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Dual Axis Solar Tracking & MPPT

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hiba ibrahim

on 4 June 2015

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Transcript of Dual Axis Solar Tracking & MPPT

Dual Axis Solar Tracking & MPPT

Dual Axis Solar Tracking & Maximum Power Point Tracking
Prepared by :
1) Abdullah Atif Shtawi
2) Manar Afeef Alhajeh
3) Hiba Ibrahim Damiri
4) Hothaifa Ziad Suwan
  
Supervisor : Dr . Basim Al Sayid
Introduction

Solar panels are used to generate electricity through sunlight. Energy through solar panels is extremely cheap and green
maximum power point tracking
Type of DC to DC Converter:

Objectives
The main objective of this project is to keep the solar photovoltaic panel perpendicular to the sun throughout the year in order to make it more efficient.
to design an efficient charge controller to control a 18V solar panel charging a 12V lead acid battery.
Increase the efficiency of the solar power charging system a closer at the electrical characteristics of a solar panel is necessary.
To get the maximum power from the solar photovoltaic panel .

Buck Converter
A buck converter or voltage regulator is also called a step down regulator since the output voltage is lower than the input voltage.

Buck Converter
Boost converter
Buck-boost converter
Boost converter
A boost converter (step-up converter) is a DC to DC power converter with an output voltage greater than its input voltage.
MPPT curve
Solar Tracking
types of solar trackers:

Active tracker
Active trackers use motors and gear trains to direct the tracker as commanded by a controller responding to the solar direction.
Passive tracker

The most common passive trackers use a low boiling point compressed gas fluid that is driven to one side or the other (by solar heat creating gas pressure) to cause the tracker to move in response to an imbalance.
Active Trackers
Single axis trackers

Single axis trackers have one degree of freedom that acts as an axis of rotation.

Dual Axis Trackers (used in our project)

Dual axis trackers have two degrees of freedom that act as axis of rotation.

mechanical tracker design
The tracking systems would need to consist of two motors, which control the position of the array. We used two Dc motors in our project.

Components
Integrated Circuit ( PIC16f877a)
An IC is a small wafer, usually made of silicon, that can hold anywhere from hundreds to millions of transistors, resistors, and capacitors. These extremely small electronics can perform calculations and store data using either digital or analog technology
Capacitors
An electric circuit element used to store charge temporarily, consisting in general of two metallic plates separated and insulated from each other by a dielectric.
Resistors & relays
Resistor is a device that used to control and limiting the current in an electric circuit.
The relays we use in our project which is represented as a part of solar tracking circuit are used to control the direction of rotation of the dc motor (clockwise/anticlockwise).

ULN2003a
These versatile devices are useful for driving a wide range of loads including solenoids, relays DC motors, LED displays filament lamps, thermal print heads and high power buffers. Separated the control circuit and the power circuit
Diodes

In our project we put a freewheeling diode into a circuit to protect the switching device from being damaged by the reverse current of an inductive load. It is normally placed in a circuit so that it does not conduct when the current is being supplied to the inductive load.

Inductor
An inductors refers to a passive electronic component , which stores energy in the form of a magnetic field , It consists of a coil or a wire loop or coil. This electric gadget or device is responsible for introducing inductance in a circuit

Transistors

An electronic device that controls the flow of an electric current, most often used as an amplifier or switch. Use to protect IC from high current.

LDR
we used four LDR in our project . the LDR resistance decreases with incident light intensity increasing. the sensors will trigger the motor to move the mounting system so that the solar panels will always face the sun.

Voltage Regulator
A voltage regulator is designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage  level. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages. In our project we use it to regulate the dc voltage

Current sensor

Current sensors are either open- or closed-loop. Open-loop current sensors measure AC and DC currents and provide electrical isolation between the circuit being measured and the output of the sensor

MOSFET (IRF840)
type of transistor used for amplifying or switching electronic signals. we used MOSFET in our project as a switch mode power supple.

Simple Explanation For The Circuit Project
Solar tracking circuit

MPPT circuit
SOFTWARE
In our project we use the flow code for programming.

CONCLUSION
In this project an attempt has been made to implement dual axis model by using microcontroller operating on a solar panel. The design is going to extract maximum power from the sun by tracking it using a dual axis solar panel. This is possible if solar panel is perpendicular to the intensity of light coming from the sun.

The other proposed method to extract maximum power is by implementing a maximum power point tracker controlled buck and boost DC-DC converter to keep the PV output power at the maximum point all the time.
Future Work
We look forward to improve our project in a way that it works on a voltage higher than 12V and power more than 140W .
Add a sensor to measure the radiation and Temperature to give us a feedback information about the system work .
Full transcript