
Consequences of the use of ICT
Input
Process
Output
Data
Information
Data is raw facts and statistics that without meaning, mean nothing
e.g. the numbers 45, 48, 2, 06
Information is data that has been given a meaning
e.g. John is 45 years old
John has two children
Task:
Buying Products in a Supermarket

Example of input:
Barcoded items are scanned in by the cashier using a barcode reader


Task:
Buying Products in a Supermarket

Example of process:
Barcoded items are looked up in a database and the item descriptions and prices are found. Discounts are also found and applied.
Task:
Buying Products in a Supermarket

Example of output:
The price and product name are displayed on the checkout screen and on the printed receipt

People, Data, Information, Software, Hardware, Procedure
Example
A school uses OMR sheets to take the register of each class. These are then passed to the main
office and fed into the system using an OMR reader. The system uses SIMS management software.

People
Teachers and office admin staff
Data
Attendance shaded in on the OMR sheet
Information
Unauthorised absences are identified by the system
Procedure
Hardware
Software
Operating system and SIMS software
LAN in school office connected to two laser printers and two optical readers
teachers fill in the OMR sheets and pass to office by 9am. Forms are then fed into the
OMR reader and the attendance figures on SIMS are updated

Encoding Data
Encoding is turning data into machine readable format
Examples: Pictures in: bmp, jpg, gif
Sound in: mp3, wav, wma
Text in: txt, rtf
Coding data
Coding data is changing data to a format that is easier to enter

Example: Male changes to M, Female changes to F.
Date changes from 13th January 2001 to 13/01/2001

Factors affecting the quality of information
Accuracy - A business manager is using email to contact customers and many of these email addresses are incorrect

Up to date - A sales manager is using sales figures from December five years ago to help predict your sales figures
for this coming December


Complete - A student has been given a link to access some academic information but the link is not complete

Relevant - Summary information from the sales department concerning the summer sales figures would not be
relevant to the Personnel Department


From a reliable source - A student has been asked to write a 2000 word report on Hacking and Computer Security and they have based their entire work on an article from Wikipedia


Remember FRACU
Physical Characteristics
If the user has special needs, the ICT system will need to take this into account.
Example: a partially sighted person may need enlarged text or a user who cannot use a mouse may need voice activated software
Experience
Users have different experiences of using ICT, the system needs to take this into account
Environment
ICT systems will be used in a variety of environments that all vary.
Example: an ICT solution for a noisy shop floor in a factory may need to have very clear visible output and no audible output as this cannot be heard
Tasks to be undertaken
This affects the type of user interface.
Example: at a restaurant a touch screen would be used to enter orders but a graphic designer might use a graphics tablet with CAD software
Age
the age of the user will affect the type of interface.
Older people would use a simpler interface which offers help to the user.
Remember
PEETA
Interface Design
A good interface design ensures that a user can carry out the task:
Safely: example: a pilot flying a jumbo jet
Effectively: users don’t find they have videoed two hours of Bulgarian clog dancing instead of the Cup Final
Efficiently: users don’t spend 5 minutes trying to find the correct way to insert their cash card and type in their PIN and the amount of cash, and then leave without remembering to extract their card
Enjoyably: for example, a primary school pupil using a program to teach him/her multiplication tables
User interface
This is the link between the user and the technology involving software and hardware
Interface Styles
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
Examples of this are:
Apple Mac
MS windows
Linux

A GUI contains Windows (more than one of these can be open at once), Icons, Menus and Pointers.
Command Line
Command lines allow the user to type in commands that have to be exactly correct for the operation to happen. This allows complex commands to be entered to customize the OS. Operations are much faster than when using a GUI
Examples: MS DOS, UNIX
Advantages: use little memory and processing power. quick to use for an expert user, more powerful than GUI

Disadvantages: commands need be learnt, not as intuitive to use, slow for a non-expert user
Menus
Different types:
Full screen: the front end of an application
Pull-down menu: e.g. a menu bar at the top of most Microsoft applications
Pop-up menu: short-cut menus available on right-click
Natural Language Dialogue
User instructs the computer using natural language, e.g. giving instructions in English

Advantages: Most natural form of dialogue for humans - no need for training in a specialised language.
Extremely flexible and valuable.
User is free to construct own commands, frame own questions.

