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Chemical Compounds in Cells: Organic and Inorganic

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Alicia Bartels

on 8 September 2015

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Transcript of Chemical Compounds in Cells: Organic and Inorganic

Elements and Compounds
Elements
: any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances.
Proteins
Proteins
are large organic molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and, in some cases, sulfur.
Proteins Con't
Enzymes
are a type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing.
Carbohydrates
A
carbohydrate
is an energy-rich organic compound made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Lipids
Fat, oil, and waxes are all
lipids
.
Organic and
Inorganic Compounds
Many compounds in living things contain the element
carbon
, usually combined with other elements.
Chemical Compounds in Cells: Organic and Inorganic
Atom
: the smallest unit of an element.
Elements are found in living things include carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur.
Compound
: two or more elements combine chemically
Example: water (H2O)
Molecule
: smallest unit of most compounds.
Most compounds that contain carbon are called
organic compounds
.
Most important groups of organic compounds found in living things are: Proteins
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Nucleic Acid
Found in foods, too. Why?
Compounds that don't contain carbon are called
inorganic compounds
, except for carbon dioxide.
Examples: Water and Sodium Chloride
What are some foods high in protein?
Cells use proteins for the formation of cell membranes and many organelles. Also used by cells to build body structures such as muscles.
Protein molecules are made up of smaller molecules called
amino acids.
20 common amino acids are combined many different ways to form thousands of proteins.
Example: 20 amino acids like 26 letters.
when letters put together in
different ways, form
different words.
Without enzymes, necessary chemical reactions would be too slow or not exist.
Example: Saliva speeds up digestion of food by breaking down starches into sugars in your mouth.
Examples: Sugars and Starches
Sugars
are produced during food-making in plants. Sugar molecules can combine, forming larger molecules called
starches
. Plant cells store excess energy in molecules of starch.
Carbohydrates are important components of some cell parts such as the cellulose in cells walls and in cell membranes.
Like carbohydrates, lipids are energy-rich, organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Contain more energy than carbohydrates.
Where energy is stored.
What is an example of this?
Nucleic Acids
Nucleic Acids
are very large organic molecules made of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus.
Contain instructions that cells need to carry out all the functions of life.
Two kinds:
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
genetic material that carries information about an organism that is passed from parent to offspring.
directs all cell's functions
most DNA in the cell found in the chromatin in the nucleus
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
important role in creating proteins
found in the cytoplasm and the nucleus
Water and Living Things
Water makes up 2/3 of your body.
Water is vital for cells functions. For example, chemical reactions wouldn't exist without being dissolved in water.
Also helps cells keep their size, shape, and temperature.
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