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Supporting Emergent Literacy Development in Early Childhood

Presentation analysing scenarios of children to design strategies to support language and literacy development in an early childhood setting.
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Jamaica Crombie

on 21 September 2015

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Transcript of Supporting Emergent Literacy Development in Early Childhood

EDU10002: Understanding Language and Literacy

Assessment 2: Colleague Presentation

Lauren Hill, Hien Tran and Jamaica Crombie


To promote the development of emergent literacy skills for individual children, educators need to observe them to learn about their interests, needs and current abilities, as well as considering their age and cultural/social context (Kearns, 2014, p.18). This information can then be used in conjunction with pedagogical philosophies/approaches to help implement teaching strategies that will further develop children's language and literacy skills.


This presentation will look at four different scenarios presented in the film ''Supporting Early Literacy 0-5'' (2009, Siren Films), that shows children engaged in experiences with parents or educators that promote their language and literacy skills. For each scenario there is a summary of each childs current capabilites observed in the film, and a discussion, which will suggest different teaching strategies to further develop their emergent literacy.
Supporting Emergent Literacy Learning in Early Childhood

SCENARIO: ORSON HAS LUNCH WITH MUM (16 MONTHS)
SCENARIO: MATTY, CARS AND TRUCKS (3.5 YEARS)
SCENARIO: SEB, SHARK AND FISHES (5.5 YEARS)
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
Hien Tran
Jamaica Crombie
Lauren Hill
SUMMARY
SCENARIO: ORSON HAS LUNCH WITH MUM (16 MONTHS)
Hien Tran
SUMMARY
DISCUSSION
SCENARIO: ORSON HAS LUNCH WITH MUM (16 MONTHS)
Hien Tran
DISCUSSION
SCENARIO: ORSON HAS LUNCH WITH MUM (16 MONTHS)
Hien Tran
SUMMARY
SCENARIO: MATTY, CARS AND TRUCKS (3.5 YEARS)
Jamaica Crombie
SUMMARY
SCENARIO: MATTY, CARS AND TRUCKS (3.5 YEARS)
Jamaica Crombie
DISCUSSION
SCENARIO: MATTY, CARS AND TRUCKS (3.5 YEARS)
Jamaica Crombie
DISCUSSION
SCENARIO: SEB, SHARK AND FISHES (5.5 YEARS)
Lauren Hill
SCENARIO: SEB, SHARK AND FISHES (5.5 YEARS)
Lauren Hill
SCENARIO: SEB, SHARK AND FISHES (5.5 YEARS)
Lauren Hill
Brunton. P. & Thornton, L. (2010). Bringing the Reggio Approach to your Early Years Practice. (2nd ed.). New York, USA. Routledge.

Community Child-Care Co-operative Ltd (NSW) (CCCCo-op). (2012). Developmental Milestones and the Early Years Learning Framework and the National Quality Standards. ISBN: 978-0-9873543-3-4. Retrieved 02.09.15 from: http://files.acecqa.gov.au/files/ACECQA/2014/developmental-milestonesDevelopmental%20Milestones%20and%20the%20EYLF%20and%20the%20NQS.pdf

Department of Education, Employment and Work Relations for the Council of Australian Governments. (DEEWR). (2009). Belonging, Being and Becoming: The Early Years Framework for Australia. Retrieved from: http://docs.education.gov.au/system/files/doc/other/belonging_being_and_becoming_the_early_years_framework_for_australia.pdf

Edwards, C. P. (2002) Three approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori and Reggio Emilia. Early Childhood Research and Practice, Vol. 4(1). Retrieved from: http://ecrp.uiuc.edu/v4n1/edwards.html

Early Childhood Australia. (2011). Becoming Literate. Early Years Learning Framework Professional Learning Program eNewsletter. No 18. Retrieved 10.09.15 from: http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/nqsplp/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/EYLFPLP_E-Newsletter_No18.pdf

Hill, S. (2012) Developing early literacy: assessment and teaching. (2nd ed.). South Yarra, VIC; Eleanor Curtain Publishing

Kearns, K. (2010). Frameworks for Learning and Development. (2nd ed.). French’s Forest, NSW; Pearson Publication.