Disadvantages: Difficult to stick to strictly grammatical English.
A well designed artificial language can often say the same thing more concisely than a natural language.
A smooth, natural language can easily mislead the naive user into believing the computer is more intelligent than it actually is.
Forms and Dialogue Boxes
When a user is required to enter data:
Display should be given a title to identify it
The form should not be too cluttered
Spaces and blanks are important
It should give some indication of how many characters can be entered in each field
User should be able to go back and correct any field before the data is accepted
Items appear in a logical sequence
Default values should be pre-written in the form to minimize data entry
Full exit and help facilities should be provided
Users could enter ‘?’ in a field if they require more information
Lower-case is neater and easier to read than upper-case
Attention attracting features such as blinking cursors, highlighted text, underlining etc should not be over-used
Speech and Sound
Speech input
:
Command and Control systems: small, tightly-controlled vocabulary of technical terms e.g. call handling systems.
Large vocabulary dictation system: can handle whole sentences but needs considerable processing power and RAM.
Speech and Sound Output:
Speech synthesis systems:
Words spoken into microphone are recorded by the system.
Once the words are in the vocabulary, output that would normally be printed can then be spoken.
Sometimes words that are not recognized are spelt out.
Limited use, but possible use in telephone banking or other telecommunications applications.
Advantages of Common User Interface System
Many software packages (usually designed by the same manufacturer) are specially designed to have consistent user interfaces.
Advantages of this are:
Increase in ease of use
Increased speed of learning
Greater confidence for novice users
Increased range of tasks solvable by experienced users
A greater range of software available to the average user

ICT and employment
IT professionals perform a number of duties from installing applications to designing complex computer networks and information databases. Other duties include data management, hardware and software design, and networking.
Computers are slowly displacing workers as they become more efficient and cheaper than employing humans. However, using computers has also produced more jobs.
Factories have totally changed their work force to computers. Thousands of jobs have disappeared due to the use of ICT.
Changing nature of employment
The majority of jobs have changed from farming to sales, healthcare and banking.
Knowledge and info based jobs account for 70% of labor force in UK and USA.
ICT has taken over many jobs e.g. printing newspapers, long range weather forecasting.
ICT has made it easier to do certain jobs, e.g. secretaries now use a computer instead of paper and filing.
Personal Qualities of an ICT professional.
Listening skills:
often you will be required to listen very carefully to the user in order to understand exactly what they say.
Example:
listening to the user so that the requirements can be clarified

Oral skills:
in many ICT jobs you need to work alongside non-technical staff. You need to be able to listen to their problems and then give an explanation to them, in a jargon free language they will understand
Example:
interviewing a customer in order to form the requirements for the new system

Written skills:
you will be required to write good English so that customers will be able to understand the documentation you produce
Example:
writing user guides in clear and easy to understand English

Works well in a team:
interact with all the members of the team, discuss ideas and work towards a common goal.
Example:
holding a team meeting to discuss the progress of a project including what needs to be done to move the project forward

Patience and understanding:
to prevent the user from becoming flustered/stressed. The user should feel they can ask you questions
Example:
Attempt to calm down the irate customer and explain to them what they need to do to get out of their current predicament

Problem solving skills:
the ability to solve problems is essential
Example:
If you are working on a help desk you will need to consider different solutions and understand all of the problems from some clues that the end user has given to you

Remember
LOW
Listening
Oral
Written
Characteristics of an effective ICT team
Strong leader -
the team leader needs to ensure everyone works well together and are motivated.
Strengths and weaknesses of individuals assessed -
ensures all team members are working as efficiently and effectively as possible.
Clear structure to follow -
all team members must follow standard practices. The way of working must be structured and methodical so that if individual team members leave their job can be easily taken on by someone else
Project must be monitored -
project should be finished on time with as few delays so each task should be completed to a schedule and within a specified budget
Good communication skills -
each team member needs to be able to share ideas with the team and discuss requirements with the user
Advantages and disadvantages
Advantages
Disadvantages
Allows sharing of resources e.g. printers, disk storage
Backup of data can be managed centrally
Users can communicate with each other e.g. e-mail, instant messaging
Allows sharing of data files
Easy to install applications, e.g. word processors, do not need to be put onto every machine.
Users become dependent on them, if it fails, no one can use the machines to run applications
As traffic increases, performance of the network decreases
Difficult to ensure the network is secure
If network fails, some hardware will be unavailable.
WIMP interfaces
Windows
Icons
Menus
Pointers
Categories of networks
Local Area Networks
Small network usually consisting of a few machines, to several hundred.
limiting factor is the length of the cabling which the network can support - usually 1-2 km
A LAN is usually in one building but can include several if they are very close together.

