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Copy of Educational

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anGel Domingo Alvaro

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Transcript of Copy of Educational

Meaning Of Educational Technology
Introduction
The organization of this course Educational Technology is based on the broad meaning of Educational Technology. That’s why we start this course with a comprehensive understanding of the term educational technology.
Meaning of educational technology
- The word technology comes from the Greek word techne which means craft of art. Based on the etymology of the word “technology” the term education technology therefore refers to the art of craft of responding to our educational needs.
- Technology is not just a machine. It is a planned systematic method of working to achieve planned outcomes- a process not a product.
- Technology is the applied side of scientific development (Dale, 1969)
- Technology also refers to any valid and reliable process or procedure that is derived from basic research using the scientific method “(http://en.wikipedia.org.)
- Technology refers to “all ways people use their inventions and discoveries to satisfy their needs and desire”. (the world Book encyclopedia vol.19)
- Educational Technology refers to how people use their inventions needs and desires i , e. learning.
- Education Technology “consists of the designs and environment that engage learners…. And reliable Technique or method for engaging learning such as Cognitive Learning strategies and critical thinking skills”
- Educational Technology is a theory about how problems in human learning are identified and solved. (David H. Jonassen, Kyle L. Peck, Brent G. Wilson 1999).
- Educational Technology is a profession like teaching. It is made up of organized effort to implement the theory the theory, intellectual technique, and practical application of educational technology (David H. Jonassen)
- There are other terms that are associated with Educational Technology. We come across terms like technology in education, instructional technology and technology integration in education books, education media. Are they synonymous with education technology?
- Instructional Technology is a part of educational Technology. Instructional Technology refers to those aspects of educational technology that are concerned with instructions. Instructional Technology is symmetric way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the total process of learning and teaching in terms of specific objective (Lucido and Rarabo. 1997)
- Technology integration means using “Learning technology to introduce, reinforce, supplement and extend skills” (Williams, ed.2000). Like instructional Technology, it is a part of educational technology. Technology integration is part and parcel of instructional technology, which in turn is a part of educational technology.
- Educational Media are channels or avenues or instruments of communication. Examples are books, magazines, newspaper, radio, television and internet. These media also serve educational purposes.
- Educational Technology is a broad term however it is given a narrow meaning, to mean just hardware, it refers to the use of all human inventions and discoveries to satisfy our educational need and desire I,e. learning.

The organization of this course Educational Technology is based on the broad meaning of Educational Technology. That’s why we start this course with a comprehensive understanding of the term educational technology.
Meaning of educational technology
- The word technology comes from the Greek word techne which means craft of art. Based on the etymology of the word “technology” the term education technology therefore refers to the art of craft of responding to our educational needs.
- Technology is not just a machine. It is a planned systematic method of working to achieve planned outcomes- a process not a product.
- Technology is the applied side of scientific development (Dale, 1969)
- Technology also refers to any valid and reliable process or procedure that is derived from basic research using the scientific method “(http://en.wikipedia.org.)
- Technology refers to “all ways people use their inventions and discoveries to satisfy their needs and desire”. (the world Book encyclopedia vol.19)
- Educational Technology refers to how people use their inventions needs and desires i , e. learning.
- Education Technology “consists of the designs and environment that engage learners…. And reliable Technique or method for engaging learning such as Cognitive Learning strategies and critical thinking skills”
- Educational Technology is a theory about how problems in human learning are identified and solved. (David H. Jonassen, Kyle L. Peck, Brent G. Wilson 1999).
- Educational Technology is a profession like teaching. It is made up of organized effort to implement the theory the theory, intellectual technique, and practical application of educational technology (David H. Jonassen)
- There are other terms that are associated with Educational Technology. We come across terms like technology in education, instructional technology and technology integration in education books, education media. Are they synonymous with education technology?
- Instructional Technology is a part of educational Technology. Instructional Technology refers to those aspects of educational technology that are concerned with instructions. Instructional Technology is symmetric way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the total process of learning and teaching in terms of specific objective (Lucido and Rarabo. 1997)
- Technology integration means using “Learning technology to introduce, reinforce, supplement and extend skills” (Williams, ed.2000). Like instructional Technology, it is a part of educational technology. Technology integration is part and parcel of instructional technology, which in turn is a part of educational technology.
- Educational Media are channels or avenues or instruments of communication. Examples are books, magazines, newspaper, radio, television and internet. These media also serve educational purposes.
- Educational Technology is a broad term however it is given a narrow meaning, to mean just hardware, it refers to the use of all human inventions and discoveries to satisfy our educational need and desire I,e. learnin
Lesson 1
Lesson 2
Technology:
Boon Or Bane
Introduction
After understanding what educational technology is all about, it may be good to reflect on whether this thing called technology is a boon or a bane to education, a blessing or a curse to education.
ABSTRACTION
Technology is a blessing for man. With technology there is a lot that we can do which we could not do then. With cell phones, webcam you will be closer to someone miles and miles away so far yet so close.
Just think of how you’re teaching and learning have become more novel, stimulating, exciting, and fresh and engaging with the use of multimedia in the classroom.
However, when not used properly, technology becomes a detriment to learning and development. It can destroy relationships. Think of the husband who is glued to TV unmindful of his wife seeking his attention. This my eventually avoids marital relationship.

In educational, technology is bane when
- The learner is made to accept as Gospel truth information they get from the internet.
- The learner surfs the internet for pornography.
- The learner has an uncritical mind on images floating on televisions and computers that represent modernity and progress.
- The TV makes the leaner a mere speciation not an active participant in the drama of life.
- The leaner gets glued to his computer for computer assisted instruction unmindful of the world so fails to develop the ability to relate others.
- We make use of the internet to do character assassination of people whom we hardly like.
- Because of our cell phone, we spend most of our time in the classroom or in our workplace texting.
- We use overuse and abuse to or film viewing as a strategy to kill time.
SUMMING UP
- Technology contributes much to the improvement of the teaching-learning process and to the humanization of life. It is indeed a blessing. But when not used properly, it becomes a detriment to instruction and human progress and development.
- Technology is made for man and not net man for technology.
- Technology is made for the teacher and not teacher for technology. This means that technology is meant to serve man in all aspects life including instructions. The integration of technology in the instructional process must be geared towards:
- Interactive and meaningful learning.
- The development of creative and critical thinking.
- The development and nurturing of teamwork.
- Efficient and effective teaching.

Lesson 3
Roles of Educational Technology in Learning
Introduction
After understanding the comprehensive meaning of educational technology, let us now dwell on the roles of educational technology and whether it is a boon and bane in the teaching learning process.
Analysis
Technology can play a traditional role, i.e as delivers vehicles for instructional lessons or in a constructivist way as partners in the learning process. In traditional way, the leaner learns from the technology and the technology serves as a teacher. Technology serves as a medium in representing what the leaner knows and what he/she is learning.


Abstraction
From the traditional point of view, technology serves as source and presenter of knowledge. It is assumed that “knowledge is embedded in the technology and the technology presents that knowledge to the student (David H. Jonassen, et al, 1999). Technology like computers is seen as a productivity tool. The popularity of word processing, databases, spreadsheets, graphic programs and desktop publishing in the 1980’s points to this productive role of educational technology.

From a constructivist perspective, the following, are role of Technology in learning (Jonassen,et at 1999)
- Technology as tools to support, knowledge construction:
• For representing learners ideas, understanding and beliefs.
• For producing organized, multimedia knowledge bases by learners.
- Technology as information vehicles for exploring knowledge to support learning-by-constructing:
• For accessing needed information.
• For comparing perspective, beliefs and world views.
- Technology as context to support learning by doing:
• For representing and simulating meaningful real-world, problems, situations and contexts.
• For representing beliefs, controllable problem space for students thinking.
- Technology as social medium to support learning by conversing:
• For collaborating with other.
• For discussing, arguing and building consensus among members of a community
• For supporting discourse among knowledge building communities.
- Technology as intellectual partners (Jonassen 1994) to support learning by reflecting:
• For helping learners to articulate and represent what they know.
• For reflecting on what they have learners and how they came to know it.
• For supporting learners internal negotiations and meaning making.
• For construction personal representation of meaning.
• For supporting mindful thinking.



