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The Tipping Point by Malcolm Gladwell
Transcript of The Tipping Point by Malcolm Gladwell
Lena Bourne The Tipping Point by Malcolm Gladwell A breakdown of The Tipping Point Chapter 2: The Law of the Few Epidemics and Their Proponents On April 18th, 1775, Paul Revere made a trip to inform everyone that the British were coming.
When the British started their march to Lexington on the 19th, America had already assembled an army. This is the American Revolution.
This is a word-of-mouth epidemic.
The success of a social epidemic is dependant on certain individuals with a rare set of social gifts.
William Dawes set out with the same information as Revere but didn’t have success spreading the word. Connectors Know a lot of people and have a wide circle of friends. Mavens Socially motivated people who like to accumulate
knowledge and pass it on to others. Chapter 1: The Three Rules of Epidemics
Mid-1990’s outbreak of syphilis in Baltimore.
Theories: Centers for Disease Control- cocaine brought people to poorer places
John Zenilman- decrease in medical center funds
John Potterat- demolished poorer housing projects in downtown Baltimore. The Law of the Few The Stickiness Factor Transformation of the epidemic agent itself can cause an epidemic to tip. Chapter 3: The Stickiness Factor Sesame Street, Blue's Clues, and the Educational Virus Connectors, Mavens, and Salesmen Bernie Goetz & New York Crime How The Little Things Can Make a Big Difference Chapter 4: The Power of Context (Part One) Bernie Goetz and the Rise and Fall of New York City Crime Chapter 5: The Power of Context (Part Two) The Magic Number One Hundred and Fifty Groups of People and How our Behaviour is Affected The Rule Of 150 Cocaine is the power of context;
Cut backs in medical center funds is the stickiness factor;
Demolition of housing projects is the law of the few. Chapter 6: Case Study Rumours, Sneakers, and the Power of Translation Chapter 7: Case Study Suicide, Smoking, and the Search for the Unsticky Cigarette In the book tipping point Malcolm Gladwell looks at trends and why certain ideas “tip” what does it take for an idea to tip? in chapter 6 i found that advertising is a huge reason to why some companies’ ideas tip and some don’t to reach the tipping point you have to know what the target audience is for your product and what they want to see
Air walk used to be a huge skateboarding franchise
- They expanded in the early 90’s
- They got big companies and bands to wear and sell there shoes
Airwalk tipped because its advertising was founded very explicitly on the principles of epidemic transitions A few people or small factors can make a huge difference in the grand scheme of things 80/20 principle- 20% of people do 80% of the work In the mid-1990's in East St. Louis, Missouri lived a man named Darnell "Boss Man" McGee. He was a skater and charmed young girls until he could get them high on crack and have sex with them.
He slept with at least 100 women and infected at least 30 with HIV. Social epidemics work the same way through people's social skills like how socialable, energetic, knowledgeable, or influential people are among their peers. Joan Ganz Cooney What Is the Power of Context and the Broken Windows Theory?
Can crime be tipped, or reversed?
Why was Bernie Goetz considered to be a hero?
Does the Power of Context affect my life? In the Baltimore case, when clinics were cut back, the disease became chronic and people had more time to infect others. Transformation of the epidemic agent itself can cause an epidemic to tip. 3-5 year olds Winston filter-tip cigarettes introduced in 1954.
"Winston tastes good like a cigarette should" Literacy The Power of Context "Television is like a strain of the common cold that can spread like lightning through a population, but only cause a few sniffles and be gone in a day." Gladwell, 90 "Sesame Street succeeded because it learned how to make television sticky." Gladwell, 91 ‘The essence of the Power of Context is that the same thing is true for certain kinds of environments – that in ways that we don’t necessarily appreciate, our inner states are the result of our outer circumstances’. Gladwell, 152. ‘The Power of Context is an environmental argument. It says that behaviour is a function of social context’ Gladwell, 150 'Introduce a little anarchy. Upset the established order and everything becomes chaos.... I'm an agent of chaos. Ohh, and you know the thing about chaos? It's fear'. FUN THINGS -In micronesia in the 1960's suicide was almost unheard of
-Much like teenage smoking in western society
-by the end of the 80's there was more suicides per capita in micronesia then the united states.