LePortSchools, March 17th 2010. The Montessori Language Program. Retrieved from: www.youtube.com/watch?v=1fbs-Qr8lf8

Machado. J. M. (2013). Early childhood experiences in language arts: early literacy. (10th ed.). Belmont, California: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
In this scenario, Matty (3.5 years old) is looking at a photo book with his mother in their home. Matty is very excited to see photos of himself and his family and can recall that these are photos from his birthday party. This demonstrates how Matty is using cognitive and language skills as he utilises his memory to recall an event and then verbally communicates this memory with his mum. The development of memory leads to the ability to internalise verbal language as thinking, which is needed for complex and abstract thought processes (Hill, 2012, p. 20), and many of these complex processes are crucial to literacy learning, for e.g. analysing information and texts (DEEWR, 2009, p.38).
kid-32379_1280 by ClkerFreeVectorImages. CCO public domain.
read-316507_1280 by PublicDomainPictures. CC0 public domain.
Matty alerts his mother to the fact that he missed some pages. This shows his understanding of the linear nature of books and the importance of viewing things in sequence, which relates to an understanding of patterns and symbols, and their importance in communication (DEEWR, 2009, p.43). Matty regularly touches the book as he thinks and talks. He is developing physical skills as he uses fine motor skills to turn the pages of the small photo book.

Matty becomes very interested in a photo of a car. This interest starts a discussion between Matty and his mother, where Matty is seen to ask many questions and demonstrates his large vocabulary. Both of these behaviours are very common of his age group (Hill, 2012, p.27). He is particularly interested in the colours of the cars, and at one point disagrees with his mother about the colour of the car they previously owned. This indicates Matty’s increasing ability to use language to express his own ideas and assert his opinions (CCCCo-op, 2012).
book-308767_1280 by ClkerFreeVectorImages. Licensed under CC0 Public Domain.
toys-667740_1280 by Jedidja. Licensed under CC0 Public Domain.
SCENARIO: MATTY, CARS AND TRUCKS (3.5 YEARS)
Jamaica Crombie
SUMMARY
Matty is also very interested in the different types of cars and trucks e.g. dump truck, pick up truck and transporter truck. As he continues to learn about the world, his mind is learning new ways to classify objects and experiences (Machado, 2013, p.104). This links into his expanding vocabulary and his ability to imitate adult style speech (CCCCo-op, 2012), which he shows when he says ‘’Yes, a transporter type of truck’’ after hearing his mother say this sentence.

After a few minutes Matty begins looking out the window to point out a car to mum and begins asking many questions. This shows Matty can make a connection between printed symbols/images and experiencing that object in the real world. When he realises a particular car is not there anymore, he asks his mother, ‘’Did daddy take it away to a garage?’’. He knows cars go to garages to get fixed, so when seeing the car is gone, he assumes it might have been taken there. This is another demonstration of Matty’s ability to generalise and take new information and apply it to his existing knowledge (Kearns, 2010, p.176).

puzzle-320754_1280 by geralt. Licensed under CC0 Public Domain.
cars-24357_1280 by ClkerFreeVectorImages.
Licensed under CC0 Public Domain.
SCENARIO: MATTY, CARS AND TRUCKS (3.5 YEARS)
Jamaica Crombie
SUMMARY
The experience of talking about the photos with mum is contributing to Matty’s social development skills, as he practices conversation skills like listening, taking turns to speak and expressing different opinions.

Matty is also emotionally engaged as he is able to share these memories and ideas with his mother, who is listening to what Matty has to say, answering questions, acknowledging his thoughts and feelings and guiding him back on track if he gets distracted. This supports Matty’s needs, as adults responding and interacting in a respectful and nurturing way are a foundation for children’s language and wellbeing (Early Childhood Australia, 2011).
parenting-736384_1280 by johnhain. Licensed under CC0 Public Domain.
teacher-590109_1280 by kevinlopez. Licensed under CC0 Public Domain.
SCENARIO: MATTY, CARS AND TRUCKS (3.5 YEARS)
Jamaica Crombie
DISCUSSION
SCENARIO: MATTY, CARS AND TRUCKS (3.5 YEARS)
Jamaica Crombie
DISCUSSION
SCENARIO: SEB, SHARK AND FISHES (5.5 YEARS)
Lauren Hill
SCENARIO: SEB, SHARK AND FISHES (5.5 YEARS)
Lauren Hill
SCENARIO: SEB, SHARK AND FISHES (5.5 YEARS)
Lauren Hill
SCENARIO: SEB, SHARK AND FISHES (5.5 YEARS)
Lauren Hill
SCENARIO: ORSON HAS LUNCH WITH MUM (16 MONTHS)
Hien Tran
SUMMARY
SCENARIO: ORSON HAS LUNCH WITH MUM (16 MONTHS)
Hien Tran
SUMMARY
DISCUSSION
SCENARIO: ORSON HAS LUNCH WITH MUM (16 MONTHS)
Hien Tran
A strategy that could be used to extend Matty’s language and literacy would be to provide play experiences that relate to his interests. Acknowledging children’s individual interests and using these as a foundation for curriculum planning is a central aspect of the Reggio Approach (Brunton, 2010, p.80). It is also evident in the Australian Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF) in the Practices of ‘Responsiveness to Children’, ‘Learning Through Play’ and Learning Outcome 1: Children have a strong sense of Identity (DEEWR, 2009, p.15, 19).

