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Lesson 2 Self-report 5 hours

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amie smith

on 24 September 2018

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Transcript of Lesson 2 Self-report 5 hours

Self-report
Self reports
Two main types of self-report method are:

Questionnaire:
A series of questions in a written form.
Interview:
A series of questions are given verbally, face-to-face between an interviewer and an interviewee.

In order to get you thinking about questionnaires, analyse this questionnaire and identify strengths and limitations of it
Types of questions
Open Questions:
Allow the participant to answer however they want.
Closed Questions:
Provide a limited amount of answers participants must choose from.

Identify whether the following are open or closed questions
What did you have for breakfast?

Do you like marshmallows: Yes/No

On a scale of 1 to 10, how threatening do you find pigeons?

How hungry are you?

When collecting info from participants, there are 2 types of data which can be collected
Qualitative data:
Language, literacy, rich in detail, usually textual or verbal and provides descriptions.

Quantitative data:
Numerical data, measurements of quantity or amount or how often something has occurred.

A Questionnaire about under-age drinking

1. Name:
2. Address:
3. Age: Please Circle: 0–2, 3–8, 8-15, under 18
4. How much do you drink a week?
5. Why do you drink? (please circle) – my friends drink, something to do, I like the taste, my parents drink a lot, it makes me feel relaxed
6. List your 3 favourite alcohol drinks in order of preference.
7. Do you smoke?

Open questions
tend to provide qualitative data, as you allow the participant to respond however they want and this can be rich in detail.

e.g. How would you describe your first experience of riding a bike?

Yet, sometimes, questions can still be left open, but gather quantitative data.

e.g. How old were you when you first learnt to ride a bike?

This question leaves the answer open to the participant to respond however they want, but provides a numerical value.

Closed questions
only provide quantitative data, as you limit the number of responses the participant gives, so their response is lacking in detail. Yet, you also can count how often someone gives a response providing quantitative data.

e.g. How often did you ride a bike in the last 6 months? Please circle the answer that best fits:
Daily Weekly Fortnightly Monthly Less than once a month

Then we can add up, how many people said monthly, how many people said daily, therefore resulting in quantitative data.

Quantitative or qualitative?
1. What did you have for dinner yesterday?
2. Do you like adventure: Yes/No
3. On a scale of 1 to 10 how annoying do you find penguins?
4. How thirsty are you?
5. How many times have you been fishing?
You need to know the following types of closed questions:
Fixed choice
Checklist
Ranking
Likert scale
Rating scale
Semantic Differential Scale
Pick a topic and write a closed question for each of the different types of closed questions and one open question. Then hand out your questionnaire.
Topics could be:
Dreams
Fears
Diet
Friends
Social Media
Page 2
Read page 1
Page 3
Read Page 5-6
Page 8
Have a look at the data you have collected. Notice anything interesting? Attempt the evaluation tasks on page 7
Designing an interview
Structured:
Predetermined questions with fixed closed questions.
Semi-structured:
Guidelines on which questions to ask, contains open and closed questions, timing and phrasing determined by interviewer.
Unstructured:
Topic of discussion but no fixed questions, all open questions.

Create an interview with people in your class on their childhood memories. After planning all types of interview on page 9,
write your findings in the boxes for each type of interview. Compare your results with your peers. Each interview should last no longer than 5 minutes each. Write you findings on page 10
Task
Page 9-10
What are the strengths and weaknesses of interviews?
Page 11
Self-report methodological issues
Social desirability:
behaving in a way that would be viewed favourably by others

Unclear questions:
questions that prevent the participant from understanding its purpose

Leading questions:
questions that persuade the participants to give a certain answer

Internal Validity - Face Validity:
does the measuring device look like it measures what it intends to?
Task pages 12-13
Reliability and Validity of self-reports
Lets remind ourselves of the following terms:
Population Validity
Ecological Validity
Internal Validity
External Validity
Internal Reliability
External Validity
Complete definitions and tasks on page 16
Types of Reliability
External Reliability - Test retest:
If a participant responds to the same test twice in a similar way, the test has high external reliability
Internal Reliability - Split-half:
Scores from two halves of a test are compared if they are similar the measure has high internal reliability
Using what you have learned, how would you improve reliability and validity of a self-report?
Page 18
Validity can be improved by:
Removing leading/unclear/socially desirable/recall questions
Adding open questions with qualitative data
Ensuring answers will be anonymous and confident

Reliability can be improved by:
Training interviewers so they are standardised
Providing standardised questions
Adding closed questions with quantifiable data
Using split test/test-retest methods

Carrying out your own Self-report
Think of a topic or area that you would find interesting to research using a self-report. You have 2 minutes.
If you can think of one on your own, choose from the following:

Attitudes about commitment in romantic relationships
Eating habits of sixth formers
Attitudes towards recent news story e.g. the rise of suicide in prisons
Experience of dreams
Complete the planning sheet on page 19-20, then collect data from class mates or students in the gallery
Homework
Complete pages 14-15 in your booklets in order to build an understanding of psychometric tests - a type of self-report
What are the strengths and weaknesses of questionnaires in general?
Note down on page 3
What are the strengths and weaknesses of Open questions/Qualitative data?
Note down on page 4
Page 5
Page 17
Complete Self-report Quizalize
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