Lesson 4
SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO TEACHING


SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO TEACHING
As depicted in the chart’ the focus of systematic instructional planning is the learner. Instructions begins with the definition of instructional objectives, that consider the learner’s needs’ interests and readiness. On the basis of these objectives, the teacher select the appropriate teaching methods to be used and, in turn, based on the teaching method selected, chooses the appropriate learning experiences and appropriate materials, equipment and facilities.
The use of learning materials, equipment and facilities necessitates assigning the appropriate personnel to assist the teacher and defining the role of any personnel involved in the preparation, setting and returning of these learning resources. (In some school settings, there is a custodian or librarians who take care the learning resources and / or technicians who operate the equipment while teacher facilitates) The effective use of learning resources is dependent on the expertise of the teacher, the motivation level or responsiveness, and the involvement of the learners in the learning process. With the instructional objectives in mind, the teachers implement planned instruction with the use of the selected teaching method, learning activities, and learning materials with the help of other personnel whose role has been defined by the teacher.
Will the teacher use the direct instruction or indirect instruction? Will he/she teach using the deductive or inductive method? It depends on his/her instructional objectives, nature of the subject matter, readiness of the students and the facilitating skills of the teacher himself/herself.
Example of learning activities that the teacher can choose from, depending on his/her instructional objectives, nature of the lesson content, readiness of the students are reading, writing, interviewing, reporting or doing presentation, discussing, thinking, reflecting, dramatizing, visualizing, creating judging and evaluating.
Some examples of learning resources for instructional use are textbooks, workbooks, programmed materials, computer, television programs, video clips, flat pictures, slides and transparencies, maps, charts, cartoons, posters, models, mocks ups, flannel board materials, chalkboard, real objects and the like.
After instructions, teacher evaluates the outcome of instruction. From the evaluation results, teachers come to know if the instructional objectives was attained. If the instructional objectives was attained, teacher proceeds to the next lesson going through the same cycle one more. If instructional objectives was not attained, then teacher diagnoses what was not learned and finds out why it was not learned in order to introduced a remedial measure for improved student performance and attainment of instructional objectives. This way no learners will be left behind.
The system approach views the entire educational program as a system of closely interrelated parts. It is an orchestrated learning pattern with all parts harmoniously integrated to the whole: the school, the teachers, the students, the objectives, the media, the materials, and assessment tools and procedure. Such an approach integrates the older, more familiar methods and tools of instruction will the new ones such as the computer.
The system’s approach to instruction is simple in the theory but far from the being simplistic in practice. It is not just a matter of teacher formulating his/her lesson objectives and then directly teaching the student. There are a lot of elements or factors that the teacher has to take into consideration learner’s needs, entry knowledge and skills, interest, home background, prior experiences, developmental stage, nature and the like. The teacher, in the choice of the most appropriate teaching method, learning activities, and learning resources, his/her lesson objective. His/her choice of assessment method for learning is likewise dependent on the lesson objectives. The action the teacher takes after getting assessment result is based on the assessment results, acceptability, or remedial measure to parents and students, like a tutorial class after class hours. Will an extra hour after class devoted to tutorial be acceptable to the students and parents concerned?
The phases or elements are connected to one another. If one element or one phase of the instructional process fails, the outcome which is learning is adversely affected. The attainment of the elements and all actors involved in the process.
The purpose of a system instructional design is “to insure orderly relationships and interaction of human, technical, and environmental resources to fulfil the goals which have been established for instruction”(BROWN, 1969)

Lesson 5
THE CONE OF EXPERIENCES
“ The Cone is a visual analogy, and like all analogies, it does not bear an exact and detailed relationship to the complex elements it represents”
- EDGAR DALE

Abstraction
These are visual and auditory devices which may be used by an individual or a group. Still picture lack the soundand a motion of a sound film. The radio broadcast of an The Cone of Experience Is the visual model, a pictorial device that presents bands of experience arranged according to degree of abstraction and not degree of difficulty. The further you go from the bottom of the cone, the more abstract the experience becomes.


DALE (1969) ASSERTS THAT :

The pattern of the arrangement of the bands of experience is not difficulty but degree of abstraction – the amount of immediate sensory participation that is involved. A still photograph of a tree is not more difficult to understand than the dramatization of Hamlet. It is simply in itself a less concrete teaching material than the dramatization (DALE, 1969)

Dale further explains “ the individual bands of the Cone of Experience stands for experiences that are fluid, extensive, and continually interact ”(DALE, 1969). It should not be taken literally in its simplified form. The different kinds of sensory aid often overlap and sometimes blend into one another. Motion pictures can be silent or they can combine sight and sound. Students may merely view a demonstration or they may view it then participate on it.
Does the cone of experience mean that all teaching and learning must move systematically from base to pinnacle, from direct purposeful experiences to verbal symbols? Dale (1969) categorically says:

…. No. We continually shuttle back and forth among various kinds of experiences. Every day each of us acquire new concrete experiences – through walking on the street, gardening, dramatics, and endless other means. Such learning by doing, such pleasurable return to the concrete is natural throughout our lives –and at every age level. On the other hand, both the older child and the young pupil make abstractions every day and may need help in doing this well.

In our teaching, then, we do not always begin with direct experience at the base of the cone. Rather, we begin with the kind experience that is most appropriate to the needs and abilities of particular learner in a particular learning situation. Then, of course, we vary this experience with many other types of learning activities (DALE, 1969)
One kind of sensory experience is not necessarily more educationally useful than another. Sensory experiences are mixed and interrelated. When students listen to you as you give your lecture, they do not just have an auditory experience. They also have visual experience in the sense thjat they are “reading” your facial expression and bodily gestures.
We face some risk when we overemphasize the amount of direct experience to learn a concept. Too much reliance in concrete experience may actually obstruct the process of meaningful generalization. The best will be striking a balance between concrete and abstract, direct participation and symbolic expression for the learning that will continue throughout life.
It is true that the older person is, the more abstract his concepts are likely to be. This can be attributed to physical maturation, more vivid experiences and sometimes greater motivation for learning. But an older student does not live purely in his world of abstract ideas just as a child does not live only in the world of sensory experience. Both old and young shuttle in a world of the concrete and the abstract.
What are these bands of experience in Dale’s Cone of Experience? It is best to look back at the Cone itself. But let us expound on each of them starting with the most direct.
Direct purposeful experience.
These are first hand experiences which serve as the foundation of our learning. We build up our reservoir of meaningful information and ideas through seeing, hearing, touching, tasting and smelling. In the context of the teaching-learning process, it is the learning by doing. If I want my students to learn how to focus a compound light microscope, I will let him focus one, of course, after I showed him how.
CONTRIVED EXPERIENCES
In here, we make use of a representative models or mock ups of reality for practical reasons and so that we can make the real life accessible to the students’ perceptions and understanding. For instance a mock up of Apollo, the capsule for exploration of the moon, enabled the North American Aviation Co. to study the problem of lunar flight.
Remember how you were taught to tell the time? Your teacher may have used a mock up, a clock, whose hands you could turn to set the time you were instructed to set. Simulations such as playing “sari-sari” store to teach subtracting centavos from pesos is an example of contrived experience. Conducting election of the class and school officers by simulating by how local and national are conducted is one more example of contrived experience.

DRAMATIZED EXPERIENCE
By dramatization, we can participate in a reconstructed experience, even though the original events is far removed from us in time. We relieved the outbreak of the Philippines revolution by acting out the role of characters in the drama.

DEMONSTRATION
It is the visualized explanation of an important fact, idea or process by the use of photographs, drawings, films, displays, or guided motions. It is showing how things are done. A teacher in Physical Education shows the class how to dance tango.

STUDY TRIPS
There are excursions, educational trips and visits conducted to observe an event that is unavailable in the classroom.

EXHIBITS
These are displays to seen by spectators. They may consist of working models arranged meaningfully or photographs with models, charts and poster. Sometimes exhibits are “for your eyes only”. There are some exhibits, however, that include sensory experiences were spectators are allowed to touch or manipulate models display.
TELEVISION AND MOTION PICTURES
Television and motion pictures can reconstruct the reality of the past so effectively that we are made to feel we are there. The unique value of the messages communicated by films and television lies in their feeling of realism, their emphasis on the person and personality, their organized presentation, and their ability to select, dramatize, highlight, and clarify.

STILL PICTURES, RECORDINGS, RADIOactual events may often be likened to a televised broadcast minus its visual dimension.

VISUAL SYMBOL
These are no longer realistic reproduction of physical things for these are highly abstract representation. Example are charts, graphs, maps, and diagrams.

VERBAL SYMBOL
They are not like the objects or ideas for which they stand. They usually do not contain visual clues to their meaning. Written words fall under this category. It may word for a concrete object (book), an idea (freedom of speech), a scientific principle (the principle of balance), a formula (e=mc*)


WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATION OF THE CONEOF EXPERINCE IN THE TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS
1. We do not use only one medium of communication in isolation. Rather we use many instructional materials to help the learner conceptualize his/her experience.
2. We avoid teaching directly at the symbolic level of thought without adequate foundation of the concrete. Learner’s concept will lack deep roots in direct experience. Dale cautions us when he said: “These rootless experience will not have the generative power to produce additional concepts and will not enable the learner to deal with the new situations that he faces” ( DALE, 1969)
3. When teaching, we don’t get -stuct on the concrete. Let us strive to bring our students to the symbolic or abstract level their higher order thinking skills.



