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Transcript of WW2
There were many disagreements and disputes about the Treaty of Versailles which was meant to regain peace, not create more conflict.
Germany was the nation that brought most conflicts and led to another war.
They were angered by the decisions that were made without their consent.
When Hitler became the leader of the Nazi party, he became the voice and defendent of Germany.
Hitler's goal was to gain power over all of Europe and re-establish Germany's pride.
He believed that war would lead to an extinction of Jews in order for the "pure" German race to expand.
WWII Digital Project
Made by: Laritza, Kelly, Beth, and Hayley
Causes of War
Since the beginning of WWII certian groups and individuals were persecuted and tortured
The evil mind behind these horrendous events was Adolf Hitler
Millions of people were killed and tortured
Families and lives were broken and shattered
Hitler and his followers made people think they were not worthy of life
These people searching for the impossible, scarred the world and millions for decades to come
Although World War I began the warfare inventions and technology, World War II was the greater continuation of those inventions and have continued on to our century.
European Technology and Strategies.
Technology which advanced or was invented during WWI:
Strategics and war techniques:
The key differences between WWI and WWII:
Some of the major advances made during
WWII was weaponry, technology and medical
technology we're made and advanced into some of
the technology we have today.
The Small Arms became more popular because of the newer stamping, riveting,and welding techniques.
Long range missiles:
This was a creation made by Germany because they were consistent with the idea of long range missiles. These missiles were launched off by the thousands by Germans.
The Buzz Bomb:
This was considered an
'Automatic aircraft'. These bombers were created
in Huntsville, Alabama. When the bombers were
used to bomb London in 1944-45, and they killed
over thousands of civilians
Weaponry Pt. 2
The Atom Bomb:
This was considered the most notorious weapon during this time period.The bomb was created as "The U.S. Army's top secret Manhattan Project" . There were also two design's of the atom bomb and one was called 'The little boy' and the other was called 'The Fat Man'
The Electronic Computer:
They were actually developed by the British (For breaking the Nazi's codes.) And by the Americans (For calculating ballistics and battlefield equations.) Which was made in July 1942 and was located mainly in control centers.
The Radar System:
This was created in a Radiation laboratory at the MIT (Dept. of psychics). This device allows people to 'see' remotely at very long distances. The Radar made the idea of 'surprise attack' obsolete d enlarged the 'arena of modern warfare'. Another use for the radar that is used to this date was tracking storms. Which was so they would be able to plan important operations.
Although Penicillin wasn't truly invented during WWII, this was the first time that it was mass produced. Penicillin was mainly used to treat soldiers that had gonorrhea.
This was actually perfected during WWII and was used for soldiers in the war.
This medication allowed people to fly in high altitudes for a long amount of time. (Such as the people whom flew the bomber planes.)
This capability was actually studied during WWII.
Crash Helmets & Seat belts:
This emerged by the creation of Aviation Medicine.
Some of the war strategies still continue on to our century. All the way from Air Warfare to Amphibious Warfare. And all to most of these techniques took hours to learn and master.
Strategic Air Warfare is used by the bombers and Tactical Warfare is used by planes.
This was one of the main weapons that were used for tactical strikes. These bombers were used to:
Strike enemy amour
Destroy supplies and Communication Centers
To Harass enemy troops
The Ghost Army:
For starters, about 1,100 men were involved in this act and this was mainly created for tactical deception. The ghost army's main task was to deceive and confuse the enemy on the entity of US divisions, their resources and their movements. The ghost army would mainly use inflatable tanks, sounds tracks, fake radio transmissions, and further camouflage. This deception task was very successful when the Americans attacked Germany.
Techniques used Pt. 2:
Submarines adopted a form of attack known as the "wolf pack". This attack involved large groups of submarines to assault shipping convoy's.
Aircraft Carriers (Sea Warfare):
Aircraft carriers could be used as the main warship of a fleet. (A large group under command by one commander in an organized fashion.) Carriers were viewed as support for battleships by the air protection. Aircraft Carriers role changed and it became the most dominant warship throughout the Pacific.
With the introduction of the "amphibious landing crafts" , troops could now haul up a ship onto the beach(or be beached) easily and in large amounts.
Techniques used Pt. 3:
The new tanks that were designed during WWII, were designed for independent offensive action as the spearheads of the Blitzkrieg attacks.
Although the Japanese intended on establishing a defensive perimeter, their main offensive strategic was simply the surprise attack. But since the radar system was created and further technology, the Japanese failed at most of their attacks. The single time that the suprise attack worked during WW2 was the attack on Pearl Harbor.
