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Digestive System

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Jeff Mason

on 17 December 2013

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Transcript of Digestive System

All of the liver's many functions can be impacted.
dark urine
increased toxin susceptibility
many more
If liver fails there is a serious risk of death
Main symptom is frequent heartburn: acid splashes in esophagus and can damage lining and be painful.

dental damage
bad breath

Digestive System Diseases and Disorders
Technologies of the Digestive System
The Digestive System
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Crohn's Disease
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
Peptic Ulcers
Celiac Disease
Sialolithiasis (Salivary Gland Stones)
Is when a person frquently has stomach acid rising into their esophagus

Caused by a weak cardiac sphincter that doesn't close properly
Aggravated by irritants in the stomach
Prevention & Treatment
Maintain healthy body weight
refrain from smoking
avoid spicy, acidic, or other irritating foods
Changing eating and living habits
Medications (antacids, prokinetics)
fundoplication surgery
Infection causing bloody diarrhea

Caused by either bacteria or amoebas
Contracted through ingesting infected human feces
Parasites pierce intestinal wall causing bleeding
Prevent colon from absorbing water - causes diarrhea
Diarrhea and vomiting lead to water loss and dehydration
Dehydration can cause delirium, coma, or death if serious.
Prevention & Treatment
Most common in poorer, warmer locations
Avoid food from unhygienic locations
Thoroughly cook all food
Boil all water from unsealed containers
Keep body and hands sanitary, especially before eating
Antibiotic medication
Diarrhea slowing medications
Replacing lost fluids constantly
An inflamation of the gastrointestinal tract accompanied by intestinal ulcers.
Immune system is unable to differentiate beneficial and harmful substances
Fills intestinal walls with white blood cells that attacks nutrients
Usually genetic link
Inflamation and ulcers due to increased white blood cells
Pain in infected area
If ulcers are bleeding - blood in stool
Decreased nutrient absorption can cause depleted energy, and reduced efficiency in other bodily tasks
Prevention & Treatment
No definite prevention but can be helped by:

Lighter more frequent meals
Avoiding irritating substances
Avoiding excess fibre
healthy weight and exercise
Currently no cure. Treatments include:

Antiinflamatory or immune suppressant medications
Surgery to remove infected section
Cell culturing and transplant
Removal of large intestine and insertion of
A common digestive disorder caused by irregular intestinal responses.

Intestines either over- or under-react to various stimulants
IBS is not pose a serious health risk. The main symptoms are:
an uncomfortable abdominal pain.
Either diarrhea or constipation

As well as:
irregular bowel movements
Prevention & Treatment
Avoiding stressful situations/lifestyles
Eating more fibre
Drinking sufficient water
The same lifestyle choices that help prevent IBS also help lessen the symptoms
Medications to reduce diarrhea or laxatives can help with other symptoms
Pain as acid destroys tissue
Mild - no serious problems
Heavy - visible in stool, bloodloss leads to weakness, tiredness, or death
Very dangerous if ulcer bores a hole through the entire stomach or intestinal wall
Prevention & Treatment
Not taking unnecessary medications that are known to cause ulcers
Reducing alcohol intake
Not smoking
acid suppressing medication while healing
Stopping taking medications if possible
Healthy liver tissue is replaced with scar tissue.

Caused by long-term, constant damage:
Excessive alcohol intake
hepatitis B or C (viral liver diseases)
Prevention & Treatment
Controlling alcohol intake
Not participating in questionable sex
Avoiding insanitary medical equipment
Liver will attempt to regenerate on it's own.
Otherwise a transplant is needed
An inflamation of the gums caused by bacteria.
Bacteria act with sugars to create plaque
Plaque can harden to tartar
Bacteria burrow beneath gums and wear at bone - periodontis
Despite bacteria burrowing in the mouth, it is usually relatively painless.
Swollen and bleeding gums
loose or lost teeth

If very serious the jaw can be damaged but it usually doesn't reach this stage.
Prevention & Treatment
Thoroughly brushing teeth and gums twice daily
Antibacterial mouthwashes
Dentist removes
plaque and tartar
Peridontal deep cleaning
Peridontal surgery
Teeth implants/dentures
may require bone grafts
Is the inability or difficulty in swallowing.

Being unable to swallow can cause choking, coughing and pain.

May be the result of malformations, poor muscle response, or physical blockages like tumors.

Contributing factors are alcohol,
smoking, and certain medications.
Is an intolerance of gluten resulting in an abnormal immune response that causes intestinal villi to be destroyed.

The body cannot absorb nutrients efficiently enough and the person may experience malnutrition and vomiting, fatigue, infertility, seizures, etc.