Lesson 6
USING AND EVALUATING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS
“You should have good idea, both in the over-all purposes of education and in every day work of your teaching. If you do not know where you are going, you cannot properly choose a way to get there”
- UNKOWN

ABSTRACTION
¿Cómo surgieron los mitos?
Para tratar de comprender como surgieron los mitos y las leyendas tenemos que hacer un esfuerzo, trasladarnos en el túnel del tiempo hacia el pasado y tratar de pensar como pensaban los hombres primitivos.
Estos hombres observaban los fenómenos de la naturaleza sin entenderlos. No tenían el apoyo de la ciencia, que por entonces, no existía.
Con los mitos y leyendas los hombres explicaban las estaciones del año. Las lluvias, inundaciones y sequías. Los rayos, maremotos y terremotos. La belleza, el amor, la guerra, la muerte y muchos otros misterios que no comprendían. Todos esos enigmas y misterios fueron atribuidos a los dioses en forma de mitos y leyendas.
Estos mitos se exaltaron hasta convertirse en una forma de religión.
Por esa razón a los dioses mitológicos, intrincadamente emparentados como una gran familia, los hombres les construían templos maravillosos, les erigían imponentes estatuas y hasta les ofrecían sacrificios para ganarse su amistad o para obtener algún favor.

Lesson 7
DIRECT,PURPOSEFUL
EXPERIENCES AND BEYOND
What is referred to as direct,purposeful experiences?
These are our concrete and first hand experiences that make up the foundation of our learning. These are the rich experiences that our senses bring from which we construct the ideas, the concepts, the generalizations that give meaning and order to our lives. They are the sensory experiences.
In contrast, indirect experiences are experiences for other people that we observe, read, and hear about. They are not our own self- experiences but still the experiences in the sense that we see, read and hear about them. They are not our first hand but rather vicarious or indirect experiences.

Why are these directexperiences described to be purposeful?
Purposeful because the experiences are not purely mechanical. They are not a matter of going through the motion. These are not ‘’more sensory excitation ‘’. They are experiences that are internalized in the sense that these experiences involve the asking of questions that have significance in the life of the person undergoing in the direct experience.

If direct, purposeful experiences or first hand sensory experiences make us learn concept effectively, what does this imply to the teaching-learning process?
First, let us give our students opportunities to learn by doing. Let us immerse our students in the world of experience. Second, let us make use of real things as instructional materials for as long as we can. Third, let us help the students develop the five senses to the full to heighten their sensitivity in the world. Fourth, let us guide our students so that they can draw meaning from their first hand experiences and elevate their level of thinking. As mentioned in lesson 5, let us not be tempted to get stuck to the concrete and fail to bring up our students’ to the higher level of thinking process.

Lesson 8
TEACHING WITH CONTRIVED EXPERIENCES

What are contrieved experiences?
These are edited copies of reality and are used as substitutes for real things when it is not practical or not possible to bring or do the real thing in the classroom. These are contrived experiences are designed to stimulate to real life situation.

MODELS
-is a “reproduction of a real thing in a small scale, or large scale, or exact size—but made of synthetic materials. It is a substitute for a real thing which may or may not be operational”

MOCK UP
-is an arrangement of a real device or associated devices, displayed in such a way that representation of reaity is created. The mock up may simplified in order to emphasize certain features. It maybe an economical reproduction of a complicated or costly device, to be observed for learning purposes. Usually, it is prepared substitute for a real thing; sometime it is a giant enlargement.

SPECIMEN AND OBJECTS
-a SPECIMEN is any individual or item considered typical of a group or class or whole. OBJECTS may include artifacts displayed in a museum or objects displayed in exhibits or preserved insects specimen in science.

SIMULATION
-is a representation of a manageable real event in which the learner is an active participant engaged in learning behaviour or in applying previously acquired skills or knowledge.

GAMES
-played to win while simulations need not have a winner

Why do we make use of contrived experiences?
We use models, mock ups, specimens and objectives to:
>Overcome limitations of space and time
>To “edit” reality for us t be able to focus on parts or a process of a system that we intend to study
>To overcome difficulties of size
>To understand the inaccessible, and
>Help the learners understand abstractions

10 general purposes of simulations and games in education:
>To develop changes in attitudes
>To change specific behaviour
>To prepare participants for assuming new roles in the future
>To help individuals understand their current roles
>To increase the students ability to apply principles
>To reduce complex problems and situations to manageable elements
>To illustrate roles that may affect one’s life but that one may never assume
>To motivate learners
>To develop analytical processes
>To sensitize individuals to another person’s life role


GAMES
-are used for any of these purposes:
1. to practice and to refine knowledge/skills already acquired
2. to identify gaps or weakness in knowledge or skills
3. to serve as a summation or review and
4. to develop new relationships among concepts and principles

ARMSTRONG
-suggests that you use this when you are introducing Multiple Intelligences theory at the beginning of the year


Lesson 9
TEACHING WITH DRAMATIZED EXPERIENCES
PLAYS
-depict life,character,or culture or a combination of all three
PAGEANTS
-usually community dramas that are based on local history,presented by local actor
PANTOMINE
-art of conveying a story through bodily movements
TABLEAU
-a picture-like scene composed ofpeople against a background
ROLE PLAYING
-unrehearsed,unprepared and spontaneous dramatization of a ``let`s pretend" situation

TYPES OF PUPPET

SHADOW PUPPET
-flat black silhouette made from lightweight cardboard and shown behind a screen
ROD PUPPET
-flat cut out figures tacked to a stick,with one or more movable parts,and operated from below the stage level by wire rods or slender sticks
HAND PUPPET
-the puppet`s head is operatedby the forefinger of the puppeteer,the little finger and thumb being used to animate the puppet hands
GLOVE-AND-FINGERPUPPETS
-make use of old gloves to which small costumed figure are attached
MARIONETTES
-flexible,jointed puppets operated by strings or wires attached to a cross bar and maneuvered from directly above the stage

PRINCIPLES MUST BE OBSERVED IN CHOOSING A PUPPET PLAY FOR TEACHING
-Do not use puppets for plays
-Puppet plays must be based on action rather than on words
-Keep the plays short
-Do not omit the possibilities of music and dancing as part of the puppet show
-Adapt the puppet show the age,background,and tastes of the students


Lesson 10
Making the Most Community Resources and Field Trips
ABSTRACTION
Lesson 11
ABSTRACTION
The teacher’s comments given above indicate failure of the field trips conducted. This is definitely the consequence of no planning or if ever there was, planning was done poorly.
What procedures must we follow to avoid the failed study trips described above? Let’s plan. Planning a fieldtrip includes these steps: 1) preliminary planning by the teacher, 2) preplanning with others going on the trip, and 3) taking the field trip itself, and 4) post-field trip follow up activities.
For preliminary planning by the teacher, Brown (1969) [proposes the following:
- Make the preliminary contacts, a tour in final arrangements with the place to be visited
- Make final arrangements with the school principal about the details of the trip: schedule,
transportation arrangements, finances, and permission slips from parents.
- Make a tentative route plan, subject to later alteration based on class planning and objective.
- Try to work out mutually satisfactory arrangements with other teachers if the trip will conflict
with their classes.
- Prepare preliminary lists of questions or other materials which will be helpful in planning with
the students.

Preliminary with Others Joining the Trip
Other people accompanying the group need to be orientedon the objectives, route, behavior standards required of everyone so they can help enforce these standards. These may be parents who will assist the teachers and/or school administrator staff.

Taking the Field Trip
- Distribute route map of places to be observed.
- Upon arriving at the destination, teacher should check the group and introduce the guide.
- Special effortshold be made to ensure that:
- the trip keeps to the time schedule
- the students have the opportunity to obtain answers to questions
- the group participates courteously in the entire trip
- the guide sticks closely to the list of question

Evaluating Field Trip
These are questions we can ask ourselves after the field trip to evaluate the field trip we just had.
- Could the same benefits be achieved by other materials? Was it worth the time, effort, and perhaps, extra money?
Were any unexpected problems which could be foreseen anothertime? Were these due to guides, students, poor planning, or unexpected trip condition?
Were new interest developed?
Should the trip be recommended to other classes studying similar topics?

Educvational Benefits Derived from a Field Trip
Field trips can be fun and educational when they are well executed. They offer us a number of educational benefits:
1. The acquisition of lasting concepts and change in attitudes are routed on concrete and rich
experiences.
2.Field trips bring us to the world beyond the classroom.
3. Field trips have a wide range of application.
4. It can bring about a lot of realizations which may lead to changes in attitudes and insight.

Disadvantages of Field Trips
These educational benefits can compensate for the drawbacks of field trips, some of which are: 1) it is costly, 2) it involves logistics, 3) it is extravagant with time, and 4) contains an element of uncertainty.