It is clear from the video that Matty is very interested in different vehicles, so one example could be to set up a play area with toy cars and trucks, a picture mat with roads and small toy traffic signs, etc. To extend this further you could provide books in this play area that relate to vehicles and transport, or printed photos with text to encourage exploration of literacy through play.
lego-674368_1280 by Alexas_Fotos. CC0 public domain.
childrens-books-570121_1280 by PublicDomainArchive. CC0 public domain.
puzzle-86811_1280 by Efrainstochter. CC0 public domain.
Another strategy that would extend Matty’s literacy learning is to encourage and support group experiences. This would support Matty’s need to have opportunities to practice his language and social skills by creating a space for him to speak with other children and engage in group play. This strategy is based on the Reggio Approach, in which group learning is very important as children are able to practice self-expression, listening and problem solving (Brunton, 2010, p.82).

By setting up a learning area thoughtfully, educators can ensure it has adequate space, resources and an inviting aesthetic to encourage shared experiences by multiple children (DEEWR, 2009, p.16). This aspect of the strategy also relates to the Montessori approach which values the importance of a well prepared and visually appealing learning environment (Edwards, 2002).


girl-67694_1280 by WikiImages. CC0 public domain.
children-684606_1280 by Ben_Kerckx. CC0 Public Domain.
Encouraging exploration of different styles of books is another strategy educators could use to extend Matty’s emergent literacy development. In the film Matty was interested in the function and layout of the book. It was also observed that he frequently touched different parts of the book and moved around at times as he spoke to his mother.

To support Matty’s interest in tactile exploration and preference for movement, educators could provide different styles of books, such as ones that encourage touch interaction, movement of different areas on the page and actions using the hands and body to extend Matty’s literacy learning. This could include more photo books, pop-up books, lift the flap books, books with touch and feel parts, books that open from top to bottom rather than left to right, stories with action/movement sequences, etc.
(Continued in next slide).
Physical engagement allows children to develop fine and gross motor skills that will contribute to literacy skills, and also supports cognitive and language development as children are able to physically express an idea or concept (Machado, 2013, p.96-97).


This strategy is based on Montessori principles of using touch to explore objects and being allowed to move around the environment to support learning (LePortSchools, 2011). It is also based on the EYLF practice of ‘Holistic Approaches’, which acknowledges that all areas of child development interact and support each other, including physical, language, cognitive and emotional wellbeing (DEEWR, 2009).
book-154262_1280 by OpenClipartVectors. CC0 public domain.
childrens-books-583367_1280 by kamiel79. CC0 public domain.
childhood-667605_1280 by venturaartist. CC0 public domain.
bobby-car-349695_1280 by PublicDomainArchive. CC0 public domain.
By observing children, educators can make many insights into their interests, needs, capabilities and other things that are important to them.

By adopting the emergent literacy approach and using observations, learning approaches and frameworks, educators can create meaningful and quality learning experiences that will enhance children's learning journey of language and literacy.
REFERENCES
REFERENCES
In all daily activities are contributing to the formation language for special children in games and daily meals than parents take advantage of this opportunity to converse and teach them new words. After 12 months it is the time children formed the strongest language possible and it is time their parents would have special opportunities to teach a child having positive language.

To plan for the children to develop the best their language and litueracy we have to understand the development of each child through observation, interaction and reflection during natural play activities of children, these activities are basis to identify and assess the potential for learning in young children.



Konza said that adopting an effective approach to supporting children ‘language development and literacy related to the following:
Based on strong social relationship and the knowledge children already have: At this point the child experiences the world by the relationships with environmental and people around them .They gain knowledge from the games, kids songs, interact activities with other. This is the foundation for children to develop their language and psychology skills later. Talking is the best way of development language for children, adults should engage conversation with children daily and create the best environment for child to develop their langue skills.

