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The Roman Republic and its Evolution to Empire
Transcript of The Roman Republic and its Evolution to Empire
The Roman Republic, from Swamp to Empire
Early Rome was not more
than a basic village built
on the highest points
of a swamp, near a ford
on the tiber river
Rome minus the greatness
The Roman Republic
The Rise and Fall of the Roman Republic
The Punic Wars
Let's Examine the Factors that could create the impossible.
The Roman Empire?
How is this possible?
Work in Triumvirates
Construct a a cause and effect chain that results in Caesar Augustus as Imperator of SPQR
Mediterranean Society: The Roman Phase
Legend of Romulus and Remus
Rome Founded 753 BCE
Indo-European migrants c. 2000 BCE
Bronze c. 1800 BCE, Iron c. 900 BCE
Establishment of Rome
Originally from Anatolia
Colonized Roman regions
Society declines late 6th c. BCE
Greek maritime attacks
Celtic invasions from north
Monarchy through 7th-6th c. BCE
Streets, temples, public buildings
Major center of trade routes
The Kingdom of Rome
509 BCE Romans overthrow last Etruscan king
Roman forum built
Executive: 2 consuls
Establishment of the Republic
Major class conflict 5th c. BCE, plebeians have a simple solution!
Adoption of the 12 tables
Plebeians allowed to elect tribunes for representation (VETO)
Rights expanded through 3rd c. BCE
Yet 6-month appointments of dictators
Took over iron industry 5th-4th c. BCE
Expansion via military threat and incentives
Expansion of the Republic
"My dearest wife,
don't let your heart be sad on my account.
No man will throw me down to Hades
before my destined time. I tell you this—
no one escapes his fate, not the coward,
nor the brave man, from the moment of his birth. 600
So you should go into the house, keep busy 
with your work, with weaving with your loom and wool,
telling your servants to set about their tasks.
War will be every man's concern, especially mine,
of all those who live in Troy."
Compare the excerpt of Hector and his decision to fight Achilles:
What would a Roman Hector do?
Strength, Discipline, Tenacity, Loyalty, Pragmatism
Arete vs. Gravitas
Rome was a Latin settlement, influenced by the Etruscans and Greeks
Phase One: The Punic Wars -> Latifundia, Wealth Gap, and Proletariat
Phase Two: This leads to the influence of the Mob, The vast power and influence of the wealthy, and The increasingly bloody struggle for political control.
Phase Three: The Professionalization of
the Army leads to Civil War [Marius, Sulla]
Gravitas, a story of scaevola
Count the Civil Wars
Marius vs. Sulla
Ceasar vs. Pompey+Senate
2nd triumvirate vs. Senate
Augustus vs. Marc Antony
What do people desire after 70 years of civil warfare?