Mainly people with celiac disease just avoid gluten as there is no cure. Enzyme and drug teatments being researched
Occurs when calcium builds up in salivary glands to form a stone, usually when a person is dehydrated or lacking certain nutrients.
Stones can block duct, back up saliva, cause swelling, pain, infection.

Can be surgically removed if necessary.
by: Jeff, Amanda, Stephanie
& Anna

stop around 2 mins
Clinical Dietitian
Health and Wellness
Tooth Bleaching
Five Factors of a Healthy life style
There are five key factors that contribute to a healthy lifestyle. These five factors influence the health of our digestive system. These factors should play a role in everyones day-to- day routine.
A product designed to whiten and restore the natural colour of teeth.

They are:
thin, transparent plastic strips
coated with a peroxide gel
are worn for 30 minutes twice a day for a period of two weeks.

Risks include:
temporary increase in tooth sensitivity
mild irritation of soft tissues in the mouth (gums)
chemical burns the odd time if the gel touches unprotected tissues.
1. Diet

A technology that emits sounds waves through a probe to create images of organs and structures in the abdominal area
How it works
mineral oil jelly is applied to skin to eliminate air between probe and skin
probe could be inserted inside the patient
waves travel through fluid and soft tissues
waves reflect back when they hit something denser
then reflect back to probe
relays patterns to machine while others travel until they hit something
machine measures distance from probe to tissue or organ using the speed of sound in tissue and the time of the each echo's return.
CT/ CAT Scan
A form of x-ray that sends many beams of radiation from different angles instead of just one like an ordinary x-ray does.
A test that uses powerful magnnets and radio waves to create pictures inside the abdominal area.
MRI Scan
How it works
The patient lays on a table that slides into a large tunnel-shaped scanner
Radio frequency is emited and knocks hydrogen atoms of each cell out of line
An electrical signal is emitted when they move back into place
Scanner detects that signal through its strong magnets
A computer uses those signals to create detailed images of soft tissues
It does not use radiation
A camara attached to a long flexible tube that can be inserted into a patients via mouth or anus to view the GI tract.

Can also be used to for less invasive surgery, so the surgeon can view the area through the camera, reducing the need for large incisions.
An imaging system used to diagnose internal disorders without having to make any incisions.
HALO ablation technology
Eliminates diseased tissue known as Barrett’s esophagus with heat through a catheter and does not do damage to healthy tissue.
How it works:
Patient is unconscious
An endoscope is inserted into the mouth.
On the tip of the catheter there is a balloon that is covered with a band of radiofrequency electrodes.
It is placed over the treatment area and is inflated.
It gives a short burst of controlled radiofrequency energy for less than a second
Insulin Pump
To have food move through the digestive system smothly you need fiber
To get all the nutrients and vitamins people should follow the Canadian Food Guide, emphases on: lean proteins,
fresh or frozen vegetables,
high fiber,
whole grain,
complex carbohydrates,
and low fat dairy products,
alone with controlling portion size.
2. Exersice
To have a healthy lifestyle exercising is a must.

Exercise helps keep body weight under control

Lifting weights, Pilates and yoga help the body become more flexible and strengthen which can help boost metabolism.

Adults aged 18-64 should accumulate 150 minutes of intense or moderate exercises every week.

Yoga helps the digestive system: tone the digestive muscles, helps reduce heart burn, helps to eliminate gas that causes stomach pain
restore, maintain and improve the health of a patient or entire communities
can give direct nursing care to a patient which includes working with a physician to perform medical examinations
give treatment that is provided by the physician and sometimes give medication
often assess patient’s condition which is very important in a patient’s recovery
preform check- ups, figure out and treat dental issues, and help to improve the overall appearance of their patients’ teeth
many dentists work 7 to 8 hours a day, 5 days a week
tend to take about 10 to 20 vacation days per year
must attend dental school
must complete 1 to 4 years of university level pre-dental courses, most of these applicants have a bachelor’s degree
must pass the Dental Admission Test
3. Quality Sleep
If people have sleep problems they are more likely to have poor health and gain weight.
Areas of stomach or intestine where the mucus lining has been removed and stomach acid has come in contact.