Definition
A number of computers connected together on a site
Wide area network
Normally global concerns using telephone lines and sometimes satellite links already used for data transmission.
The internet is an example of this.
Normally today, large organisations with several branches have a LAN at each branch and link each LAN to a WAN connecting the whole organisation.
This allows inter-branch communications, local pocessing and access to the HQ.
This is known as decentralised processing.
Definiton
A number of computers connected together over a large geographical area.
Communications Media
Cabled
Unshielded Twisted Pair
- most common type of cables and used in LANS, cheaper alternative to co-axial because flexible and easy to use. Shielded are more expensive, less flexible but higher quality.

Co-axial cable
- high quality, well insulated cable with high transmission rates. quite expensive (TV cable). Used to be used in LANs

Fibre Optic Cable
- light rather than electricity is used, very high transmission rates. Used as backbone in LANs
Wireless
Radio
- stations must be less than 30 miles apart due to earths curvature. Mobile phones use radio technology. Lower rates of transmission than cable

Infra-Red
- Lower rates of transmission than cable, needs line of sight (remote controls)

Satellite
-Using a satellite orbiting the earth (22,000 miles abobe the Earth's surface). Used for WAN access (broadband). Slower speeds than DSL of cable but ideal for remote locations
LANs
Ethernet
The term Ethernet refers to the family of LAN products covered by the IEEE 802.3 standard that defines what is commonly known as the CSMA/CD (carries sense multiple access/collision domain) protocol. Four data rates are currently defined for operation over optical fibre and twisted pair cables.
More on Ethernet
Ethernet is currently used for around 85% of the worlds LAN-connected PCs and workstations.
Characteristics of Ethernet:
Easy to understand, implement, manage and maintain.
Allows low cost network implementations.
Provides extensive topological flexibility for network installations.
Guarantees successful connections and operation of products regardless of manufacturer.
Network Topology
The topology of networks is the way in which computers are connected. Some standard layouts are:
Star networks
Consists of a central computer, the file server and each workstation directly connected to it. With a high speed computer as file server very fast communications with all workstations is possible.
With the correct software on the file server, security can be very tight as no workstation can contact another without passing the central machine. Normally, all workstations would connect to a switch, which is then connected to the file server.
Advantages:
If one cable fails the other computers are unaffected
Security is tighter
Variable transmission rates possible between the file server and workstations
Easy to add new stations. Just plug directly into switch
Disadvantages:
Cabling costs are higher due to the length required
If a link becomes severed then no communication is possible from the workstation concerned


Bus Network
Outdated topology similar to a bus route where traffic moves along a single path. Info can be transmitted in either direction between any computers on the network. As it is based on a single cable, there must be a method of deciding on which computer uses the cable first. Mostly use a single Co-axial cable. Transmission rates are around 10 Mbps. If a workstation tries to transmit a message and it collides with another workstation attempting the same thing both workstations abort and wait a random period of time before trying again.
Advantages:

Relatively cheap because it requires the least amount of cable
It is easy to add another workstation without disrupting the network
Disadvantages:
Slow compared with a star topology that uses fully switched Ethernet. Many collisions happen as number of users increases
If the cable fails at any point the whole network goes down
Finding a fault with the cable is difficult to isolate


WANs
They are spread over a large geographical area, involving connecting newtorks across cities and countries
Internet
The largest network in the world. Originated from USA in 1969 when US govt. linked several machines together to store top secret defence info. If one machine was destroyed, the info would still be secure.

Definition:
A network of networks connected together across the globe
World Wide Web:
collection of info in multimedia form where pages are linked with hyerlinks. (runs on the internet)
Intranet and Extranet
Intranet definition:
uses same protocols and hyperlinks as WWW but is a private network only used within an organisation.

Extranet definition:
an intranet that is made available to users (with login) from outside the orgaisation.
Connecting to the internet
Network devices
Hubs
Hub
: simple device used to connect computers together. It sends packets to all computers.

Connects computers together to form a network
Very simple device
Sends packets to every computer (except itself!)
Not often used these days as too slow

Switches
Switch: similar to a hub but more intelligent. It sends packets directly to the intended computer.