Use appropriate language in a social context: Teach your children to use the appropriate language is very important, they should know the minimum communication skills like saying ‘thank you’ ỏ ‘please ‘respect others when talking, wait for the turn, stay in the topic, how to ask the questions or request other people ...Their communication skill will impact on social relationships and be acceptance by other children. Recent studies by Bonhamy and Leonard have found that children who have less competence in communicating in a way that inappropriate to the context are more likely to have social skills problems.
Promoting vocabulary development: The more children learn new words as a chance to learnmore about the world around .Give them opportunity to explore and talk about various topics, encouraging children to talk about the games, songs, story or pictures which they are interesting in, note them to use stand grammar and right words.

Developing phonological awareness: Knowing the word phonetically it can understand meaning of the word. There are many games to distinguish and recognize as phonetic like: reading picture books, card games, listening and guess the words...
Developing alphabetic and letter, sound knowledge (phonics): At kinder age children can start learning about the alphabetic structure .Understand the relationship of the letter together it can help children with the skills to read, write correct later in school. Adults can starting from the child's name and then to the alphabet chart and the song and letter games...

Providing range of literacy environments in which literacy is purposefully used and discussed: Create a comfortable learning environment for children, encourage them to discuss about their interested. Provide books and various games to encourage thinking and creativity.
These strategies above directly related to the curriculum model of the children. Educators use teaching methods appropriate to each child learn in playing and combine to create a positive environment for children to develop the ability to communicate well as confidence in their daily conversation.

Depending on the child's age we use different resource to help children develop their langue skills. Infant we use simple conversation , eyes contact , allow them to copy word, talk with them about natural around .With toddlers and pre-schoolers has many resource we might apply games , books , picture's , video, show and tell, dramatic ,learning program.
SCENARIO: ORSON HAS LUNCH WITH MUM (16 MONTHS)
Hien Tran
Investigating children’s early literacy learning in family and community contexts

Dr Susan Spedding, Dr Jean Harkins, Dr Laurie Makin and Dr Peter Whiteman

Children and Education Research Centre, University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia

D Konza, 2011, Supporting Oral Language and Reading development in the Early Years. Spotlight research into practice: research monograph 5, Victorian Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat, February, p.2.
SCENARIO: MATTY, CARS AND TRUCKS (3.5 YEARS)
Jamaica Crombie
SCENARIO: SEB, SHARK AND FISHES (5.5 YEARS)
Lauren Hill

In the first year is born , a lot of the magic nature decided changes occur in children as young increased 3 weight compared with at birth, children move from splendid , crow to walk then run, from babbling to talking , singing . Surprisingly, early child can understand language before they learn to speak from birth to month 6th, they could sense the personal name as well as an individual.

Let is talk about Orson 16 months in lunch time with mum: Orson seem very enjoy his lunch, he has sweet potato pasta plate. There was a lot of happening in that 5 minutes lunch time, while he is eating he asked mum for ‘Water ‘with pointing hand to water area and his mum repeated to him would you like a drink? He nodded. After he has drink seem he said ok with happy expression. He started wondering about around him like the lights or his mum’ foods and drop off his spoon and mum offered him some more food he nodded again. Orson is a happy child, he is interested in everything around especially the bulb on the ceiling and he wanted to talk to his mum about them.
He seems also interested in her food and happy to try some more.

In the video to develop the language, Orson always try to use his own language to express what he want and how he want to his mum, like he asked for drink or talk about the lights on the ceiling… he also use his body langue to express his thinking or when he want to tell something .All this is start of his own langue skills development. Orson often try to repeat everything his mum say, individual words or whole sentences.

In Scenario above we can see there is a lot of opportunity to Orson can develop his language. When Orson talk about the lights, mum can talk with Orson about colour of the light so he distinguish name the different colour. Orson mum should encourage him to repeat the main words in the sentence like Yes, No , drink , spoon , light, potato ... She can teach him about calling name
each object like cup , spoon , food and talk with him more about specific things he interest in. She also ask him open question so he can have more chance to talk long sentence. All of the above would be a great opportunity for children to get more new words and more learn about surroundings.
This discussion relates to the emergent literacy skills that is age appropriate for Seb to develop being:
• Convention of print – knowledge of standard print format eg: left to right
• Emergent reading – Pretending to read
• Knowledge of graphemes – letter name knowledge
• Phonological memory – short term memory for phonologically coded information
• Rapid naming of serial lists of letters
• Print motivation – interest in print shared reading.
• Learning to read behaviours represents language experiences, phonemic awareness, phonological awareness, and concepts about print, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension

It is essential to understand Seb’s language development, this enables the teacher to plan effective teaching and learning strategies. Seb’s language development reflects that he had age appropriate language development skills that reflects:

Attention, Listening and Understanding – Seb:
• Asked a lot of questions and he repeated the questions if it was not answered in his time frame.
• Attention was focussed on his story telling
• Was able to maintain two conversations – one about his shark and the other about the movie Nemo
• Demonstrates listening by answering mums question. Are they all inside his tummy? Yes they are piranhas
• Demonstrates understanding by clarifying details with about Finding Nemo was a cartoon, No never a cartoon, Finding Nemo is a cartoon, not real, It looks quite real .Who are the actors?

Vocabulary Seb:
• Had difficulty with pronouncing the word Piranha or unknown words but was able to use his knowledge to work out the word Piranha. Confuses the word whale with quail (similar sounds) and planktons are things they are called quail he then repeats the word quail over and over again, to gain clarity of word and understanding. He uses the sound whale or quail.
• Demonstrated that he knew mathematical vocabulary of size and that sharks ate small, tiny, fish
• Compared information to gain understanding. How big a grey shark like Bruce (in finding nemo) mum corrects him and goes even though he is grey he is actually a white shark.
• Concept knowledge of sharks – tail, lot of tiny teeth, eats fish , piranhas
Speech sounds, Grammar and Sentence building skills included Seb:
• had difficulties with pronunciation when he was unsure, he said “grey” instead of “great” but in context you could understand the word.
• said “me” tail instead of ”my” tail until his mum corrects
• at times his sentences were long and he did not pause or take breaks during the conversation
• asked questions to find out specific information including how and why. Seb asked: How big are baby sharks? What if it is a killer shark? Who are the actors? Is that shark real? How is this fish going to swim?
• was able to say a nine word sentence with good grammatical structure: These are all the fish that are swimming around.

Verbal storytelling and narrative
• Seb was engaged in verbal storytelling and creating a narrative
The narrative beginning – Seb introduced the character (I am making a giant fish, changes character to shark)
Middle – able to predict a problem - that the small fish would get stuck in his teeth. How’s that fish going to swim through there? It never escapes it is all blocked up by teeth.
Ending – There was no ending to his story as he had no more buttons to put on.
• The story included facts and features about sharks eg: teeth, tails. That sharks eat fish.
Conversations and Interactions
Co-operative play between Seb and his Mum will transfer to positive peer relations and peer-play contexts. The parent was extending Sebs knowledge about sharks. Mum answers “I don’t know we will have to look in a book or something”. Mum uses language to summarise what was in the construction.
Seb demonstrated that he was able to learn language in interactions with his mum: at first directing language to her and later internalising it to enable him to think clearer about the topic.

It is essential to discuss and connect Seb’s language, cognitive and motor skill development, as these areas of development impacts on his literacy and numeracy development.

Seb’s cognitive development related to Piaget theory (Preoperational stage) in relation to:
• increasing his knowledge through rapid development of representation by demonstrating and representing his thoughts with buttons/marbles as he was creating his picture.
• was demonstrating make believe play at an abstract level, as he wasn’t using sharks to tell the story, he was making his sharks out of buttons to represent his story. This represents advancement in mental representation and this is associated with developing social skills.
• able to demonstrate dual representation, as he was able to view a symbolic object as both an object in its own right (button) and a symbol or representation (shark)
• discovering that Finding Nemo was a cartoon character and there was a plausible explanation for this.
• his story became confused as he was connecting new information and thoughts together
• able to develop his thinking skills of remembering, understanding and applying.

Fine motor skills:
Seb appeared to have well developed fine motor skills as he picked up buttons/marbles of all different shapes and sizes. This indicates refined fine motor skills, which is important for the development of writing skills.
Numeracy development:
Seb was able to use his mathematical knowledge in his construction. This was demonstrated through the language of maths, size and shape. Also, his spatial development in terms of the construction of his picture was in proportion, this is connected to spatial awareness of letter development.