Strategics Pt. 2
The German Strategic:
The German leader, Adolf Hitler believed that he needed war to make a true statement. But, one of Germany's most talked about strategic is the Blitzkrieg strategic. This strategic began on September of 1939. This strategic is basically using all of your military forces at one time. And it was a very successful strategic. With this, Germany was able to also win against Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. For winning against Poland, for Germany and the Blitzkreig strategic, and Poland's military being highly unorganized, Germany was able to easily win againt Poland by destroying the train tunnels and the military location so there would be no chance of reinforcements.
Although WWI was the major start of the second world war, WWII had key differences from the first war. For example, the leaders we're power hungry and would do anything to keep it. Second, this was the time of major technology breakthrough's.Such as, the Radar system and the electronic computer. Lastly, the strategies that were created during WWI, such as the Surprise attack, was no longer a great success and other strategics were so much better. Such as Blitzkrieg. So all in all, WWII, was so much greater than WWI.
The Home Front
The home front of World War II is increasingly recognized by historians as a catalyst for broader social developments, such as gender and racial relations. The degree of civilian mobilization is unparalleled, the european people all helped support the war in a multatude of different ways, such as victory gardens and participating in scrap metal drives. War exhibited itself throughout daily life by means of media, work, food, and other ordinary components.
Media of the Home Front
Sports, movies, and music all served as a means to a needed diversion. In the U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt passed the Green Light Letter allowing proffesional baseball to continue, saying, "I honestly feel that it would be best for the country to keep baseball going" (Bazer, Culbertson). Created in 1941 Captain America was made to keep up the people's morale and patriotsm. Depicting a super soldier more than capable of defeating Hitler and the Red Skull, the first cover of Captain America featured the heroic Captain socking Adolf Hitler in the jaw. What was once considered ordane and superficial had been transformed by the war and were now considered uplifting and worthwhile.
During World War II, widespread male enlistment left gaping holes in the industrial labor force. The Nazi war effort did not initially plan for mothers to be mobolized for war efforts, and instead use foriegn labor, POWs, and slaves. But elsewhere around the globe Women began to work as welders, electricians, and riveters in defense plants. Between 1940 and 1945, the female percentage of workforce increased from 27 percent to nearly 37 percent, and by 1945 nearly one out of every four married women worked outside the home. World War II was the epitome of girl power as Rosie the Riveter was created to illustrate the effect that women left behind after the six years of long hard work.
Everyday Life on the Home Front
For European civilians, World War II was an ever-present part of their lives. Gas masks, air raid sirens, and blackouts became daily life. Schools also practiced bombing drills and local newspapers published drawings of enemy fighter planes so the public could learn to recognize them in case of attack. War was no longer a thing of conflict but a lifestyle, and the European people were trying their hardest to thrive in it. Every window had "black out curtains" to stop lights from towns guiding enemy planes to drop bombs. Cellers and basements offered underground protection from bombs, but there was the risk of heavy machinery falling on top of the shelter if the site was hit. The basements of public buildings such as schools, hospitals, and the basements of businesses were used as shelters.
With the onset of World War II, numerous challenges confronted the European people. The government found it necessary to ration food, gas, and even clothing during that time. Citizens were asked to conserve on everything. With not a single person was unaffected by the war, rationing meant sacrifices for all. Before the war, Britain had imported 55 million tons of food per year; by October 1939 this figure had dropped to 12 million. In response to rationing the creation of black markets soon became a booming industry. Selling items such as petrol coupons, eggs, nylon stockings and cigarettes. One of the most famous items traded was SPAM, brought to Europe by US soldiers.
Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles was developed to settle disputes and disagreements to regain peace.
acknowledged full responsibility for starting the war.
was stripped of it's colonies.
was forced to demilitarize the Rhineland
was restricted an army of 100,000 troops
was forbidden from developing an Air Force
couldn't posses tanks or heavy artillery.
had a restricted size for it's navy.
was not allowed to have submarines.
was required to pay reparations.
was angered by the decisions that were made without their consent and thought they were unfair.
Appeasement involved the compmise of unsatisfying powers in the 1930s
The idea of appeasement was developed when they thought that the terms imposed upon Germany were harsh and unfair.
During the 1920s, the British withdrew from the treaty and left it all up to France, who was not capable to enforce it alone.
The appeasement emboldened Hitler;s violations of the Treaty of Versailles and led to World War II.
When Germany failed to pay for reparations, France sent troops into the Ruhr to force Germany to complete the agreement.
Adolf Hitler destroyed the demilitarization arrangement of the Treaty of Versailles and scrapped the Locarno Pacts of 1925, but Britain didn't do anything about it.
Germany signed a naval agreement with London in 1935 in direct violation of the Treaty of Versailles.
It permitted Germany to build up to 35 percent of the Royal Navy and gave them parity in submarines.