Connects computers together to form a network
More intelligent than a hub
Sends packets to intended computer only
Used extensively in LANs

Router
Router: a device that connects networks and transfers a packet of data when it is addressed to a computer on a connecting network.

Connects networks together
More intelligent than a switch
Routes packets to connected networks or Internet via best paths
Need one to connect to the Internet

Wireless router/ADSL Modem
Works as a switch so computers can be connected together wirelessly
Works as a router so that you can connect to the Internet
Uses ADSL technology for high speed broadband

Other Definitions
IP address:
an identifier for a computer or device on a TCP/IP network

Packet:
a unit of data that is sent from a source to a destination device on a network

TCP/IP:
most common protocol on the Internet that allows network devices to communicate
Computer crime and abuse has become more common with the use of the Internet. Fraud traders, hackers, paedophiles, and terrorists use the internet to copy software, infect viruses, store pornographic images and communicate plans.
Crime
Definition:
an illegal act that involves breaking the law.

Examples:
Hacking into a computer system and stealing information
Stealing a laptop
Introducing viruses from file attachments (often via email)

Malpractice
Definiton:
breaking the company code of conduct. Malpractice is bad practice.

Each member of staff has to sign a code of conduct; it states what they can and can't do.

Examples:

Employee leaving their PC logged on and unattended
Sending personal emails during office hours
Staff accidently deleting data
Staff disclosing their password to others

Definitions
Internal threats:
threat to an ICT system from inside the organisation, usually a member of staff.

External Threat:
threat to an ICT system from outside the organisation.
Protecting against internal and external threats
Procedure

Train staff to prevent accidental mistakes
Staff dealing with confidential information must sign a non-disclosure policy to prevent them from passing it on
Duties should be separated so that no one person is responsible for too much
Force staff to change passwords regularly
Have a code of conduct

Software
Internal
Internal
Install and keep up to date anti-virus software
Use passwords and user access level
Use monitoring programs

Software
External
Encryption of data
Use a firewall to prevent hacking (also hardware)

Hardware
External
• Use a firewall to prevent hacking (also software)
• Install an uninterrupted power supply (UPS) to stop power loss
• Use keypads/biometric measures to prevent unauthorised access
• Physically attach computers to desks to prevent theft
Firewall
Can be software or hardware. On a personal PC, it would be a program that runs whilst connected to the internet. For large organisations, it would involve hardware. It is a barrier to keep destructive forces away from your property. It can rejects packet coming from the internet with certain IP addresses, packets containing certain data or certain files like telnet or ftp.
Passwords and usernames
Each user of a network is given a username and password (which must be changed) which they use to access the network. Then network can access the users profile and workspace and load this. Users without an account will not be allowed on the system.
Access rights
Access right restrict a users access to certain parts of the system and restrict users from doing certain things. there are different levels of access
Encryption
Encryption can be weak or strong, depending on what is encrypted. Weak is easy to implement but is not good for protecting important info.
Strong encryption involves someone creating a public key, then passes it onto anyone who wants to send them something using a private key that only they know. It is virtually impossible to decrypt as the private key is needed. When the message arrives, the private key is used to decrypt the public key, and the message.
For 512-bit banking transactions, the private keys will be 10154 (1 followed by 154 zeros) and the public key will be in 10308. 100,000,000 PCs working concurrently would take more that 1000 yrs to crack this.
Hacking
Hacking is unauthorised access to data held on a computer system. Modern hacking is hard to control, authorities usually only discover 2% of breaches. Most hackers are caught by accident by others trying to do something else.
Hackers might be employees who discovered passwords and codes, and attempt to access systems they are not permitted to access.
Most hackers have little motive other than to see if it is possible, they mostly don't cause any damage to systems or use discovered data.
Hackers can obtain credit card info from computers and make fraudulent credit card purchases. Credit Card details can also be obtained by stealing a card (or cloning it) and then goods can be purchased online.
Computer data can be stolen by hacking into a system and taking data or by stealing computer itself.
In 1990 an army commanders laptop was stolen when it was left unattended. the computer held vital data on the impending Gulf War.
Fraud on the internet
Fraud is the act of deliberate trying to deceive someone. there are many ways of doing this online.
Internet traders can easily pretend to be someone they are not. Phishing is a way of attempting to gain personal info, such as usernames and passwords and credit card details by pretending to be trustworthy. This is identity theft. Normally, they start with an e-mail with a link to a fake site. Traders can set up fake sites that take orders for good and collects money or credit card details. The goods are never delivered and the trader shuts the site down, having already taken the money.
Traders are also involved in selling software or other computer programs.These are normally faulty, and when downloaded, it doesn't work.
Fake websites

