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Motivation for Reading and Low Socioeconomic Status

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j w

on 8 September 2015

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Transcript of Motivation for Reading and Low Socioeconomic Status

By the numbers:
Percent of families of low income (families who receive public aid, supported in foster homes with public funds and/or qualifies for free and reduced lunch)

District - 13.4%
School - 17%
State - 49.9%

Factors Effecting Low SES
Two main areas effect the reading achievement of adolescents of low SES:

1. Parental and Family Factors
a. Parental Expectations
b. Parental Practices
c. Achievement Related Behaviors

2. Environmental Factors
What are the factors effecting adolescents of low socioeconomic status (SES) reading achievement?

How does the development of reading attitude and self efficacy effect motivation to read?

What can be done to develop positive reading attitude and self efficacy to improve motivation in the classroom?

What can be done to overcome the factors that effect adolescents of low SES to improve reading motivation?
Motivation for Reading and Socioeconomic Status
Jenifer Williamson
March 13, 2014

Big Questions:

What, Why, How

2. Socioeconomic Status +
Factors =
Reading Achievement

3. Reading
& Development

4. S
o What?
Implications for home and school
American Psychological Association (APA) defines socioeconomic status (SES) as the measurement of education, income and occupation combined together and often is referred to as the social class of an individual (American Psychological Association, 2014).
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reports that compared to children of higher socioeconomic status, children of low income families are significantly further behind academically, socially and physically (National Assessment of Educational Progress, 2004). These children also score at or below grade level in reading twice as often as children of higher SES (NAEP, 2004).

- Research was early readers

- Motivation research often did not use SES as a subgroup

- No specific research linking SES and motivation
Parental and Family Factors
Parental expectations and beliefs, parenting practices and use of achievement fostering behaviors are the biggest indicators of literacy achievement and development in families of low SES.
(Halle et al., 1997; Mandara et al., 2009)
Parental Expectations
Parents of children of low SES have the same expectations and beliefs about their children's success in school as middle & high SES parents. Especially in their views of finishing high school and going on to college.
(Halle et al., 1997; Mandara et al., 2009)
Low SES parents have lower occupational expectations for their children.
Lower occupational aspirations the result of
lack of education and ability to provide assistance on school work, less involvement with educational opportunities at home and school, and as a reflection of their environment.
Why do expectations matter....
Parent expectations influence children's expectations and achievement. Higher expectations = higher achievement.

If the expectations and attitudes of the parents and children of low SES were positive the overall future achievement was greater regardless of the child’s actual achievement or family resources.

Halle et al., 1997; Mandara et al., 2009
Parental Practices
- Rule setting/arguments over rules
- Autonomous decision making
- School oriented home

Arguments about rules = negative achievement
- Higher in low SES
- Clear expectations
- Positive reinforcements

Autonomous decisions = positive achievement
- Lower in low SES

School oriented = positive achievement
- extra curricular
- emphasis on school work
- reading for 'fun'
- idea rich environment
- Lower in low SES

Low and high SES families differed in all areas of parental
practices, with high SES families engaging in more supportive,
positive and achievement related practices than low SES
Low and high SES families differed in all areas of parental practices, with high SES families engaging in more supportive, positive and achievement related practices than low SES families.
(Halle et al., 1997; Mandara et al., 2009).
Why are achievement fostering behaviors important?
Low SES families often do not have appropriate education or resources to provide necessary help with school work.

Higher SES families have more positive attitudes and personal successes with school.

Higher SES families are more likely to be involved in with their child's school and teacher and participate in after school activities.
Achievement Related Behaviors
Help with school work * School involvement
Providing of reading materials * Educational conversation
Modeling of reading behaviors * Encouraging and sharing reading
Encouraging of self-directed behaviors
Halle et al., 1997; Mandara et al., 2009
The quality of parenting and fostering of achievement related behaviors in low SES families is the greatest predictor of overall reading achievement in adolescents.

The higher the family SES the greater likelihood that parents will exhibit achievement fostering behaviors towards their children.
Higher occurrence of behaviors = higher achievement
Environmental Factors
Access to print
Allocation of resources
Quality of schools and teachers
Quality and quantity of resources in schools

Environmental Factors
Middle SES communities have greater access to print resources, greater availability of public spaces which support reading activities and public schools of higher quality.

Public schools in low SES areas as compared with middle or high SES areas: - tend to be of lower quality
- fewer resources - fewer qualified teachers - low teacher morale - more discipline problems

Low SES public school libraries: - less books and computers per individual student than middle income areas
(Halle et al., 1997; Mandara et al., 2009; Neuman, 2001; Neuman & Cleano, 2006)
Literacy Access
The overall combination of the quantity and selection of age appropriate materials that parents can purchase for children, environmental print, access and availability of public reading spaces and materials. Literacy access is a major factor in literacy development in younger children, but also in later reading achievement (Neuman, 2001).
Reading Attitude and Positive
Self Efficacy
Motivation in every adolescent ....
Is complex
Is different
Has numerous motivational characteristics
Responds differently to different types of motivation
Is based on attitudes, self efficacy, intrinsic values and personal interest
Children who grow up in areas of little access to literacy are less likely to engage in reading activities and are less motivated to read than their higher SES counterparts.