Lesson 12
The Power of Film, Video and TV in the Classroom
INTRODUCTION
The appeal of visual media continues to make film, video and television as educational tools with high potential impact. They are now more accessible and less cumbersome to use. Let us take advantage of them in the classroom.
ABSTRACTION
The film, the video and the TV are indeed very powerful. Dale (1969) says, they can:
• Transmit a wide range of audio.
• Bring models of excellence to the viewer.
• Bring the world the reality to the home and to the classroom through a “live” broadcast or as mediated through film or videotape.
• Make us see and hear for ourselves world events as they happen.
• Be the most believable news source.
• Make some programs understandable and appealing to a wide variety of age and educational levels.
• Become a great equalizer of educational opportunity because programs can be presented over national and regional networks.
• Provide us with sounds and sights not easily available even to the viewer of a real event through long shots, close ups, zoom shots, magnification and split screen made possible by the TV camera.
• Can give opportunity to teachers to view themselves while they teach for purposes of self-improvement.
• Can be both instructive and enjoyable.
While the film, video and TV can do so much, they have their own limitations, too.
• Televisions and film are one-way communication device.
• The small screen size puts television at a disadvantage when compared with the possible size of projected motion pictures, for example. With new technology, how is this remedied?
• Excessive TV viewing works against the development of the child’s ability to visualize and to be creative and imaginative, skills that are needed in problem solving.
• There is much violence in TV. This is the irrefutable conclusion, “viewing violence increases violence”.

Basic Procedures in the Use of TV as a Supplementary Enrichment
For enrichment of the lesson with the use of TV, we have to do the following:
• Prepare the classroom.
- Darken the room.
- The students should not be seated too near nor too far from the TV.
• Pre-viewing Activities
- Set goals and expectations.
- Link the TV lesson with past lesson and /or with your students’ experiences for integration and relevance.
- Put the film in context.
- Point out the key they need to focus on.
• Viewing
- Don’t interrupt viewing by inserting cautions and announcements you forgot to give during the previewing stage.
- Just make sure sights and sounds are clear.
• Post-viewing
- To make them feel at ease begin by asking the following questions:
1) What do you like best in the film?
2) What part of the film makes you wonder? Doubt?
3) Does the film remind you of something or someone?
4) What questions are you asking about the film?
• Go to the questions you raised at the previewing stage.
• Tackle questions raised by the students at the initial stage of the post-viewing discussion.
• Ask what the students learned.
• Summarize what was learned.

Lesson 13
Teaching with visual symbols
INTRODUCTION
From an experience of real world experience we proceed to a world of symbol. Here, we don’t see real thing but symbols. Visual symbol include drawing, cartoon, strip drawing, diagram, formulas, charts, graphs, maps, globes. For the sake of the mastery and clarity, let us divide the lesson into (7) parts.

A. DRAWING
A drawing may not be the real thing but better to have a concrete visual aid that nothing. To avoid confusion, it is good that our drawing correctly represents the real thing.
One essential skill that a teacher ought to posses in order to be understood is drawing. It helps you a lot if you are capable of doing simple freehand sketching. You will find out that as you lecture. You need to illustrate on the chalkboard. So, better start learning how to draw. The only way to learn it is to do the sketching yourself and devote some time to it. There is nothing so difficult that is not made easy when we spend at least forty hour and mastering it.

B. CARTOONS
Another useful visual symbol that can bring novelty to our teaching is the cartoon. A first-rate cartoon tells its story metaphorically. The perfect cartoons need no caption. The less the artist depends on words, the more effective the symbolism. The symbolism conveys the message.

Sources of Cartoons
You can easily collect cartoon for instruction. The appear often in newspaper and magazines. In, class you can give it you individual students or project it by an opaque projector. depending on theme for the week of the month. you can display the cartoon on the bulletin board. One creative teacher arranged for a “cartoon of the month” and displayed and change display at the end of the month.

C. STRIP DRAWING
These are commonly called comics or comic trip. Dale (1969) asserts that a more accurate term is strip drawing. Make use of strips are educational and entertaining at the same time.

Where to Use Strip Drawing in Instruction
These can serve as motivation and a starter of your lesson. It can also be given as an activity for student to express gained at the conclusion of a lesson.

D. DIAGRAM
What is a diagram? It is “any line drawing that shows arrangement and relation as of part of whole, relative values, origin and development, chronologically fluctuation, distribution, etc.” (Dale 1969)
If you can draw stick figures you can easily draw the diagram that you go along. To emphasize the key point in your diagram make use of color whether you use the chalkboard or the OHP and transparencies.
TYPES of a Diagram
• Affinity diagram- use to cluster complex apparently un related data into natural and meaningful group.
• Tree diagram- used to chart out, in increasing details the various tasks that must be accomplished to complete a project of achieve a specific object.
• Fishbone diagram- it is also called cause and effect diagram. It is a structures form of brainstorming that graphically shows the relationship of possible causes and sub causes directly related to an identified effect problem. It is most commonly used to analyze work related problem.
E. CHARTS
A chart is a diagrammatic representation of relationship among individuals within organization.
EXAMPLE of chart
1. Time chart- is a tabular chart that present data in ordinal sequence.
2. Tree or steam chart- depicts development, growth and change by beginning with a single course (the trunk) which spreads out into many branches: or by beginning with the many tributaries which then converge into a single channel.
3. Flow chart- is a visual of charting or showing process from beginning to end. It is a means of analyzing a process. By outlining every step in a process you can begin to find inefficiencies of problem ( Latte 1994)
4. Organization chart- shows how one part of the organization relates to other parts of the organization.
5. Comparison and contrast chart- Used to show similarities and differences between two things.
6. Pareto chart- is a type of a bar chart, prioritized in descending order of magnitudes or importance from left to right. It shows at a glance which factor are occurting most.
7. Gannt chart- is an activity time chart.

F. GRAPH
There are several types of graph
o Pie or circle graph- recommended for showing parts of whole.
o Bar graph- used in comparing the magnitude of similar items at different or seeing relatives sizes of the parts of a whole.
o Pictorial graph- makes use of picture symbols.
o Graphic organizer- you met several graphic organizer in your subject. Principle of Teaching.

G. MAPS
A map is a ”representation of the surface of the earth or the same part of it … “
KINDS of map
 Physical map- combines in a single projection data like altitudes, temperature, rainfall, precipitation, vegetation and soil.
 Relief map- has three dimensional representation and show contour of the physical data of the earth or part of the earth.
 Commercial or Economical map- also called product or industrial map since they show land areas in relation to the economy.
 Political map- gives detailed information about country, province, cities, and town, roads and highway. Ocean, rivers and lakes are the main features of the most political map.

Lesson 14
Maximizing the Use of the Overhead Projector and the Chalkboard
INTRODUCTION
ABSTRACTION
The Chalkboard
Except in extremely deprived classrooms, every classroom has a chalkboard. In fact, a school may have no computer, radio, tv, etc .but it will always have a chalkboard .So why not make optimum use of what we have , the chalkboard? The following practices of dedicated professional teachers may help us in the effective use of the chalkboard.
1. Write clearly and legibly on the board. Take note that there are children in the last rows.
2. It helps if you have a hard copy of your chalkboard diagram or outline . That helps you to visualize the diagram or outline you like to appear on the chalkboard. That clean diagram and organized outline must match what you do on the chalkboard.
3. Don’t crowd your notes on the board. By overcrowding your board work, your students may fall to see the key ideas. They may not see the trees because of the forest.
4. Make use of colored chalk in highlight key points. Color will also make your board work more appealing. I witnessed one good teacher who had no other visual aid except herself. The chalkboard and her colored chalks.
5.Do not turn your back to your class while you write on the chalkboard. Write side view as you talk. Don’t lose your eye contact with your class.
6.For the sake of order and clarity , start to write from the left side of the board going right.
7.If you teach the Grades and you think the lines on the chalkboard are needed for writing exercise , then provide the lines for your board.
8.Look at your board work from all corners of the room to test if pupils from all sides of the room can read your board work.
9.If there is glare on the chalkboard at certain times of the day, a curtain on the window may solve the problem.
10.If you need to replace your chalkboard or if you are having a new classroom with new chalkboard suggest to the carpenter to mount the chalkboard a little concave from left to right to avoid glare for the pupils’ benefits.
11.If you need to have a board work in advance or that need to be saved for tomorrow’s use(say a quiz or a sophisticated diagram).write “Please Save” and cover the same with a curtain.
12.Make full use of the chalkboard. It may be a traditional educational technology but it serves its purpose very well when used correctly.

Here are some more chalkboard technique from James W.Brown(1969)
Chalkboard Techniques
A. Charpon your chalk to get good line quality.
B. Stand with your elbow high. Move along as you write.
C. Use dots as “aiming points”. This keeps writing level.
D. Make all writing or printing between 2 or 4 inches high for legibility.
E. When use colored chalk, use soft chalk so that it can be erased easily.