Rise of Hitler
Hitler developed his hatred toward Jews in Vienna
He developed a strong dislike of internationalism , capitaism, and socialism
Developed strong nationalism and expressed pride in being a German descendent
After World War I, he became fully involved in politics
In the summer of 1919, he joined the German Worker's Party, later known as the National Socialist Party or Nazi Party
His public speaking skills helped him become one of the leaders
He became the voice of angry Germans after Germany lost the war and were committed to follow the Treaty of Versailles
Hitler blamed the defeat on the "November criminals", which included communists, jews, and the Weimar Republic
He became a national political figure after his arrest when he tried to take over Bavaria
Beginning of the War
Beginning of the War
Hitler targeted many people, based on their political ideas, race, ethnicity, religion, sexuality, and any other characteristics that were seen as unpleasent.
Though as many know there was one group that Hitler had eyes for : The Jews
Unfortunatly; gypsies, slavs, the disabled, homosexuals, Communists, and intellectuals were not safe from the wrath of Hitler and his party
Hitler had reasons to kill and torture the people he thought as a threat to him or his master plan
Hitler's plan was to have a one and only race rule the world : The Aryans
Hitler thought that the Aryan race was the only real race worthy of life and rulers of all
The idea was that every other individual was undersiable and had no future in his new Nazi state
The Nazis or followeres of Hitler were influenced and driven by anti-Semitism
Also older prejudice ideas created a path to division and hate between groups
Hitler also justified the killing of millions of Jews because, it was apparently the "Solution to the Jewish Question in Europe"
Hitler knew in order to get rid of all the people he didn't want roaming the streets he would have to get an enormous population to side with him
That's why he impleneted new and horrible ideas between neighbors and friends.
Since 1933 onwards Germans had already started seeing their friends and neighbors differently because of their race, cabability, religion, lifestyle, sexuality, political view, etc.
Also many of discriminatory
policies were put into place
to exclude and target Jews
and other "threats"
Events Leading To Genocide
There were many events that happened, and shaped the minds of many
Though the most impactful were the following three: The 1935 Nuremberg Laws, The 1938 Kristallnacht, and when Germany occupies Poland in 1939
These events shaped the idea that all the threats both internal and external shall be determinated.
That there will not be peace until the goal is full reached.
The Nazi party shows that they will not back down until ever Jew and "threat" is exterminated
Events Leading to Genocide Cont.
1935 - Nuremberg Laws:
These laws that were put into place ripped German citizenship away from all Jews
Leaving them excluded from any type of right they once had
They also had to wear a yellow star of David after the age of 6 years
They were also forbidden to to use public transportation or telephones
November 1938 - Kristallnacht (The Night Of Broken Glass)
This was a night where Jewish property, shops, homes, etc were destroyed
This attack was widely infleunced by the propaganda of Minister Josef Goebbels
91 Jews were killed that night and more then 20,000 Jews were deported to camps and ghettos
This later lead to the deportation of male Jews, though they were only held for small periods of time
1939 - Germany Occupies Poland
This is when the deportations and deaths increase as the Nazi's now have more control
Thousands of Polish Jews were put in Ghettos
This is when everything turns upside down
Education of the Home Front
With the outbreak of war in 1939, the education system underwent emergency “reforms.” In Germany children were involved in the war, they were taken at a young age and selected for the Hitler Youth. An organization established by Adolf Hitler in 1933, its purpose was to train German kids according to the ideas and principles of the Nazi Party. In 1933, Nazi German authorities strove to synchronize professional and cultural organizations with Nazi ideology and policy. the Nazi German Student Association's Main Office for Press and Propaganda proclaimed a nationwide “Action against the Un-German Spirit,” to climax in a literary purge or “cleansing” by fire. Similar to the depiction in
The Book Thief
, they burned the books.
Hitler reorganized Germany and made Germany a one-party state.
Nazi Germany became a totalitarian state that Hitler ruled on his own.
He sent protestors into concentration camps.
Most German's agreed with Hitler's actions.
He developed actions against Jews, who were unable to pursue certain careers and were expelled from public life.
Hitler mentioned that the war would lead to an extinction of Jews.
Treatment For the "Undersiable"
With the thousands of people being deported and arrested, the Nazi's had to make room to locate them somewhere
During 1933 to 1945 the Nazi's built a total of 20,000 camps
These camps imprisoned millions of victims, who were gaurded 24/7 by SS gaurds
These were the purposes for the usage of these camps: Forced Labor Camps, Concentration Camps, Killing Centers, Prisoner of War Camps, and Transit Camps
Many people were told that these camps were built to imprison and eliminate "enemies of the state"
There were also ghettos scattered all over German occupied areas
The Germans built at least 1,000 ghettos in total, throughout the war
Other main killing method that the Nazi's used were moblie killing sqauds
Hitler sent troops into the Rhineland to remilitarize it in March 1936.
France had no support from Britain, Therefore didn't confront Hitler with force because they were fearful.
Hitler got away with his actions which gave him more confidence and strengthened him.
World War I set the stage for a second war.