Over time this lack of resources contributes to increases in the reading achievement gap between low and high SES students .
Parents can

Participate in more achievement related behaviors

Children more likely to achieve at a higher level

higher parental expectations for academic success

Greater achievement

(Halle et al., 1997; Neuman, 2001)
Combination of:
Parental expectations
Parental achievement related behaviors

Have a significant impact on:
Overall achievement
Likelihood to continue in further education

(Baker & Wigfield, 1999; Ivey & Broaddus, 2001; Ivey, 1999; McKenna et al., 2012; McKenna et al., 1995)
Answering the Why?
To promote positive reading attitude and increase reading achievement for adolescents of low SES even in higher SES schools .....

Need a
combination of both
motivation and support at school and also at home. Home support may require education or that resources are provided. Classrooms and homes need to provide positive experiences, set high goals, and have clear expectations.
Motivation is not one size fits all!
Development of Reading Attitude
Influenced by:
Social and Personal Factors
-personal and imposed purposes - beliefs and expectations
- interests - environment
- previous experiences

Reading Attitude
Reading attitude is the inclination to respond
either positively or negatively to aspects of

Reading attitude is acquired
can change

Two parts: global reading attitude and attitude towards a certain type of reading

(McKenna et al., 2012; McKenna et al., 1995)
(McKenna et al., 2012; McKenna et al., 1995; Unrau & Schlackman, 2006)
Reading attitude develops in both personal and academic areas and in different across genres. Attitude in all these areas are not necessarily the same!
Shaping a positive reading attitude
Positive environment
Chances for success and positive experiences
Choice based on personal interest
Considering both academic and personal reading
High expectations
Knowing the reader!
Individualized plan

Development of a Positive Reading Attitude
If the adolescent’s environment (home or school)....

Promotes positive views about reading
Provides opportunities to experience reading success
Holds high reading expectations
Motivates and encourages reading

.....then a more positive attitude will be constructed
Reading Attitude and SES
Connections and What Can Be Done
School/Classroom Changes
Parent/teacher connections - What do you want parents to do?
Providing resources of interest (personal and genre)
Provide access to computers/technology
Self reflections and evaluations to promote success and clear purposes
Set high expectations with clear purposes
Provide many opportunities for success
Consider many facets of motivation

Community/School Changes
Parent education
Early literacy programs

Works Cited
Halle, T.G., Kurtz-Costes, B., & Mahoney, J.L. (1997). Family influences on school achievement in low-income,
african american children. Journal of Educational Psychology. 89(3), 527-537.
Ivey, G. (1999). A multicase study in the middle school: Complexities among young adolescent readers.
Reading Research Quarterly, 34(2), 172-192.
Ivey, G., Broaddus, K. (2001). “Just plain reading:” A survey of what makes students want to read in middle
school classrooms. Reading Research Quarterly, 36(4), 350-377.
Lepper, M.R., Iyengar, S., & Corpus, J.H. (2005). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations in the classroom:
Age differences and academic correlates. Journal of Education Psychology. 97(2), 184-196.
Mandara, J., Varner, F., Greene, N., & Richman, S. (2009). Intergenerational family predictors of the black-white
achievement gap. Journal of Education Psychology. 101(4), 867-878.
McKenna, M. C., Kear, D. J., & Ellsworth, R. A. (1995). Children’s attitudes towards reading: A national survey.
Reading Research Quarterly, 30(4), 934-956.
McKenna, M. C., Conradi, K., Lawrence, C., Jang, B. G., & Meyer, J. P. (2012). Reading attitudes of middle school students:
Results of a U.S. survey. Reading Research Quarterly, 47(3), 283-306.
National Assessment of Educational Progress. (2004). The condition of education 2004 in brief.
(NCES Publication 2004-076). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Neuman, S. B. (2001). Access to print in low-income and middle-income communities: An ecological study of four
neighborhoods. Reading Research Quarterly, 36(1), 8-26.
Neuman, S. B., & Cleano, D. (2006). The Knowledge gap: Implications of leveling the playing field for low-income
and middle-income children. Reading Research Quarterly, 41(2), 176-201.
Unrau, N., Schlackman, J. (2006). Motivation and its relationship with reading achievement in an urban
middle school. The Journal of Educational Research, 100(2), 81-101.
Wigfield, A., Asher, S.R. (1984). Social and motivational influences on reading. In P.D. Pearson, R. Barr,
M.L. Kamil, P. Mosenthal (Eds.), Handbook of reading research. (pp 423-452). White Plains, NY: Longman.

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