The Overhead Projector (OHP)
There are other kinds of projectors like opaque projector and slide projector. The overhead projector seems more available in schools. It has a lot of advantages. Brown(1969)cites the following :

 The projector itself is simple to operate.
 The overhead projector is used in the front of the room by the instructor, who has complete control of the sequence, timing and manipulation of his material.
 Facing his class and observing student reactions, the instructor can guide his audience, control its attention, and regulate the flow of information in the presentation.
 The projected image behind the instructor can be as large an necessary for all in the audience to see; it is clear and bright , even in fairly well-lighted rooms.
 Since the transparency, as it is placed on the projector , is seen by the instructor exactly as students see it on the screen, he may point, write, or otherwise make indications upon it to facilitate communication.
 The stage (projection surface) of the projector is large(10 by 10 inches), thus allowing the teacher to write information with ease or to show prepare transparency. His/Her work appear immediately on the screen.
 It is especially easy for teacher and student to create their own material for use in the overhead projector.
 There is an increasing number of high-quality commercial transparencies.


Let’s learn how to use it property so we also maximize its use in the classroom. Brown (1969) gives us several techniques.



Overhead Projector Techniques
Among the understanding attribute of overhead projection are the many techniques that can be used to present information and control the sequence of a presentation. As you plan your own transparencies, keep in mind those features of overhead projection.
 you can show pictures and diagrams using a pointer on the transparencies to direct attention to a detail. The silhouette of a pointer will show a motion on the screen.
 You can use a left pen or wax-based pencil to ad details or to make point on the transparencies during projection. The marked of a water based pen and pencils can be removed with a soft cloth so that transparencies can be reused.
 you can control the rate of presenting information by covering a transparencies with a sheet of a paper or cardboard (opaque materials) and then exposing data as you ready it discuss each point. This is known as progressive disclosure technique.
 You can superimpose additional transparencies sheets as overlays on a base transparencies so as to separate processes and complex idea into elements into a present in them step-by-step order.
 You can show three-dimensional object from the stage of the projector in silhouette is the object opaque, or in color if an object is made of transparencies color plastic.
 You can move overlay back and forth across the base in order to rearrange elements of diagrams or problems .
 For special purposes you can stimulate motion on parts of a transparency by using the effects of polarized light. To do this , set a Polaroid glass spinner over the projector lens and attach a special plastic element to parts of the transparency for which motion is desired.
 You can simultaneously project on an adjacent screen other visual materials, usually slides or motion pictures, which illustrate or apply the generalization shown on a transparency.


Other reminders on the effective use of the OHP are:
 Stand off to one side of the OHP while you face the students.
 Don’t talk to the screen. Face the students when you talk not the screen.
 Place the OHP to your right. If you are right handed, and on your left , if you are left handed.
 Have the top of the screen tilted forward toward the OHP to prevent the “keystone effect” (where the top of the screen is larger than the bottom)
 Avoid the mistake of including too much detail on each image. A simple layout makes an effective sides. If an audience need to be given details. provide handsome to be studied later.
 Avoid large tables of figure. Come up with graphic presentation.
 don’t read the text on your slide. Your audience can read.
 Avoid too much. Rely sparingly on printed text. Come up with more graphs, charts. diagram, or pictures.
 Your presentation must be readable from afar.
simple use of color can add effective emphasis.
We can learn from experience from other brown (1969) enchance effective practice. Let’s learn from them.
 In primary grades simple objects like, key, leaves, and cutout paper shape can be place directly on the projector to stimulate children imagination and encourage discussion.
 In English composition lesson, student themes or writing exercises can be reproduce on film by means of the heat or photocopy process. The teacher and the student can analyze the writing for style and grammar as each example is projected.
 In arithmetic blank sheets of acetate and grease pencil can be given to selected students. have them prepare solution to homework problem in the class may evaluate and discuss the result.
 In geometry and trigonometry two and three dimension diagram be built with carefully prepare transparencies involving color and separated overlays.
 In physical education and team training, plays and game procedures may be analyzed through the use of plastic or opaque moving symbol on a transparencies which show the court or field design.
 In homeroom activities the secretary can use cellophane roll (accompanying most projector )or black acelate sheets in write nomination, lists, motion for consideration and important discussion point for all to see and react to.
 In a primary reading class, a picture transfer transparency can be made from a magazine picture. Project this transparency and ask the class to identify major items shown.
 In art classes a teacher can sketch on clear plastic with a felt pen. The entire class sees result. similarly, transparency watercolors, colored plastic shapes, finger paint, inks, or grease pencil may be used.
 In science, iron filings dusted on a clear plastic sheet over a permanent magnet can be projected clearly to illustrate lines of force.
 In social studies, all types of maps can be enlarge after accurate but easy preparation.

Lesson 15
Project-based Learning and multimedia:
What It Is?

INTRODUCTION
After learning that we need to make used of combination of learning resources or media to make our teaching as concrete as we can so abstraction will be clear and meaningful, let us learn a method of learning the utilized multimedia, project-based learning.

ABSTRACTION
A class that effectively employed project- based learning is highly animated and actively engaged together with other student, every student absorbed in a task in line with the goal and the objectives made clear at the start. Time has wing. Time flies so fast that the student don’t feel its passing teacher does not just stay in the front of the class lecturing. She monitor the student as they work. Student consult her for guidance and comment. She does imposed there will on student. With her guidance, she allow student to make decision for themselves. she has more time those student need of greater help and attention. By going around, she can sense if student are on the right track and if the goal and expectation set at the star are not set aside but remain to be the governing factor behind every activity. The student intellectual power are very much challenged as they read, researched for basic information. Much of their technical skilled learned from their computer courses and creativity and imagination are demanded when the student produce multimedia presentation by sing multimedia procedure by other.
Let us know more about project-based learning multimedia in the paragraph that follows:
Project-based multimedia learning is a teaching method which student ‘acquire new knowledge and skills in the course of designing, planning and producing multimedia project”. (Simkins.et al. 2002). The named project –based multimedia learning implies the use of multimedia and the learning activity include a
Dimension of Project-based Multimedia learning
Project-based multimedia learning has seven key dimension: core curriculum , real world connection, extended time frame, student decision making, collaboration, assessment and multimedia. Simkin 2002 explain each of their briefly.
Core curriculum At the foundation of any unit of this type is a clear setoff learning goal drawn from whatever curriculum or set of standard is in use. We use the term core to emphasize the project-based multimedia learning should address the basic knowledge and skills all student are expected to acquire, and should out simply he an enrichment or extra credit activity for a special few. Often, these lend themselves well be multidisciplinary or cross-curriculum approached.
Real-world connection The project seeks to connect student work in school with the wider world in which the student live. It is critical that the student not only the teacher-perceive what is real about the project. The content chosen the style of the activity and the type of the product must be real in life.
Extended Time Frame a good project in not a one-shoot lesson. It extend over a significant period of time. The action length of the project may vary with the age of the student and the nature of the project. One project may takes days or weeks. One may take a month or two. It is important when the student are given enough time to enable them come up with a substantial product from which they can derived pride and a clear sense of accomplishment.
Student decision making in project-based multimedia learning student have a say. But it is clear to them that the teacher is in charge and so the student understand that there are decision. which only the teacher can make. Student, however, are given considerable leeway in determining what substantive content would be included in their project as well as the process for producing them.
Collaboration project-based multimedia learning demand collaboration. Collaboration is working together jointly to accomplish a common intellectual purpose in a manner superior to what might have been accomplished working alone. Students may work to parts or in tam of as five or six whole class collaboration are also possible. the good is for each student involved to make a separate contribution to the final work and for the whole class to accomplished greater thing that what each individual student can accomplished all alone.
Assessment There are three assessment in project-based multimedia learning namely : (1) activities for developing expectation (2) activities for improving the media products and (3) activities for compiling and disseminating evidence of learning.
Student must be clarified on what is expected of them and on how they will be assessed in project-based multimedia learning, they are expected to show evidence that they are gained content information, became batter learn member. Could solved problem and could make choices for (instance for what new information they would show in their presentation. Student are expected to assess their own media product so they can improve of them.
Multimedia In multimedia projects. student do not learn simply by using multimedia produced by others: they learn by creating by themselves. The development of such program as HyperStudio, kid Pics and Netscape composer had made it possible for student of all ages to become the author of multimedia content. As student design and research their project, instead of gathering any written notes, they also gather-and create-pictures, video clips, recording and other needs object that will later serve as the raw material for final product.
The black Plague project was exemplary in term of the seven dimension given in the foregoing paragraph. It addressed the standard set by Department of the education through the K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum in social studies and science. The real word connection to the AIDS epidemic made the project relevant to student. The project extended over any weeks, and students were allowed to choose perspectives and make decision about the design and interface for the presentation. Student collaborated in small group to research and implement each perspective in the presentation. Assessment was on-going and multifaceted. Student presentation included a variety of media text, original art work, scanned images and animation . (Adapted from Simkins, 2002)


What can be some limitation of the used of project-base multimedia learning?
One limitation that we see is the need for extended period of time. You need time to orient the student on what are expected of them guidelines , goals and objectives of the project, and more so for student to gather and organize their data, work on their presentation and the like. The strategies requires technical skills on your part on the part of your student. Remember they will be using a combination of several media, which includes of course, the computer. If the basic computer course did not teach them their skills demanded by the strategy, there will be a learning technology. This can be another limitation. A third limitation can be the tendency to lost track of goals and objectives of your lesson because the technology aspect has gotten the limelight. You may get so occupied learning in the multimedia presentation that your lesson objectives get derailed and your sure that the technology lesson. So, you have to be academic content which is the core of your lesson and therefore is the most important.