In summary, teachers connect children’s development to understanding theory, educational approaches and the curriculum. Bruner’s theory, Reggio Emilia Educational Philosophy and Vygotsky’s approach to emergent literacy is defined as children learning through discovery, first-hand experiences and exploratory play. The Reggio Emilia educational philosophy encourages educators to use visual literacy concepts. Educators who use this approach promote children's expression of ideas through graphic arts, using diverse media and symbol systems to make children's learning visual. The children's work is then talked about, reflected upon, and refined. This process develops children’s language development through developing new perspectives, new avenues of exploration and discovery, and deeper understanding.
The early years framework Outcome 4 and 5 and the Australian curriculum focuses on students being confident and involved learners, engaging in active, hands-on learning, problem solving, experimentation, investigation and creative thinking. This is in connection with students being effective communicators who are able to demonstrate confident, age appropriate verbal and non-verbal communication skills to express ideas, ask questions and respond to questions. Students learn that language is used for different formal and informal social interactions and is influenced by the purpose and audience. These areas of development develops student’s literacy development including the use of technologies.
Lauren Hill
Seb, Sharks & fishes (5.5 years)
Strategies and resources that are embedded to play based situations and promote emergent and critical literacy for Seb are:
• while he was making the story, take a photo on the iPad of the sequence of his story.
• place the photo taken onto the whiteboard and then the teacher scribes a sentence about the photo. With the end result in creating a talking book for Seb to take home.
• use the strategy of repair and repeat to correct individual words or sentences.
• record his thoughts or story and scaffold his thinking through Blooms Taxonomy higher order thinking questions to generate an ending to his story
• use the explain everything app to retell his story either using the reading strategy of read the pictures or a retell strategy using his memory What happened first, What happened next and What happened last (video).
• use the interactive white board to story map stories (video).
• mix up the storyline, and have Seb generate new ideas.
• provide opportunities for Seb to write and draw to extend his ideas further.
• use play based learning, rhyme, music, art, playdough and dramatic play with a variety of resources that represent items found on a collage table. There is an endless amount of ideas that can be presented to children or children can come up with their own ideas for resources (Norris, Lucas, Prudhoe, 2012)

(siern films, 2009)
(Sirens films, 2009)
(Berk, 2013)
(Berk, 2013) & (Macahado, 2013)
(Reggio, 2011) & (Berk, 2013)
(DEEWR, 2013) & (ACARA, 2013)
(DEEWR, 2013) & (Connor, 2011) & (Lancy, 1994)
(Fleer & Raban, 2007) & (Rhyner, P.M., Haebis E.K., West, K. 2013)
(Siren Films, 2009)
Lauren Hill
Seb, Sharks and Fishes (5.5 years)
References cont
ACARA. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.acara.edu.au/default.asp

Berk, L. E. (2013). Child development (9th ed.). Boston: Pearson.

Connor, J. (2011). The early years learning framework professional learning program: Becoming literate. EYLLFPLP e_Newsletter. [e-newsletter] Retrieved from http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/nqsplp/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/EYLFPLP_E-Newsletter_No18.pdf

Department of Education Employment and Workplace Relations for the Council of Australian Governments [DEEWR]. (2013). The early years learning framework in action: Educators' stories and models for practice. Retrieved from https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/05_2015/eylf_in_action_-_educators_stories_and_models_for_practice.pdf

Department of Education Employment and Workplace Relations for the Council of Australian Governments [DEEWR]. (n.d.). Early Years Learning Framework Practice Based Resources - Developmental Milestones. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.

Fleer, M., & Raban, B. (2007). Early childhood literacy and numeracy: Building good practice. Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, Retrieved from http://www.vcaa.vic.edu.au/documents/earlyyears/buildinggoodpractice.pdf

Grover J. Whitehurst, Longin. C.J. (2014) Child Development and Emergent Literacy. New York: Blackwell Publishing and Society for Research

Kearns, K. (2010). Frameworks for learning and development (2nd ed.). Sydney: Pearson.

Lancy, D. (Ed.). (1994). Children's emergent literacy from research to practice. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO

Machado, J.M. (2013) Growth systems affecting early language ability. Early childhood experiences in language arts :early literacy. 10th ed. Ch.4 pp 95-115. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Cengage Learning

Norris, K., Lucas, L & Prudhoe, C. (2012). Examining Critical Literacy. Preparing Preservice Teachers to Use Critical Literacy in the Early Childhood Classroom. New York. Multicultural Education: Caddo Gap Press

Rhyner, P.M., Haebis E.K., West, K. (2013) Understanding Frameworks for the Emergent Literacy Stage. New York: Guilford Publications

Reggio, E. (2011). Retrieved from https://www.reggioaustralia.org.au/

Siren films. (2009). Supporting Early literacy 0-5. Seb, sharks and fishes [video}. Retrieved from https://swinburne-kanopystreaming-com.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/node/76442&final=1
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