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Transcript of British colonization
BRISTISH COLONIZATION IN MALAYA
Malaysia was once a colonized land
It is also classified as one of the Commonwealth countries- that is a former British colony
Malaysia was subjugated by other powers for approximately 446 years ( from 1511 until 1957)
The Portuguese, Dutch, British, Japanese & even Siamese had colonized Malaya before
1. Portuguese : 1511-1641(130 years)
2. Dutch : 1641-1824(183 years)
3. British : 1824-1942(118 years)
1945-1957 (130 years)
4. Siamese : 1821-1909(88 years)
5. Japanese : 1942-1945 (3.5 years)
When did British come to Malaysia?
They first came in the late 1700s.
In the late 18th century, the British East India Company traded with, and partly controlled India.
At that time, they began looking for a base in Malaya in 1786, the British under Francis Light occupied Penang and founded Georgetown.
In 1800, they took over Province Wellesly.
Why did British come to Malaya?
The British were looking towards South east Asia for new resources.
The growth of British trade in China ship increased their company’s desire for bases in the region near it.
* They also came to Malaya because of the advantage of having raw materials like :
- gambier (resin)
- oil palm
- especially rubber
Factors of colonizing in Malaya
Vast natural resources
Sources of wealth much sought after
For foreigners to extend their political influence
Political & Economic Factors of British Intervention
There was no unity among the inhabitants and this gave the British the chance and excuse to intervene by installing an adviser/Resident.
The presence of important economic resources such as tin ore and agricultural products (commercial agriculture) in these states.
There was strong competition among the western powers for colonies to meet the economic needs of their country thus increasing the need for intervention.
The Chronology of British Colonization
1786 Penang island founded by Francis Light
1819 Singapore was founded by Stamford Raffles
1824 The Dutch handed over Malacca to the British as a result of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty
1826 Penang Island, Malacca & Singapore were combined into one administrative unit known as
the Straits Settlements
1841 James Brooke took over Sarawak
1874 British intervention in Perak, through the Pangkor Agreement
British also intervention in Sungai Ujung
1878 The Brunei Sultan handed over Sabah to British
1888 British intervention in Pahang
1896 Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang were unite into one administrative unit
known as the Federated Malay States
1909 Under the Bangkok Agreement, Siam handed over Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan and Terengganu
to the British ( these are Unfederated Malay States)
1914 Johor accepted a British advisor
1945 The British Military Administration ( BMA ) was establish
1946 The Malayan Union established in Peninsular Malay
1957 The Malaya achieved independence
- They gave the people a proper level of welfare
Port facilities were improved
Malaya became the world’s largest exporter of rubber.
Government Malay and Christian schools were established.
Constructed a transportation infrastructure.
- Railways and road networks connected the tin fields to the coast
The British also improved public health facilities.
-The British managed to reduce the incidence of some tropical diseases
Federated Malay States (FMS)
Consolidated under one central ruling system through The Federation Agreement in 1896.
For the purpose of efficiency and uniformity in administration
To check on resident’s power
4. Negeri Sembilan
Unfederated Malay States
Under the Bangkok Treaty of 1909, Siam (as Thailand was once known) transferred whatever rights or power over the northern Malay states to the United Kingdom.
The British later imposed treaties similar to the Federated Malay States towards these northern states.
-The abandon of economic resources such as tin ore
and agriculture products found in these states
-The strong competition among western powers to
colonize as much as colonies to meet the quest of
industrial revolution in the West
-The British wanted to secure their trade business in
Effects of British Colonization
Divided and controlled
Depletion of natural resources
Provided functional system for independence
Thank You =D
- British rule brought profound changes, transforming the states socially and economically.
- After some initial resistance in remote areas (especially in Borneo), British administration eventually achieved peace and security in Malaysia
- The British devoted much effort to constructing a transportation infrastructure.
- Railways and road networks connected the tin fields to the coast.
What Strategies did the British Apply to maintain power ?
- One thing British did good was that the British believed that the Malay needed to be protected from economic and cultural change, and that traditional class divisions should be maintained.