SUMMING UP
Project-Based multimedia Learning does not only involve use of multimedia for learning. The student end up with multimedia product to show what they learned. So, they are not only learners of academic content, they are at the same time author of multimedia product at the end of the learning process. The goals and objectives of a project are based on the core of curriculum as laid down in the curricular standard and are made crystal clear to student in the beginning of the project. The student work collaboratively over an extended time frame. As they work, they employ life skills including decision making. The learning task ends up with a multimedia presentation through their multimedia product.


Lesson 16
Using the Project-based Learning Multimedia as a Teaching-Learning Strategy
Project-based learning enables classrooms to emphasize this undervalued part of “invisible curriculum”what author
Daniel Goleman has called “emotional intelligence”

Introduction
After learning about the what of project-based learning,let us see how we go about it if we want to benefit from this strategy.In Appendix A you will find a concrete example of this strategy.

Abstraction
Goals and objectives are always the starting points of planning.When we plan a multimedia learning project as ateaching strategy ,we begin by clarifying our goals and objectives.From the list of objectives and content found in the K to 12 Curriculum Guide,we select which ones will lend themselves to a project-based multimedia learning strategy.Since this strategy requires much time,we need to be realistic in the amount of time we have to spend against time available or face failure and disappointment afterwards
Another important thing is to determine the resources available from library materials.Community resources both material and human.Internet . news media – since this project calls for multimedia.To trim down time devoted to a multi-media project.
Simkins et al (2002) suggest the following:
. Use technology students already know.
Use time outside of class whatever possible.
. Assign skills practice as homework.
Use “special” classes (like art or music) as extra tme.
. Let students compose text and select and prepare graphics and sounds as they plan.

Consider the possibility of your students doing original researches themselves.Let us clear to our students our policy on decision making and collaboration for smooth working relations.Finally,we must have a plan on how we are going to evaluate learning.
So you have decided on the objectives and content with which to use the project-based multimedia strategy and have determined resources available.What are you going to do next.
Simkins, et al (2002) suggest the following:
BEFORE THE PROJECT STARTS
1. Create project description and milestones. Put in a nutshell what your project in forty (40) words or less.Include your instructional goals and objectives.Include the project components students will be responsible for and their due date. Set deadlines. By writing a brief abstract of your project, you have a full grasp of the essence of your project and that your focus will not get derailed.
A milestone may look like this:

Stage Estimated Time
Before the project starts 2 weeks
Introducing the project 1-2 days
Learning the technology 1-3 days
Preliminary research and planning 3 days-3weeks
Concept design and storyboarding 3-5 days
First draft production 1-3 weeks
Assessing,testing,and finalizing presentations 1-3 weeks
Concluding activities 1-3 days
Total class time 5-13 weeks
Figure 30. overview of a Typical Project

2. Work with real-word connections. If you have people outside the classroom involved as clients or assessors (evaluators) work with them to make an appropriate schedule and include their ideas for activities.
3. Prepare resources. Seek the assistance of your librarian or school media specialist.
4. Prepare software and peripherals such as microphones. Ask the help of technical people.
5. Organize computer files - Finding files eats most of your time if you are not organized. Naming files and folders after their file type and section title helps to keep things organized ang makes it easier to merge elements later on.
6. Prepare the classroom. Organize books, printer paper and any other resources so students can access them independently. Make room on the bulletin boards for hanging printouts of student work,schedules, and organizational charts.
INTRODUCING THE PROJECT (one or two days)
Help the students develop a “big picture”to understand the work ahead. Make clear what they will be making,who their audience will be and what you expect them to learn and demonstrate in terms of the K to 12 and competencies.
1. Review project documents. You can ask your students to work with the project documents you have produced. Encourage your students to ask questions about the project to clarify what you have written.
2. Perform pre-assessments. Your students can write pre-assessment questions based on your learning goals to further clarify expectations.
3. Perform relevant activities. You can show students anythihg you can find that is similar to what they will be producing such as Web site or your own miniproject you did to learn the technology. You can also brainstorm for topics, organizational ideas, and design ideas.
4. Group students. From small student group from three to five students per group. Her are some grouping strategies:
• By topic interest
• By student talent and expertise – This works for a balance of talents and skills in the groups.
• By student choice
• Randomly – This is fine to enable them to develop the skills to work with others.
5. Organize materials. Give each group a folder that stays in the classroom. All their group work such as storyboards ,group journals, and research notes goes in that folder.

LEARNING THE TECHNOLOGY (one to three days)
Give a chance for the students to work with whatever software and technology they will be using. If some students are already familiar with tools and processes ask them to help you train the others. If students are new to multimedia then begin with lessons that involve using the different media types. Remember, you and your students are colearners and you both learn as you go.

PRELIMINARY RESEARCH AND PLANNING (three days to three weeks, depending on project size)
At this stage, student should immerse themselves in the content or subject matter they need to understand to create their presentations. Students will engage in relevant experiences or conduct research to collect information and gather ideas. Field trips, teacher-guided lessons student research, interviews, observation, and questioning are all activities that might occur during this stage.

CONCEPT DESIGN AND STORYBOARDING (three to five days)
After collecting initial information, hold a brainstorming session where the whole class or a sub group defines a tentative approach to the subject discusses some preliminary design ideas.

As a class or in groups, sketch out your overall design for the presentations. Then have groups create their storyboards.
A storyboard is paper-and-pencil sketch of the entire presentation, screen by screen or in the case of video shot by shot. Each pane of the storyboard shows what text, images, sounds,motion, and interactivity buttons will go on the screen and they will be arranged. There should be no design. This a quick sketch time spent making it beautiful is tme wasted. The panes are connected with lines to show how the presentation flows.
Here are few a design tips to keep in mind throughout storyboarding an production:
• Use scanned, handmade artwork to make a project look personal and to manage scarce technology resources. Student artwork is unmatched as a way to assure a project has heart. Keep clip arts or stamps to a mnimum – they make a presentation look canned.
• Keep navigation - the way users of your presentation - consistent throughout the whole presentation.”Back” and “Next” buttons, if you have them, should appear at the same place on each screen (for example the lower right corner).
• Organize information similarly throughout so users can find what they are looking for:
• Care for collaboration. Check in with groups to make sure they are collaborating successfully and that conflict is not derailing their productivity.
• Organize manageable steps. Break down the projects steps into manageable daily components considering that the project requires comparatively more time to succeed.
• Check and assess often. This is to ensure that mistakes are seen early enough and therefore can be corrected before the final product is produced.
ASSESSING,TESTING, AND FINALIZING PRESENTATIONS (ONE TO THREE WEEKS)
TWO KINDS OF TESTING TO THINK ABOUT:
1. Functional testing- means trying all the buttons, taking all possible paths through the presentation, checking for errors, missing images, and the like
2. User testing- means showing the presentation to members of the target audience and finding out if they can successfully navigate it and understand it.

Assessment-means critical evaluation of your presentation.
CONCLUDING ACTIVITIES ONE TO THREE DAYS()
Allow time for students to present and show off their hard work. You and they will be proud of what they have done and will want to share it with others. Concluding activities make a memorable project even more special.
The effective use of project-based multimedia learning requires through planning.
Initial planning involves: 1) clarifying goals and objectives. 2) determining how much tume is needed and extent of students involvement in decision making. 3) setting up forms of elaboration. 4) identifying and determining what resources are needed. And 5) deciding on the mode to measure what students learn.
The various phases ofb the project include: 1) before the project starts. 2) introduction of the project. 3) learning the technology. 4) preliminary research and planning. 5) concept design and storyboarding. 6) first draft production. 7) assessing, testing, and finalizing presentationa, and 8) concluding activities.