Always check the URL (a fake website will not have a legitimate URL). e.g. www.paypalsecure.com and www.paypal@accounts.com
Make sure the URL starts with https:// which means the website is secure (uses SSL)
If the website allows you to make financial transactions make sure that the it has a padlock on the page (it’s not just a picture - click on the padlock and you should see some security information)
It’s always best to type in URLs yourself as opposed to clicking on links that have been sent to you via email (it’s very easy to direct to the wrong website!)

Identity Theft
This involves stealing info about someone and then pretending to be them and commiting some kind of fraud.
Identity Theft Example

Week One:
Someone roots through your recycling and finds old bank statements, phone bills and credit card statements. A few days later they redirect your postal mail to a new address and with the details they have gleaned, start to purchase goods online

Week Two:
Open new credit card accounts and take out a new phone contract in your name

Week Three:
Buy a car using a credit card in your name

Week Four:
Stopped by police and fined for speeding. Don’t pay the fine and summoned to court. Don’t turn up and you get arrested!

Malware
Malware is short for malcious software and is designed to disrupt computer systems.
Virus
This is a computer program written to cause damage or disruption to a computer system. Most viruses rely on a few instructions (e.g. a marco) set in a file, it will only be activated when the file is opened. It will copy itself to hidden files on the hard disk which are hard to locate and destroy. It can destroy files or completely wipe all files from the hard disk.
Up to date anti-virus software should be installed to prevent viruses from causing any harm.
Logic Bomb
Type of virus that can alter or destroy the content of an organisations computer system. It is not activated until the hacker sends a signal to it. A hacker may threaten a company with a bomb and demand money or the bomb will be activated. Most companies pay the hacker as they don't want the public to know that their system was breached. Sometimes the bomb is never planted. Up to date anti-virus software should be installed to prevent viruses causing any harm.
Trojan Horse
This is a program that appears to perform a desirable function, but instead allows unauthorised access to the computer system. They are designed to allow the hacker to have remote access to a targets computer system.
Examples include something like installing a toolbar onto your browser or something more malicious like opening up you PC to remote attack.
Up to date anti-virus software should be installed to prevent viruses causing any harm.
Spyware (Key logger)
This is a type of virus that gets onto a PC via an e-mail attachment or downloads and records things such as keystrokes and web browsing history.
It can be used to intercept passwords and credit card details, leading to identity theft.
Up to date anti-spyware software should be installed to prevent spyware causing any harm.
Other software related to internet use.
Adware:
sofware that displays adverts about other products. Adware is usually seen by the developer as a way to recover costs. In some cases it may allow the software to be provided to the user free of charge, or at a reduced price. Adverts are usually annoying to the user and can be turned off via the web browser.

Cookies:
these are small text files saved onto the hard disk when you visit certain websites. They contain usernames and passwords for specific sites and info. like preferences which speed up access for the user. They can be used by websites to collect info. used for marketing purposes.
Personal Privacy
The right to privacy is a basic human right, many people fear they are losing it. Most people are sensitive to info, regarding age, beliefs, family conditions and academic qualifications.
Modern technology includes huge company databases that can obtain info in thousands of people. Info is easily transferred to other businesses without the individuals knowledge. Sometimes data stored is false or imprecise and is not kept up to date
Data Protection Act (DPA)
The DPA was produced to create laws for the rapidly developing computer industry. It provides legal rights for living and identifiable individuals, it demands good handling of data by companies. It was introduce in 1984, and revised in 1998.