- In the U.S the suicide rate was 22 per 10,000 and in Micronesian 160 per 10,000 Live animation! Comedy! Singing and Dancing! Human beings are a lot more sensitive to their environment than they may seem. John Zenilman plugged in the address of everyone who visited a Baltimore clinic for syphilis. Most came from East and West ends and the connecting roadways. Changes in map between summer and winter. The 1964 stabbing of Kitty Genovese in New York City is an example of this. None of the 38 neighbors called the police. Indifference to one's neighbor is one reason, but the "bystander problem" is the big reason. People are more likely to help when alone than in a group. Stanly Milgram conducted an experiment that consisted of find 160 people who lived in Omaha, Nebraska, sent them a package, and had them write their name on the package before sending it to someone who they thought could get it closer to a stockbroker in Sharon, Massachusetts.
6 degrees of separation.
The packages generally were delivered the stockbroker by the same 3 people- these people are connectors. Paul Revere knew who’s door to knock on to spread the information. Mark Alpert could talk and talk about everything he knew anything about and never get bored and you would never get bored of listening to him. He’s the kind of guy that not only avidly reads consumer reports, but writes to them to correct the reports.
Helping just because they want to help makes people listen and helps start a social epidemic.
Paul Revere was also a maven because he went out of his way to deliver the information he had acquired about the British to the rest of
America. The nature of the messenger is a critical factor in epidemics. Every time the show was screened and scrutinized, it proved that the kids were learning something. Salesmen Sell you on an idea or trend when you are
not otherwise convinced The way Paul Revere could inspire a countryside to stand against the British is the way Cooney and her partners wished to inspire children to read. how could they keep the kids informed? ...the stickiness factor sounds pretty simple. We say what we want to say, or show what we want to show with emphasis and pizzazz and the message should stick, right? Unfortunately it’s not that simple. A study was done on a group of university students. They were told they were testing a new style of headphone’s sound quality. One group of students was told to keep their head still, another was to shake their head back and forth, and another was told to shake their head up and down.
They listened to a few songs and then a radio editorial discussing raising tuition prices at the university these students attended. They filled out a questionnaire which posed questions about the sound quality with the songs, and one question asking what they thought they cost of tuition should be.
Students who kept their heads still were unmoved. Students who shook their head back and forth strongly disagreed. Students who shook their heads up and down strongly agreed.
The act of moving their heads was enough to persuade them. FOR THE MESSAGE TO BE STICKY, THE RECEIVER OF THE MESSAGE HAS TO BE INVOLVED IN THE PROCESS. Salesmen are able to do this while they talk to you. They have “verbal dances” with you and subtly make you do simple things like nod your head.
This can make all the difference when selling something and salesmen are able to do this without a second thought. Lester Wunderman To keep full control of the account and his work, he suggested that Columbia run a sort of competition between the two of them. They divied up twenty-six television stations and agreed that each advertiser run their own version of the commercial at whatever times they chose, and whoever’s ad campaign did better would win the whole account. After a month the results were in, and it turned out that Wunderman had won by a landslide. While McCann’s markets were up 19.5 percent, Wunderman had succeeded with an impressive 80 percent. Start clip at 1:08 In Review Wunderman used this gold box as incentive to get people looking in to Columbia Records and looking at the ads that he created, both on paper and on tv. Mavens are the data banks- collect information
Connectors are the social glue- spread information
Salesmen are the persuaders- convince people of what they are hearing He succeeded in making Columbia Records “sticky” by engaging the customers in a secret. In 1978, every magazine that Columbia was invested in was profitable. The year before, none of them were. Even though McCann spent four times as much on their campaign and booked all the primetime slots for their commercials, while Wunderman advertised in the early hours of the morning and late hours of the night, his seemingly trivial gold box prevailed. Law of the Few, Stickiness Factor, and Power of Context suicide and smoking dont seem like two things that would be considered the same however in theese cases they are because in Micronesia they boys that followed Sima commited suicide to copy Sima and get attention from other people which is exactly what teenagers in western society are doing by smoking Howard Levanthal Levanthal conducted an experiment on the senior class at Yale University to see if he could convince them all to go get a tetanus shot. The students were divided into groups and given different pamphlets and presentations with varying levels of intensity. ...all centered around the dangers of tetanus, and the importance of taking advantage of the free inoculations at the health clinic on campus. Levanthal’s goal was to determine how the low-fear pamphlets (no images, and toned down language), and the high-fear pamphlets affected the student’s likelihood of getting the shot, and their attitudes towards tetanus. KNOWLEDGE ...the students given the high-fear pamphlets were more afraid of tetanus than the low-fear pamphlet readers. 