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Historical Development Of Geography
Transcript of Historical Development Of Geography
Geography is an organize field of study which is as old as ancient Greece. The ancient Greeks made the first contribution to the subject. Some of the early geographers-scientists who studied
6. Aristotle ( 384-322 B.C. )
He was the first to demonstrate that the earth was a sphere. He observed that all matter tended to fall together towards a common center, that during the eclipse, the earth’s shadow on the moon was circular and that the configuration of stars changed as one traveled to the north or south.
This listing geographers and geographical studies on the developing world can go on. However , it is sufficient to conclude that geographers continue to make practical contributions to regional and global programs like desertification, global warming, population activities, policy-oriented research in attempts to influence policy change in favor of the urban poor, and a host of other world-wide problems and issues.
3. Hipparchus ( 4th century B.C. )
He was a great astronomer of the ancient world. He draw imaginary lines on the earth’s surface to describe the location of places, thus developing the concept of meridians and parallels
1. Herodotus ( 485-425 B. C.) made marvelous topographical descriptions.
Geography and their contributions are as follows:
2. Eratosthenes ( 3rd century B.C. )
Accepted concept that the earth is round and calculated it’s circumference to within 0.5 percent accuracy .
4. Thales of Miletus ( 6th century B.C. )
He applied geometric principles to the measurements of the land areas .
--> argued that the world was shaped like a cylinder . He made a map of the world based on information from sailors of Miletus.
wrote the seventeen-volume Geographics providing an encyclopedic description of the old world. He regarded the earth as a sphere at the center of a spherical universe.
7. Strabo ( 64 B.C.-A.D. )
Ptolemy ( A.D. 100-170 )
wrote an eight-volume Guide to Geography. He prepared a number of maps whose quality was unsurpassed for more than a thousand years .
Bernhard Varenius ( 1622-1650 ),
a German, wrote Geographica Generalis . His book served as the standard treatise on systematic geography more than a century. He recognized duality of Physical and Human Geography.
The following are the contributions of geographers.
2. Immanuel Kant ( 1724-184 ) was the German philosopher who provided the philosophical underpinnings of geography. He justified its place among science.
3. Alexander von Humboldt ( 1769-1859 ) and Carl Ritter ( 1779-1859 ) were both German geographers. They championed empiricism and inductive explanation through field observation.
4. Friedrich Ratzel ( 1844-904 ) and Ellen Churchill Semple ( 1863-1932 )
believe that geography was the study of the influences of the natural environment on people. Ratzel was widely recognized as the founder of Human Geography. His important publication is Anthropogeography.
5. Ellsworth Huntington ( 1876-947 ) an early American geographer, argued that climate was a major determinant of civilization.
6. Paul Vidal de la Blache ( 1848-918 ) and Jean Brunhes ( 1869-1930 ) used the same orientation as that of Humboldt and Ritter. They developed what is known as the regional geography approach, sometimes called the cultural landscape approach.
7. Carl Saver ( 1889-197 ) and Robert Platt ( 1880-1950 ),
both American geographers, adopted the regional geography approach developed by Blache and Brunhes.