Lesson 17
Assessment in a Constructivist, Technology-Supported Learning
"complex learning cannot be assessed or evaluated using any angle measure. We must examine both the processes and products of student learning.”
Abstraction
For the conversation that we gather that some students:
• memorize very much for the test
their style of test preparing to the kind of test and
• study only for passing score and grade

The questions we raise are “Is it really bad to memorize for the not good to study for a score and for a grade? The answer to both question is NO. It is not bad to memorize for the test. Examinees even take in Memory Plus food supplement to increase their power to memorize. Neither it is bad to study for scores and grade. However, we should not study only for a passing score and a passing grade.

In a constructivist classroom, learning transcends memorization of facts. It is putting these isolated facts together from concepts and make meaning out of them. It is connecting the integration of these facts and concepts to daily life. It is seeing the relevance these facts and concepts to what we value and treasure in life. If this is what learning is from the eyes of the constructivist , then definitely, the pure memorization (sometimes without understanding) done for a mere recall test does not jibe with such belief.
What then is the assessment practice that will be congruent with the constructivist’s thinking? It is a higher level form of assessment that will require the display of the basic skills of writing and speaking, computing and more complex skills of applying concepts learned, analyzing, critiquing and evaluating, integrating and creating, and the social skills of working with alternative forms of assessments. The traditional paper-and-pencil test will prove to be inadequate to measure basic skills integrated with higher-order-thinking skills and social skills.

Authentic assessment is most appropriate for the constructivist classroom. (You will learn more about authentic assessment in your two subjects on assessment.) Authentic assessment measures collective abilities, written and oral expression skills, analytical skills, manipulative skills, (like computer skills) integration. Creativity, and ability to work collaboratively .

In authentic assessment, students perform real word tasks, thus the word “authentic.” It is an assessment of a process or a product. That is why authentic assessment includes performance of product assessment. The performance is a reliable measure of skills learned and the product is proof of acquisition of skills. These performance and product are assessed. Again the mere paper-and-pencil test cannot evaluate these. So what do we need? We need to observe and evaluate and , to do it more objectively, with the aid of scoring rubric. (You will be taught how to make a scoring rubric in your assessment courses). For now it may be sufficient to see a sample of a scoring rubric to get an idea of what it is about and to see its place in assessment. Please see Fig. 32.
4 3 2 1
Organization Some students present information in a logical , interesting sequence that the audience can follow. Student presents information in a logical sequence that the audience can follow. Audience has difficulty following presentation because student does not consistently use a logical sequence. Audience cannot understand presentation because there is no sequence in information.
Subject Knowledge Student demonstrates full knowledge (more than required) by answering all class questions with explanations and Student is at ease and provides expected answers to all questions but fails to elaborate. Student is uncomfortable with information and is able to answer only rudimentary questions. Student does not have graphs of information student cannot answer questions about subject.
Graphics Student’s graphics explain and reinforce screen text and presentation. Student’s graphics relate to text and presentation. Student occasionally uses graphics that rarely support text and presentation. Student uses superfluous graphics or no graphics.
Mechanics Presentation has no misspelling or grammatical errors. Presentation has no more than two misspellings and/or grammatical errors. Presentation has three misspellings and/or grammatical errors. Student’s presentation has four or more spelling errors and/or grammatical errors.
Eye contact Student maintains eye contact with audience, seldom returning notes. Student maintains eye contact most of the time but frequently returns to notes. Student occasionally uses eye contact but still reads most of report. Student reads all report with no eye contact.
Eccution Student uses a clear voice and correct, precise pronunciation of terms so that all audience members can hear presentation. Student’s voice is clear. Student pronounces most words correctly. Most audience member can hear presentation. Student’s voice is low. Student incorrectly pronounces terms. Audience members have difficulty hearing presentation. Student mumbles, incorrectly pronounces terms, and speaks too quietly for students in the back of class to hear.
Figure32. Multimedia Project and Performance Rubric
• You and your students may develop a rubric. It can be a collaborative effort for both of you – teacher and students – in line with the practice of self-assessment, which is highly favored and encouraged. In fact with scoring rubric, standards are clearly set at the beginning for you and your students and with that rubric your students can assess their own performance or products. In case, much of the fear for tests gets dispelled. Assessment is accepted as a natural and normal part of the learning process. There are no more secrets on how students will be tested and what kind of questions will be asked. The students themselves know how their process gets assessed.

Assessment in a technology-supported environment necessarily includes display of skillful and creative use of technologies, old and recent, because that is what is naturally expected to us in the real world, a technology-dominated world.
A technology-supported classroom maximizes the use of old and new technology. Students are expected to demonstrate learning with the use of both old and new technology.
Students may use transparencies and OHP to demonstrate the learned skill of topic presentation or may choose to powerpoint presentation.


Assessing Activity
To what extent does the environment you have created promote manipulation of real-world objects and observations based on these activities?
Learner interaction with Real-World Objects
Little of the Learners are
learner’s time is often engaged in activities
spent engaged with involving found
tools and objects found outside school.
outside school.
Observation and Reflection

Students rarely Students often stop and Students share frequent
think about or record think about the activities observations about their
the results of action in which they are engaged. Activity with peers and
taken during activities. Interested adults.
Learner Interactions Students manipulated
Students manipulated Students manipulated all or nearly all variables/
none of the variables or some variables and controls in environment.
controls in environment. Controls in environment.
Tool Use
Students used as Students used some Students used nearly all
cognitive tools. cognitive tools to rapport cognitive tools
explorations/manipulations. effectively.








Demonstration in Teaching
Demonstrations is a visualized explanation of an important fact, idea or process by the use of photographs, drawings, films, displays, or guided motions. In Webster’s International Dictionary defines it as “a public showing emphasizing the salient merits, utility, efficiency of an article or product. In teaching, it is showing how a thing is done and emphasizing of the salient merits, utility and efficiency of a concept, a method or a process or an attitude.
In the demonstration of a new product, the speaker shows the product, tells all the good things about the product to promote it in order to convince the audience that the product is worth buying.
In the activist’s demonstration, the activists air their grievances and publicly denounce the acts of a person or of an institution, like government, against whom they are demonstrating.
When a Master teacher is asked to do demonstration teaching on a teaching strategy, she shows to the audience how to use a teaching strategy effectively.
In all the three instances of demonstration, there is an audience, a process of speaking, and a process of showing a product or a method of proofs to convince the audience to buy the product, use the strategy or rally behind their cause.
What guiding principles must we observe in using demonstration as a teaching-learning experience? Edgar Dale (1969) gives at least three:
1. Establish rapport. Greet your audience. Make them feel at ease by your warmth and sincerity. Stimulate their interest by making your demonstration and yourself interesting. Sustain their attention.
2. Avoid the COIK fallacy (Clear Only If Known) It is the assumption that what is clear to the expert demonstrator is also clearly known to the person for whom the message is intended.
3. Watch for key points. What are key points? Dale says, they are the ones at which an error is likely to be made, the places at which many people stumble and where the knacks and tricks of the trade are especially important”. The good demonstrator recognizes possible stumbling blocks to learners and highlights them in some way. What are usually highlighted are the don’ts of a process or a strategy.
You have planned and rehearsed your demonstration, your materials and equipment is ready, you have prepared your students, then you can proceed to the demonstration itself. Dale gives several points to observe:
1. Set the tone for good communication. Get and keep your audience’s interest.
2. Keep your demonstration simple.
3. Do not wander from the main ideas.
4. Check to see that your demonstration is being understood. Watch your audience for signs of bewilderment, boredom or disagreement.
5. Do not hurry your demonstration. Asking questions to check understanding can serve as a “brake”.
6. Do not drag out the demonstration. Interesting things are never dragged out. They create their own tempo.
7. Summarize as you go along and provide a concluding summary. Use the chalkboard, the overhead projector, charts, diagrams, PowerPoint and whatever other materials are appropriate to synthesize your demonstration.
8. Hand out written materials at the conclusion.
Lesson 12
The Power of Film, Video and TV in the Classroom
The film, the video and the TV are indeed very powerful. Dale (1969) says, they can:
• Transmit a wide range of audio-visual materials.
• Bring models of excellence to the viewer.
• Bring the world of reality to the home and to the classroom through a "live" broadcast or as mediated through film or videotape.
• Make us see and hear for ourselves world events as they happen.
• Be the most believable news source.
• Makes some programs understandable and appealing to a wide variety of age and educational levels.
• Become a great equalizer of educational opportunity.
• Provide us with sounds and sights not easily available even to the viewer of a real event through long shots, close ups, zoom shots, magnification and split screen made possible by the TV camera.
• Can give opportunity to teachers to view themselves while they teach for purposes of self-improvement.
• Can be both instructive and enjoyable.
While the film, video and TV can do so much they have their own limitations too.
• Television and film are one-way communication device.
• The small screen size puts television at a disadvantage when compare with the possible size of projected motion pictures.
• Excessive TV viewing works against the development of the child's ability to visualize and to be creative and imaginative, skills that are needed in problem solving.
• There is much violence in TV.
Basic Procedures in the Use of TV as a Supplementary Enrichment
• Prepare the classroom
o Darken the room.
o The Students should not be seated too near nor too far from the TV.
• Pre-viewing Activities
o Set goals and expectations.
o Link the TV lesson with past lesson and/or with your students' experiences for integration and relevance.
o Set rules while viewing.
o Put the film in context.
o Point out the key points they need to focus on.
• Viewing
o Don't interrupt viewing.
o Just make sure sights and sounds are clear.
• Post-viewing
o To make them feel at ease begin by asking the following questions:
2. What do you like best in the film?
3. What part of the film makes you wonder? doubt?
4. Does the film remind you of something or someone?
5. What questions are you asking about the film?
• Go to the questions you raised at the pre-viewing stage.
• Tackle questions raised by students at the initial stageof the post-viewing discussion.
• Asked what the students learned.
• Summarized what was learned.