3% The experiment was not nearly sticky enough. ...added only a map of the campus showing the health building circled, and a list of the times when the inoculations would be available. This small change tipped the vaccination rate to 28 percent, all because it engaged the students in the process of getting a vaccination. ...they strived for a long time to create a show that would not leave the children watching passively as the bright colours and exaggerated movements passed by on the screen. When they began to study children’s television watching habits, they realized that they don’t watch tv the way adults do. Ie., sit and stare and zone out. ...these quick bursts of attention were not random. They only watched what they could make sense of, as was discovered when one of the producers experimentally rearranged the scenes in one episode and showed it to a group of children. The creators and producers of the show then tested children in two groups: one in a room full of nice toys, and one in a room with only the tv. ...empty room watched 87 percent of the time...play room watched 47 percent of the time. ...the scores were the exact same between the two rooms. They discovered that children were far more sophisticated than they previously thought. From this test, and the rearranged scene experiment, the producers gathered that they should put out more scenes like the ones the kids would stop and watch, and cut out the ones they didn’t. ...they would screen it to a group of kids, and run a slide show of nature at the same time, right beside it. “The Distracter” "Are we boring you?" Every time the slides changed, the observing producers would mark down on the graph that the slide had changed, and how many kids had looked. At the end of the episode, they would have an exact play by play of basically every seven seconds of the show, and how well the segments tested. They used the results from these tests to determine what characters to cut, and what skits were never to be repeated. ... they figured out that segregating the muppets and the real people was destroying them... How to Tech Kids How to Read:
F-AT To teach the kids to read, they used visual-blending exercises and breakable words. This proved to be the stickiest of all educational tool used by Sesame Street. A team of researchers from Harvard was called in to do eye-movement tests on the children watching the show to determine whether or not they were actually watching the letters, and it was found that they were Success! They team had discovered a way to engage the children! When they eventually added the segments where they had the children repeat the words back to the characters on tv, the results were even better. Sesame Street was fulfilling their duty, and inspiring another television show all at once. Blue's Clues Blues Clues is a classic sticky television show, and not just because Steve was every little girl’s dream man living in a cartoon world full of mystery. The original thought for Blues Clues was that yes, kids can get distracted when watching tv, but they are also capable of sitting down and watching for a half an hour. The simplicity of Blue’s Clues made it possible for every child to understand what was going on at all times. The blue dog was named Blue, the shovel was named Shovel, the pail, Pail. The stickiness of the show revolved around the constant interaction between the protagonist Steve, and the audience. He would ask questions, deliberately pause for an age or two, and then positively reinforce the children for answering his questions either correctly, or just at all. Blues Clues continued to be sticky and soared over Sesame Street in the ratings. Eventually the producers wondered that while yes, the children were watching and engaging in the show, were they learning the lessons? After a few tests and experiments, they determined a surefire way to make sure the kids were absorbing all of the information. They would run the same episode five days a week, and only put out a new show on Mondays. The children learned the lesson in the first three days, caught everything in the fourth day, and were able to answer all of the questions 100 percent correctly on the fifth day before Steve was even done asking. This method made Blue’s Clues one of the stickiest shows ever made. ...the stickiness factor is a huge little thing. The simple act of reaching out to your audience and getting them involved in what you’re trying to sell, be it literacy or records, will make you successful. 'If we are interested in starting an epidemic – in reaching a Tipping Point – what are the most effective kinds of groups? Is there a simple rule of thumb that distinguishes a group with a real social authority from a group with little power at all? As it turns out, there is. It’s called the Rule of 150 and it is a fascinating example of the strange and unexpected ways in which context affects the course of social epidemics’ Gladwell, 175. ‘Most of human evolution took place before the advent of agriculture when men lived in small groups, on a face-to-face basis. As a result human biology has evolved as an adaptive mechanism to conditions that have largely ceased to exist man evolved to feel strongly about few people, short distances, and relatively brief intervals of time; and these are still the dimensions of life that are important to him’