Helicobacter pylori bacteria destroy lining
Certain medications can also damage mucus
The bacteria is quite common and a number of people infected will not experience any difficulties
People need 7 to 8 hours of sleep every night.
A medical device used for the administration of insulin in the treatment of diabetes.
Diagnoses problems with:

thyroid gland
lymph nodes
bladder and breast
widening of blood vessels (possible aneurysm
The body moves through a doughnut shaped machine; the shape is so patients do not feel claustrophobic.
Data is transmitted to a computer
Machine builds a cross-sectional picture of the body part being examined
displays image on a screen.
What it Diagnoses:
Many types of cancer occuring in the liver, lungs and pancreas
Gives clear images of a tumors size, location and how much it has affected nearby tissue.
Organ injuries
Tissue tears
How it works
How it works
Shoots relatively high-energy radiation through the body
Hard structures like bones and metal absorb the radiation
The plate behind the patient reflects the rest back to create an image
4. Stress-Relieving Activities
Another key factor in good health is dealing with your stress in a healthy way:physical activity, practicing deep-breathing or meditation can be helpful (yoga). Spending time with friends, listening to music, laughing or taking a warm bath.

Stress can cause affects to the digestive system by people getting heart burn, indigestion, etc.

various cancers
inflammatory bowel diseases
How it works
5. Work
A camera with a light is inserted into a patient
It is snaked along the digestive tract in either direction in search of irregularities
Patients may be given a local anesthetic before receiving the endoscope, but the procedure is relatively painless.
focusses on what foods a person can eat in order to stay healthy or even help to regain their health
help people get the right nutrition and assess their nutritional needs and help to improve their health
can also create specific diet plans to help to improve certain disease or illnesses.
Activity, including work is really important. Most people that become lazy often start to become unhealthy and feel depressed.
type of physician that fixes diseases, injuries and deformities by performing different surgeries
must first complete 4 years of undergraduate schooling, 4 years of medical school, and 2 to 8 years of internship and residency, all depending on the speciality that you have selected
salary for general surgeons is between 291,000 and 520,000 dollars
number of hours they work usually exceeds 60 hours and surgeon can often be called at different hours of the night to come in and evaluate a patient
What it Diagnoses:
handle any chronic or acute conditions of the digestive tract
must be able to perform blood tests, colonoscopies, and endoscopies
must obtain 4 years undergraduate, 4 years medical school, and 3 years of residency, plus three years of fellowship training in Gastroenterology
people who study this practice are owners or partners of their own practice, but there are some who are employed by a hospital or group
make around $496,139 annually
Endoscopy gives a non-invasive look into the body and a firsthand view at possible irregularities in the body. This offers a more accurate diagnoses and efficiant treatments.
Organ Donation
• Every year too many people die while waiting for an organ donation.
• Over 1,600 Canadians are added to organ wait lists yearly.
• A 90% majority of Canadians support organ and tissue donation but less than 25% have made plans to donate.
• One donor can benefit more than 75 people and save up to 8 lives.

A transplant is a type of surgery where an organ or tissue is removed from one person (the donor) and given to another (the recipient) to replace the recipient’s damaged organ or tissue.

Digestive Organs that can be Transplanted
Liver - A large organ that secretes bile and is active in the formation of certain blood proteins and in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Liver transplants may be used to treat various conditions which cause liver failure, or liver cancer.

Pancreas - Long, irregularly shaped gland which lies behind the stomach and aids in the digestion of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Pancreatic transplants are for those with insulin-dependent Type I diabetes.

Intestines - The portion of the digestive tract extending from the stomach to the anus, consisting of upper and lower segments. Patients qualify for intestine transplants if they have been diagnosed with life-threatening intestinal diseases such as total parenteral nutrition or short-gut syndrome.
Fat, muscles, tumors and other masses are structures that absorb X-rays at different levels. It's because of these levels that the image on the film lets you see different (distinct) structures inside the body. The image is formed from the different amounts of exposure.
What it Diagnoses
In total, 4,849 organ transplants have been done since London health science centre's first transplant in 1973:
• kidney = 2,247 (includes deceased and living donors)
• liver = 1,806 (includes deceased and living donors)
• heart = 616
• kidney-pancreas = 57
• liver-bowel = 12
• bowel = 11
• lung = 48
• heart-lung = 47
• multi-visceral = 4
• pancreas = 1

How it Works
The pump releases small amounts of rapid-acting insulin to keep blood glucose levels steady between meals and during sleep. This is called the basal rate

Then, at meal time, the amount of insulin needed can then be pumped and delivere to match the amount of carbohydrates consumed just as a fully functional pancreas would

Approximate cost: $175.00
Approximate cost: $15 - $20
Approximate cost: $300- $1500
Low availability
Approximate cost: $7000
It can be used to clarify CT scans and X-rays
Cancer and tumors
Blood flow in the abdomen
Blood vessels in the abdomen
The cause of abdominal pain or swelling
The cause of abnormal blood test results, such as liver or kidney problems
Lymph nodes in the abdomen
Distinguishes tumors from normal tissues
What it Diagnoses
Approximate cost: $800- $2000
Approximate cost: $400 depending on what is being x-rayed
Approximate cost: $2500
The End
Full transcript