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Chapter 3

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Peter Rado

on 27 January 2016

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Transcript of Chapter 3

Chapter 3
The Role of the Church in Medieval Europe

Almost every town had a church building. Every city had a cathedral or large church headed by the Bishops.
St. Benedict
Monks, Nuns, and Mendicants
The Roman Catholic Church was the center of medieval life in the High Middle Ages from 1000 to 1300 c.e.
St. Francis of Assisi
Illuminated Manuscript
Education
Persecute
Monastery
Monk
Clergy
Excommunicate
Sacrament
Pilgrimage
Relic
Convent
Nun
Flying buttresses
Chapter Vocabulary
Cathedral
Nave
Transepts
University
Rhetoric
Theology
Natural Law
Monasticism
Illuminated Manuscript
Religious Order
Friar
The Churches were built in the center of each community. Squares were open areas in front of each church in the center of town.
How the Church Influenced Daily Life
Church bells rang out the hours of the day.
Merchants sold goods on the square.
Plays and festivals were held at the church.
The church provided education and helped the poor and the sick.
The church was the science of the day.
Storms, disease, and famine were thought to be punishments from God!
Roman Legacy
The most important legacy of Rome is the Christian Religion. Christians were originally
persecuted
or punished for their beliefs. Christianity still grew and became the Official Religion of the Roman Empire in 395 c.e. when Constantine became a Christian. All Christians at this time belonged to a single church. This church was called the Roman Catholic Church.
Stability for the People
Monk:
A man who has taken a solemn vow to devote his life to prayer and service in the community.
Monastery:

A community of monks
Monasteries provided hospitality for travelers and refugees.
Monks copied and preserved old texts to save important books.
The Church gave food to the poor
Provided leadership to the people
The Increasing Power
of the Church
Clergy:
The body of people, such as priests, who perform the sacred functions of the church.
Church leaders organized the church to model the Roman Government. Every clergy member had a rank.
The Pope:
He was the Bishop of Rome and supreme head of the Roman Catholic Church.
Cardinals:
Appointed by the Pope. Assisted the Pope.
Archbishops:
Oversaw large areas called archdiocese.
Bishops:
Oversaw diocese and lived in great cathedrals.
Priests:
Oversaw each parish church or community.
By 1050 c.e. the church was the largest landholder in Europe
Church collected a tithe from the people. This was a tax all people paid to the church of 10% of their earning.
Latin was the language of the church and only common language in Europe.
Clergy were often the only literate adults.
The clergy became advisors to the kings.
Pope Gregory was elected Pope 1073 c.e.
He changed church laws by forbidding clergy to marry.
Outlawed the selling of Church Official Positions
Banned kings from appointing priest, bishops, and heads of monestaries.
Pope Gregory
excommunicated
Henry the IV or kicked him out of the Church.
Sacraments
(Solemn rites of the Christian Church)
There are 7 sacraments. People viewed sacraments as a pathway to salvation
Baptism - Entry into the church
Confirmation - Formal declaration of belief in God
Eucharist - The blessed bread and wine at mass
Matrimony - Marriage
Holy Orders - Becoming a priest or nun
Penance - Confession of sins to get forgiven by God
Extreme Unction - Final blessing when close to death
Pilgrimages and Crusades
Pilgrimage:
A journey to a holy site

Relic:
an object considered hole because it belinged to, or was touched by, a saint or other holy person.

Convent:
A community of nuns

Nun:
A woman who has taken a sacred vow to devote her life to prayer and service to the church
People made pilgrimages to Holy Sites such as Jerusalem and Rome. Others went to churches that had holy relics.
Holy Acts of Devotion
Crusades or wars were fought with Muslims to regain the holy city of Jerusalem. Jerusalem was a sacred city for the Jewish, Islamic, and Christian Faiths.
Art and Architecture
Most art was made for religious purpose.
Since almost nobody could not read, art told the story of Christ's life to those who went to church.
Cathedral
is Latin for the throne in which
bishop sits
. Cathedrals are very large churches.
Gothic cathedrals look as if they are reaching up to heaven. Stone arches on the outside of the cathedrals were called flying buttresses. These arches distributed the weight of the building and allowed for taller cathedrals.
Catherdrals could take up to 100 years build.
university:
a school for advanced learning

rhetoric:
the study of persuasive writing and speaking

theology:
the study of God and religious truth

natural law:
the concept that there is a universal order built into nature that can guide moral thinking
Cathedral schools led to the formation of universities around 1200c.e..
Students learned about logic, geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, and music. Book were all hand written and very rare so the teachers often read to the students.
The church taught people to be guided by faith. Many ancient texts written by Aristotle and other Greeks taught logical thinking and reasoning. This made the church nervous.
Thomas Aquinas an Italian scholar of philosophy and faith tried to bridge the gap between faith and reason.

He wrote argument in support of his faith to show that reason and religious beliefs worked together. He stated that there was an order built into nature to guide right and wrong. He called this natural law. Thomas stated that since God made nature, natural law agreed with teachings in the Bible.
Holidays
Most celebrations were conected to the church. Almost every day of the year is dedicated to a Christian Saint.
Two of the greatest holidays were Christmas and Easter. Christmas lasted 12 days. People decorated their houses with evergreens, holly and mistletoe. There were no Christmas Trees yet.
Easter season began with a 3 day celebration before Lent. Lent lasted the 40 days before Easter.
People of the time also enjoyed entertainment that included bonfires, dancing bears, jugglers, acrobats, plays, and traveling actors called mummers who played drums, danced and gave elaborate performances.
Most entertainment took place in the square outside of the church.
monasticism:
a way of life in which men and women withdraw from the rest of the world in order to devote themselves to their faith

illuminated manuscript:
a handwritten book decorated with bright colors and precious metals

religious order:
a brotherhood or sisterhood of monks, nuns, or friars

friar:
a member of a certain religious order devored to teaching and works of charity
St. Benedict started the Benedictine Monks. They had three rules.
Poverty (not to own property)
Chastity (never to marry)
Obedience (to obey their leaders)
Their jobs included caring for the sick, teaching, and writing manuscripts.
Benedictine High School in Cleveland is run by brothers from the Benedictines.
Mendicants
Medicants traveled the land among the ordinary people to preach and take care of the sick. They lived in complete poverty and had to work or beg for food. The term medicants means beggar.
St. Francis started the Franciscan Friars. Francis believe all living things should be treated with respect. With a nun named Clara he also helped to found a order of religious nuns called the Poor Clares. There are two Poor Clares Monestaries in Cleveland today.
St. Clara
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