Definitions from DPA
Personal Data:
Information about living and identifiable individuals.
Automatically Processed:
processed by a computer or other technology such as document image processing systems.
Data Users:
companies or people who store and control personal data.
Data subjects:
living and identifiable, individuals to whom the personal data relates.
Data protection principles
Fairly and lawfully processed
Processed for limited purposes
Adequate, relevant and not excessive
Accurate
Not kept longer than necessary
Processed in accordance with your (data subject) rights
Secure
Not transferred to countries without adequate protection

People Involved
Everyone is a data subject, companies and organisations that store data about us are data users.
If data is entered wrongly, is out of date, or is confused with someone else problems can occur that may not be known about.
This can cause unfair treatment, e.g. refusal of jobs, housing or a place at a college. You could even be arrested because a computer system has confused you with a criminal with the same name as yours.
Information Commissioner:
Enforces and oversees the DPA ensuring good data handling
Information commissioner
The duties of the information commissioner include:
Maintaining a register of data users and making it publicly available
Making available information about the DPA and how it works
Promoting compliance with the eight principles
Encouraging the creation of Codes of Practice to help data users comply with the eight principles
Considering complaints
Prosecuting offenders or giving warnings to those who break the act

Data user's register entry
With a few exceptions, all data users have to register, giving their name and address together with broad descriptions of:
Individuals that the personal data is held about
The items of data held
The purposes the data is kept for
The sources from which the information may be obtained
The types of organisations that the information may be passed to
Any overseas countries the data may be transferred to

Exemptions from the act
Any personal data that is held for a national security reason is not covered. MI5 or MI6 don't have to follow the rules. They do need to get a Government Minister to sign a certificate saying that they are exempt
Personal data held for domestic purposes only at home, e.g. a list of your friends' addresses does not have to keep to the rules
The taxman or police do not have to disclose information held or processed to prevent crime or taxation fraud. Criminals cannot see their police files. Tax or VAT investigators do not have to show people their files
A school pupil has no right of access to personal files, or to exam results before publication
A data user can keep data for any length of time if it is being used for statistical, historical or research purposes

Rights of Data Subjects
An individual has the right to have a copy of any personal data held about them. Ways it can be requested are:
In writing
In person with ID
A data controller can charge a small fee (£10 normally). If requests are not responded to in 40 days, the person in entitled to complain to data user and apply to court for correction or deletion of data.
Basic rights that can be used in civil courts:
Right to compensation for unauthorised disclosure of data
Right to compensation for inaccurate data
Right of access to data and to apply for change/removal if data is inaccurate
Right to compensation for unauthorised access, loss or destruction of data

Freedom of Information Act 2000
The information commissioner is responsible for this act, this act is not about personal data but concerns itself with info about public authorities.
Normally this info is about:
How public authorities carry out their duties
How they make their decisions
How they spend public money
Public authorities include:
Government
Local authorities
Hospitals, dentist’s surgeries, doctor’s surgeries etc
Schools, colleges, universities
Police and prison service
An individual can access things like emails, meeting minutes, reports etc.
Exemptions would include:
Where information could jeopardise the prevention/detection of crime
Where cost of collecting info exceeds a reasonable limit

Standards
Standard
: Standards are needed so that many different types of device can be connected to any computer system and information can be transferred.
Standards are needed so that many different types of device, e.g. different cameras, external hard drives, memory sticks and mobile phones can be connected to any computer system, e.g. desktop, laptop, netbook and so that information can be transferred. A standard way of connecting a device would be to use the Universal Serial Bus (USB) port.
Computer Misuse Act of 1990
Unauthorised access to computer programs or data
This is the lowest level of offence. It includes, for example, finding or guessing someone’s password, then using that to get into a computer system and have a look at the data it contains. This is an offence even if no damage is done, and no files deleted or changed. The very act of accessing materials without authorisation is illegal. This offence carries a penalty of imprisonment up to six months and/or a fine.
Unauthorised access with a further criminal intent
This builds on the previous offence. The key here is the word intent. It therefore includes guessing/stealing a username and password to someone’s bank account, and using that to access sensitive data without the consent of the owner with the intention of committing fraud. This offence carries a penalty of up to five years and/or a fine.
Unauthorised modification of computer material (programs or data)
This could include deliberately deleting files, introducing viruses or modifying programs and data, intending to cause damage. It would include guessing/stealing a username and password to someone’s bank account and using that to access sensitive data without the consent of the owner then committing fraud e.g. transferring money from that account to another. This offence carries a penalty of up to five years and/or a fine.
There are very few prosecutions under this law as many companies don't want to admit that thier system has been breached. It could lead to a loss of clients if they think the system is insecure.
Software copyright law
The copyrights, Designs and Patents Act of 1988 covers music, literature and software. For software covered by copyright it makes it illegal to:
Copy or distribute software without permssion or license.