World War II broke out decades after World War II.
Hitler and his Nazi party rearmed Germany.
In March of 1938, Germany began it's march of conquest to invade Austria.
In the fall of 1938, he secured Sedentenland of Czechoslovakia and took over the rest of Czechoslovakia in 1939.
Additionally, in 1939, Hitler signed a nonagression pact with the Soviet Union to secure his land.
On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland.
Britain and France were encouraged to go to war with Germany after the invasion on Poland.
Britain and France rejected a peace agreement with Germany, who acted upon it by invading the west.
World War II had begun.
The war lasted 6 years.
Mllions of Jews were sent into concentration camps, which were part of Hitler's "Final Solution", also known as "The Holocaust".
Hitler believed that war would be the only way to gain enough living space for the "pure" German race to expand, also known as the "Aryan".
World War II grew out of unresolved isuues from World War I.
Media of the Home Front Cont.
In the early concentration camps the most common prisoners were German Communists, Socialists, Social Democrats, Gypsies, Jehovah's witnesses, homosexuals, and people that showed deviant behavior
These camps were called concentration camps because the prisoners were located in heavily concentrated areas
Many of these camps were located in Germany
After the annexation of Austria in March 1938, the Germans arrested Jews and sent them to Dachau, Buchenwald, and Sachsenhausen concentration camps
Much like modern society media reflects the happenings of the world around us. Music, movies, and books all illustrated the struggles and difficulties of World War II through high and lows. Songs such as “Rockabye My Baby, There Ain’t Gonna Be No War” and “Let Them Keep It Over There” were created before the war even came to pass and depicted the citizens uncertainty of another war so soon after the Civil War. But much like music during the first World War it depicted life on the battlefield, such as “Ma, I Miss Your Apple Pie” and “He’s 1-A in the Army and He’s A-1 in My Heart”. While movies were tuned to be more of a distraction, they weren't the centerpiece for World War II life. Some followed reports from Germany and Europe by "Long Distance Listening (DXing)" over their shortwave radio receivers, but most information came from print and radio journalists
Additional info. of the European home front.
Forced Labor Camps
The first forced labor camps were opened after the invasion of Poland in Septmeber 1939
These types of camps spread quickly throughout Europe
These camps were gaurded by SS gaurds under the command of Hitler
In some camps there were Nazi doctors that preformed dangerous medical experiments on the prisoners
Thousands of these
prisoners died from
and exposure to the
The Nazi's built most of these killing centers in Poland, the counrty with the largest population of Jews
These centers were designed for efficient mass murders of prisoners
The first killing center built was Chelmno in Poland, it was opened in December of 1941, where they were gassed in mobile gas vans
During 1942, the Nazi's opened Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, and the famous Auschwitz II-Birkenau
The Nazi's wanted to increase the efficiency of the murders, and make the experience less personal
So they built gas chambers, where thousands of prisoners would be fit in a room, that the Nazi's would fill with poison gas, killing people within minutes
The Birkenau Killing center had four gas chambers, where up to 6,000 Jews were gassed each day, in total killing around 1.1 million people
Also in the Majdanek gas chambers the walls were tinted blue by the gas Zykoln B
When the prisoners arrived they were either killed instantly or worked to death
More the 3 million people were killed in killing centers, Jews alone
Ghettos/ Transit Camps
Ghettos were small, compacted, horrible areas where millions were forced to live in
The first known ghetto was located in a town in German occupied Czechoslovakia, (Terzin)
It was later named Thereslenstadt
In total more than 33, 500 people will die in ghettos
The causes: Starvation, Disease, or being shot on the spot
Most of the time Jews were directly sent to transit camps after being deported
The most famous transit camps were Westerbork in the Netherlands and Drancy in France
Transit camps were usually the last stop before being deported to killing centers
Prisoner of War Camps (POW)
The Nazi's increased the number of POWs after they invaded the Soviet Union - June 1941
In fact most POW camps were builton existing camps, for example Auschwitz
Thousands of Soviet prisoners were shot and gassed at these camps as well
In the autumn of 1941 the Majdanek camp in Lublin was established as a prisoner of war camp, though it was later converted into a concentration camp in 1943
In 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union and Poland, bringing along with them killing squads
These killing/death squads were called Einsatzgruppen
These were made up of SS security forces and even local volunteers, to kill masses of defenseless civilians across eastern Europe and the Baltic States
They killed intellectuals, Communists, gypsies, Catholics, Jehovah's witnesses, homosexuals, and above all Jews
In fact before being killed the victims were forced to dig there own graves
In one year the numbers of the murders climbed from 4,000 to 40,000 men
Also in one year over 440,000
Jews had been killed
On September 29 and 30 1941,
33,771 Jews were killed at the
ravine of Babi Yar near Kiev
Thousands of innocent
individauls were shot without