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Lesson 2 Self-report 5 hours
Transcript of Lesson 2 Self-report 5 hours
Two main types of self-report method are:
A series of questions in a written form.
A series of questions are given verbally, face-to-face between an interviewer and an interviewee.
In order to get you thinking about questionnaires, analyse this questionnaire and identify strengths and limitations of it
Types of questions
Allow the participant to answer however they want.
Provide a limited amount of answers participants must choose from.
Identify whether the following are open or closed questions
What did you have for breakfast?
Do you like marshmallows: Yes/No
On a scale of 1 to 10, how threatening do you find pigeons?
How hungry are you?
When collecting info from participants, there are 2 types of data which can be collected
Language, literacy, rich in detail, usually textual or verbal and provides descriptions.
Numerical data, measurements of quantity or amount or how often something has occurred.
A Questionnaire about under-age drinking
3. Age: Please Circle: 0–2, 3–8, 8-15, under 18
4. How much do you drink a week?
5. Why do you drink? (please circle) – my friends drink, something to do, I like the taste, my parents drink a lot, it makes me feel relaxed
6. List your 3 favourite alcohol drinks in order of preference.
7. Do you smoke?
tend to provide qualitative data, as you allow the participant to respond however they want and this can be rich in detail.
e.g. How would you describe your first experience of riding a bike?
Yet, sometimes, questions can still be left open, but gather quantitative data.
e.g. How old were you when you first learnt to ride a bike?
This question leaves the answer open to the participant to respond however they want, but provides a numerical value.
only provide quantitative data, as you limit the number of responses the participant gives, so their response is lacking in detail. Yet, you also can count how often someone gives a response providing quantitative data.
e.g. How often did you ride a bike in the last 6 months? Please circle the answer that best fits:
Daily Weekly Fortnightly Monthly Less than once a month
Then we can add up, how many people said monthly, how many people said daily, therefore resulting in quantitative data.
Quantitative or qualitative?
1. What did you have for dinner yesterday?
2. Do you like adventure: Yes/No
3. On a scale of 1 to 10 how annoying do you find penguins?
4. How thirsty are you?
5. How many times have you been fishing?
You need to know the following types of closed questions:
Semantic Differential Scale
Pick a topic and write a closed question for each of the different types of closed questions and one open question. Then hand out your questionnaire.
Topics could be:
Read page 1
Read Page 5-6
Have a look at the data you have collected. Notice anything interesting? Attempt the evaluation tasks on page 7
Designing an interview
Predetermined questions with fixed closed questions.
Guidelines on which questions to ask, contains open and closed questions, timing and phrasing determined by interviewer.
Topic of discussion but no fixed questions, all open questions.
Create an interview with people in your class on their childhood memories. After planning all types of interview on page 9,
write your findings in the boxes for each type of interview. Compare your results with your peers. Each interview should last no longer than 5 minutes each. Write you findings on page 10
What are the strengths and weaknesses of interviews?
Self-report methodological issues
behaving in a way that would be viewed favourably by others
questions that prevent the participant from understanding its purpose
questions that persuade the participants to give a certain answer
Internal Validity - Face Validity:
does the measuring device look like it measures what it intends to?
Task pages 12-13
Reliability and Validity of self-reports
Lets remind ourselves of the following terms:
Complete definitions and tasks on page 16
Types of Reliability
External Reliability - Test retest:
If a participant responds to the same test twice in a similar way, the test has high external reliability
Internal Reliability - Split-half:
Scores from two halves of a test are compared if they are similar the measure has high internal reliability
Using what you have learned, how would you improve reliability and validity of a self-report?
Validity can be improved by:
Removing leading/unclear/socially desirable/recall questions
Adding open questions with qualitative data
Ensuring answers will be anonymous and confident
Reliability can be improved by:
Training interviewers so they are standardised
Providing standardised questions
Adding closed questions with quantifiable data
Using split test/test-retest methods
Carrying out your own Self-report
Think of a topic or area that you would find interesting to research using a self-report. You have 2 minutes.
If you can think of one on your own, choose from the following:
Attitudes about commitment in romantic relationships
Eating habits of sixth formers
Attitudes towards recent news story e.g. the rise of suicide in prisons
Experience of dreams
Complete the planning sheet on page 19-20, then collect data from class mates or students in the gallery
Complete pages 14-15 in your booklets in order to build an understanding of psychometric tests - a type of self-report
What are the strengths and weaknesses of questionnaires in general?
Note down on page 3
What are the strengths and weaknesses of Open questions/Qualitative data?
Note down on page 4
Complete Self-report Quizalize