Types of licence
Single-user:
Install software on an individual machine only (plus laptop)
Multi-user
: Install software on server e.g. 30 user license would allow upto 30 concurrent users
Site
: Install software onto server. Allows any number of users within the site.
Some software is open source and you don't need a license to run it.
Using computers to combat crime
Modern police use computer systems for numerous task: Databases of fingerprints, DNA, stolen cars and criminal records are all stored on computer systems.
Systems can look for similarities in cases and can match crimes to criminals.
Also tax fraud can be stopped by using systems that analyse the tax returns against the average profits for certain types of business.
Regulation of investigatory powers act 2000 (RIPA)
Under the RIPA it is an offence to intercept a message sent via public or private telecommunication system, although there are exemptions. RIPA regulates the power of government security services and law enforcement authorities by allowing the interception, surveillance and investigation of electronic data in specified situations such as when preventing and detecting crime. Powers include being able to demand the disclosure of data encryption keys.
Type
Full
- Whole system is saved. Most comprehensive type of backup, requires lots of storage space.

Differential
- Saves data changed since last full backup. Saves more data than incremental but restoration process is quicker.

Incremental
- Saves data changed since last backup. Involves saving less data than differential but the restoartion process is slower.
Frequency
Individual
- Memory stick every few months

Small business
- hard disk at end of week

Medium business
- magnetic tape every night

Large business
- hard disk live (writing to several disks simultaneously) example of RAID
Media
Memory stick
Optical Disk - CD-RW (800 MB) or DVD-RW (4.7 GB)
Magnetic Tape
RAID
Location
Where will the backup be stored? They should be kept of site so if there is a flood or fire and the main system is affected, the new hardware and software can be installed and the system rebuilt.
Personnel
Who is going to take responsibility for the backup? IT technicnian or Network Manager
Recovery
The following will need to be considered:
Alternative accommodation (if building unusable)
Availability of staff at short notice to help recover backups
Availability of replacement hardware to load the backup data onto
Availability of alternative communication lines for network/Internet
Training of staff to instruct them how to get things back to normal again
Testing of recovery procedures
TFMPLR
RAID and Online Backup
If a database is online and being updated frequently then a more advanced backup technique than periodic backing up is needed. RAID involves data being written to many discs simultaneously. They are held in different locations and hold all the same information.

Backups should be kept in a fireproof safe. Some companies now pass the reponsibility to someone else to use the internet to backup data. There are some internet companies that do this, e.g. www.backup.com
What can ICT provide
Fast, repetitive processing
Vast storage capacity
Improved search facilities
Improved presentation
Improved accessibility of information and services
Improved secuity of data and processes
Improved communication

Is the use of ICT systems always appropriate
Limitations in what the ICT system can be used for
: 75% of ICT projects fail, or are late, or over budget. Very expensive to build. Humans are better at understanding speech, we also prefer to talk to a person. Medical diagnosis is better talking to a real doctor rather than a machine.

Appropriatness of solutions
: if very small amounts of data it to be handled, not worth the effort of making a spreadsheet or database, easier to do it by hand.

