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Cell Organelles

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Michael Podlesney

on 22 October 2014

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Transcript of Cell Organelles

Found within the nucleus.
It is the site of ribosome synthesis.
Controls all the tasks being done in the cell.
Contains the cell's genetic information (DNA).
Is surrounded by a selectively permeable structure called the nuclear envelope.

Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis.
Ribosomes are either stuck to the Rough ER or suspended in the cytoplasm.
They consist of RNA and proteins.
Vesicles transport food and waste between cell organelles, as well as to and from the surface of the cell.

To release their contents, vesicles fuse with other plasma membranes.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
The outer layer is covered with protein-manufacturing ribosomes.
Newly made
are inserted into the rough ER, where they may be chemically
They are then
throughout the cell, or to the Golgi.

Ribosomes give it a rough exterior.
ough ER
= R
Golgi Apparatus
The Golgi apparatus is also called the Golgi body.
Proteins are further modified, sorted and packaged and chemically tagged.
It packages the molecules into vesicles.
It either stores them or sends them out to the cell.
Cell Wall
Is found in plant cells.
Made out of cellulose (sugar).
Gives protection to the cell.
Keeps the cell from being shapeless and prevents over expansion.

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Has no ribosomes
Creates and modifies lipids to be transported throughout the cell.
Breaks down toxic chemicals.
It produces most of the cell's energy through cellular respriration.
It consists of outer and inner membranes.
The inner membrane (cristae), increases the surface area, which increases energy production.
Found in BOTH animal and plant cells
Plant cells and animal cells have different vacuoles

Vacuoles store food, water, dissolved substances or waste.
The structure of a vacuole is a membrane surrounding fluid.
The fluid contains dissolved food or even cell waste.

Plant Cell Vacuoles are much larger to provide
turgor pressure
(vacuole pushes against the side of the cell wall to maintain shape)
Cytoplasm & Cytosol
is the region of the cell inside the cell membrane and outside the nuclear membrane.


is the fluid that holds all the organelles in place.
It is made of 80% water and literally translates to cell substance.
Lysosomes dispose of unwanted material.
They digest food, recycle other organelles and breakdown viruses.
Contain many hydrolytic enzymes to break things down.
Lysosome - lysis (breakdown)
Cell Membrane
Controls what enters and exits the cell.
Made of phospholipids.
Allows the cell to take in oxygen and nutrients needed to function.
Protects the cell from dangerous chemicals.
Nuclear Membrane
Also known as a nuclear envelope
Separates the nucleus from the rest of the cell
Protects the genetic information inside the nucleus
Made of lipids; Has pores that allow Ribosomes to exit the nucleus on the way to the Cytoplasm
Cell Organelles
Is only found in plant cells.
Has a factor, which we call chlorophyll.
It gives the plant its green color, and is responsible for the making of food through carbon dioxide, water, and sun energy.
Cells make up every living thing.

The organelles in cells perform the basic functions.
Eukaryotic Cells
Prokaryotic Cells
Organelles are surrounded by membranes
They do not have membrane bound organelles.
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The large central vacuole in a plant helps plant cells to maintain
turgor pressure

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Separate chromosomes during mitosis (organize cell division)
Found near the nucleus
Found only in animal cells
Assists in movement (of the cell and of organelles)
Maintains cell shape
Consists of microtubules and microfilaments
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