Lesson 18
Roles and Functions of an Eductional Media Center
Introduction
Let us devoted the last lesson to a discussion of an Educational Media Center (EMC), after having seen how instructional materials, which include multimedia, can be integrated in classroom instruction.

Mission /Vision
The Educational Media Center functions as a vital instrument as well as a basic requirement for quality education by enriching all parts of the school’s educational process.
It reflects and supports the philosophy of the school.
It shares and implements the school’s aims and objectives.
It is involved in the teaching and learning process.

EMC Services
1. Orientation
All new teachers are given an orientation on the EMC. Its program role in the total Ateneo academic organization services facilities guidelines and procedures during their in-service program. Hands-on training on the use of the different equipment is part the new teacher’s program. The students are also given an orientation on their first Media Instruction Program (MIP) class.

2. Selection of print and non-print materials
The librarians continually select and acquire print and non-print materials that suit the needs, interest and special abilities of the students and teachers. Teachers middle supervisors, and the administration are encouraged to take active part in the selection process.

3. Organization of print and non-print materials
A technical librarian organizes all the purchased print and non-print materials for easy retrieval. The Resource Organizer, the computerized system of library organization by the G-Soft Solutions is already in use to facilitate effective and efficient organization and retrieval procedures, as well as the Dewy Decimal Classification System and the C.A Cutter’s Three-Figure Author Table.

4. Circulation of print and non-print materials
The EMC lends out various types of materials in students and teachers. To make it serve efficiently at the same time maximize the use of its resources . The EMC has prepared some guidelines that were discussed and approved by the Committee on Educational Media Resources and Services, a standing committee of the school chaired by the AHAA.
5. Reference
The EMC attends to request such as bibliographic information for the card catalog search through books, periodicals, pamphlets, documents and non-print materials. A logbook of question asked is available at the circulation counter. The logbook also serves as a data for the librarians in their selection, purchase, organization and publicity of materials. There are computers with Internet facilities that help facilitate this service.

6. Bibliographic Service
There are listings of materials and periodical articles to publicize the new materials and periodical articles in EMC.

7. Media Instruction Program
The Media Instruction Program (MIP) aims to teach students to be chillful and discriminating users of print and non- print media. It is design to develop the habit of inquiry and stimulate the growth and development of the young mind in independent thinking. It also aims to develop appreciation for the different forms or media. MIP is given to all classes from Prep to Gr. 7 at least seven times a year.

8. Class Supervised Research
It is a scheduled program of activity particularly in Science and Social Studies. It refers to the class periods allotted to these subjects where the students are brought to the EMC to do the research for a particular topic.

9. Grade Level Newspaper
Each grade level is given to subscription for a newspaper of . It is a service rendered to ensure that the facility is updated daily on current events locally and internationals.



10. Mags-on-Wheels
Selected professional and general interest journals are routed in the different grade levels and service areas. The service is given to maximize the different subscriptions for professional and personal growth of the school community.

11. Photocopying Service
A self-service photocopying machine is available for the faculty to Xerox materials needed. Students may also request photocopying of library materials. A corresponding amount is charged.

12. Video and Sound Production
Simple productions for class program and schoolwide presentations are put together in the Audio-Visual area.
13. Multi-media services
Different non-print media materials are acquired. Teachers are encouraged to maximize use of their materials. The procedures for reservation and usage is teacher-friendly.


Abstraction
An EMC is a facility designed for the housing and utilization of all educational media within the school. It is a basic requirement for a school to render quality service. It is not independent if the school. Rather, like any part of the human body, it is a unit in the school that cooperates with other units or departments that help the school fulfill its mission and realize its vision by living up to the school’s philosophy and aims. It serves a myriad of roles among which are : 1) center of resources, 2) laboratory for learning, 3) agent of teaching, 4) service agency, 5) coordinating agency, 6) recreational reading center, and 7) a stepping stone to other resources of the community.
An EMC renders various kinds of services. Its services boil down to improving the teaching-learning process by making it more interactive, collaborative, interesting and authentic.

The evaluation questions for a EMC, give the ff. elements.
1. The institutional media services
2. Media and instruction
3. Classroom facilities
4. Media program



EDUCATIONAL
TECHNOLOGY
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We acknowledge the author of the books for using their books as reference of our multimedia project.

We gave thanks for our instructor Ms.Maribel Flores for giving us multimedia project which we can applied all that we learned in Educational Technology.

We gave thanks also for our parents who gave us financial needs and allowing us in going home late.

We gave thanks also to our classmates who have concern to us and let us to use their wi-fi connection.

Thank you all for the support you’ve given using fulfilling this project.


PROFILE
Name: Amorao jr., Avelino T.
Age: 18 years old
Address: #031 Purok 1 Latag, Lipa City
Birthday: January 23, 1995

Name: Mea, Nimfa M.
Age: 19 years old
Address: # 16 Malarayat Purok 1 Sto. Nino, Lipa City
Birthday: June 19, 1994


Name: Lasig, Patricia Ann .
Age: 17 years old
Address: #11 H. Latorre St. Brgy. 10 Lipa City Batangas
Birthday: April 14, 1996

Name: Morcilla, Meagan D.
Age: 17 years old
Address: #393 San Andress Malvar Batangas
Birthday: January 3, 1996

Name: Castillo, Ethel
Age: 20 years old
Address: San Jose Batangas
Birthday: May 22, 1993

Name: Salisi, Angeline L.
Age: 17 years old
Address: #0561 Brgy. Balele Tanauan
Birthday: July 23,1996

Name: Argana, Mary Ann S.
Age: 18 years old
Address: Candido St. Talisay, Lipa City
Birthday: December 24, 1994

For us educational technology is the process,
techniques and strategies through the used
of multimedia product which can produce for effective teaching.It is design to produce a good quality product by the cooperative learning by helping each other ; through the help of the strategies that we can get to be an effective students and through the used of methods to be learned by the learners.

WHAT WE LEARNED IN EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY?
References
Print References
Armstrong, Thomas (1994). Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Bilbao, Purita P., Brenda B. Corpuz, Gloria G. Salandanan & Avelina T. Llagas (2006). The teaching Profession. Quezon City: Lorimar Publishing Inc.
Brown, James W. & Richard B. Lewis (1969). AV Instructional Materials Manual. New York: McGraw- Hill Book Co.
Brown, James W., Richard B. Lewis & fred F. Harcleroad (1969). AV instruction Media and Methods. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
Dale, Edgar (1969). Audiovisual Methods in Teaching, New York: the Dryen Press.
Grabe Mark & Cindy Grabe (1998) Integrating Technology for Meaningful Learning. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.
Jonassen, David H., Kyle L. Peck & Brent G. Wilson (1999). Learning with Technology: A Constructivist Perspective. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc.
Latta, Raymond F. & Carolyn J. Downey (1994) Tools for Achieving TQE. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press, Inc.
Lucido, Pa I. & Milagros L. Borado (1997) Educational Technology. Quezon City: Katha Publishing Co.
Marzano, Robert J. (2007). The Art and Science of Teaching. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
McArdle, Geri E.H. (1991) Developing Instructional Design USA: Crisp Publications.
Myers, David G. (2002) Social Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
Santrock, John W. Life Span Development. (2002) New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
Simkins, Michael, Karen Cole, Fern Tavalin & Barbara means (2002). Increasing Student Learning Through Multimedia Project. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Smith, Hayden R & Thomas S. Nagel (1972). Instructional Media in the Learning Process. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merril Publishing Co.
Torres, Philip T. (1994), Learning Excellences: A Master Course in Learning How to Learn. Mandaluyong, MM: Training System Associates, Inc.
Williams. Michael D., ed. (2000) Integrating Technology into Teaching and Learning Singapore: Prentice Hall.
World book Encyclopedia (1998), Volume 8. USA: World Book, Inc.
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