Limitations in what the information ICT systems produce
: Garbage in, Garbage out! Only produce as good information as the data that was entered. If poor or incorrect data is entered, the information will be incorrect or useless.
Batch Processing
It has the following features:
No human intervention during processing. Once the data is input the processing happens automatically
All input is batched together
Large volumes of data are processed in one go
Processing happens periodically as the data builds up over time
Processing happens during the night or at weekends when the processing power of the computer is not needed for interactive work
Examples
Producing gas bills
Producing phone bills
Marking multiple choice exams
Processing bank cheques
Calculating a company’s monthly payroll using time sheets
Definition
- A process which runs from beginning to end without human intervention
Interctive processing
This is the continual exchange of information between a computer and the user, the opposite of batch. Organisations such as insurance companies are often able to make changes to a customer’s household insurance, for example, while the customer is on the phone. A report of the change would be automatically generated and a copy sent to the customer. Our experience of computers is solely interactive
Examples
:
Designing a new house using CAD design software
Playing a computer game
Answering an online drag and drop quiz
Using instant messaging software to speak to a friend
Defintion
- Computer and user are in direct two-way communication
Transaction processing
A computer records a transaction and immediately updates the master file. One transaction finishes before the next begins
Examples
:
Buying an item in a store
Booking a flight
Buying a cinema ticket
Taking out a library book
Applying for a driving licence
Enrolling on a college course
Applying for a University place
Clocking in and out from work
Defintion
- Processing of each transaction as it arises. Starts processing next transaction after completing the previous
Cultural
Beliefs, Customs, Lifestyles, Arts, Music, fashion, Tradition, Laws
Opportunities for new talent to perform on the web (YouTube)
Virtual tours of museums, galleries etc on the web
Less people going to concerts, visiting galleries
Traditional methods of communication disappearing
Communication now via email, SMS, social networking, chat rooms etc
Churches hold online services and use podcasts to spread message
Large digital divide between cultures
Legal
Companies must comply with Data Protection Act
Hackers may be prosecuted under the Computer Misuse Act
Copyright, Designs and Patents Act means downloading music without paying for it is illegal
Companies must comply with the Health and Safety Act
Phishing involves stealing information about someone and using it
Pharming involves cleverly redirecting the user to a bogus website
Identity fraud involves somebody pretending to be you
Fake websites exist that look like real, well known websites but are not
Employees must sign company's code of conduct
Economic
ICT systems are very expensive to build
Cost of not embracing ICT could be even more expensive
More interesting jobs now available thanks to ICT
Better opportunities for advertising/marketing on the web
Many organisations operate from India to save labour costs
Music companies/artists losing money due to file sharing/downloads
Environmental
R
educe
R
euse
R
ecycle
The
W
aste
E
lectrical and
E
lectronic
E
quipment (WEEE) directive sets collection and recycling and recovery targets for all types of electrical goods with in Europe. (Part of recycle of RRR)
Most people buy new ICT products instead of getting products repaired
Many schemes exist to help with reusing ICT products (third world)
Video conferencing and teleworking help reduce carbon footprints
Energy consumption and co2 emissions increases with ICT usage
Social
e.g. MySpace and Facebook are used to keep in contact with friends. People post personal details and photos. Problems of paedophiles and lack of privacy, e.g. future employer looking at your account.
Many people use social networking sites to keep in touch
Much less face to face contact now
Many people spend many hours playing computer games
Paedophiles pretend to be someone they are not and groom
Opportunities to meet people from different countries and cultures
Ethical
Should employers be allowed to view emails sent by their employees?
Censorship of websites
Should we use illegal websites to download software and music?
Should systems be used for medical diagnosis and replace doctors?
Youngsters becoming prey to paedophiles on social networking sites
CLEESE
Individuals
Benefits
Greater leisure time. ICT systems more productive
Easy access to large amounts of information
Easy to exchange ideas
Creation of new and more interesting jobs
Cheap methods of communication
Save money on goods and services using the web
Create your own holidays and trips
Shop from home
Online banking
Less control by repressive governments
Helps with studying
Access to media anywhere, anytime
Much help available for people with personal problems
Teleworking
Drawbacks
Information overload
Difficult to keep up with developments
Possibility of redundancies in certain sectors
Concerns about young people accessing the web
Health problems
Teleworking
Benefits
Drawbacks
Easy to concentrate at home rather than in a noisy office
Cheaper costs in travel and keeps cars off the road
Workers can arrange their working hours to coincide with other commitments
Save office electricity and heating bills
People in different locations can work in a team
People can be employed from all over the world
Disabled people who cannot work in offices can be employed
Management may fear difficulties in controlling a distributed workforce
Can remote staff retain a sense of loyalty to the organisation?
Employees may miss the social environment of the office
Employees may find it difficult to work in teams or getting help
Some teleworkers may find it difficult to separate work from home
Society
Benefits
Greater democracy because the web allows more people to state their political views and e-voting allows more people to vote
Greater productivity and less wastage
Higher standards of living. Countries making the best use of ICT have the highest standard of living
Shorter working week. Organisations more efficient now
Helps disabled people to be more independent
Safety critical systems are much safer now e.g. air traffic control, fly by wire aircraft systems

Drawbacks
Lack of privacy. Big brother is watching you!
Lack of equality. Many people still don’t have access to a computer
De-skills or eliminates some jobs
Cyberbullying
Access to pornography
Illegal copying
Misinformation
Phishing and pharming
Globalisation
Widens gap between rich and poor

Exam Tips
Use the most popular and obvious answers to get the marks and for them to be storng answers
ICT System
ICT System: A system that captures data, stores data, converts data to information and then produces the information
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