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The Stroop Effect

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by

Shannon McN

on 7 April 2013

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Transcript of The Stroop Effect

The Stroop Effect What can COUNTER ACT it? This test will be run on 15 different
people without knowing what effects
the Stroop Effect has on you. To find out I'm going to run 5 tests.
Test #1- Straight word matching ink-
(blue)
Test #2- Straight word not matching ink
(blue)
Test #3- Forward circle word not matching ink

Test #4- Backwards circle word not matching ink

Test #5- Upside down word not matching ink I was doing a project and I was handwriting my work in markers. I was writing in orange marker but a sentence was that my favourite colour was green. It had no affect on me as I was writing it but when I presented it to my class I said my favourite colour was orange by mistake! This amazed me and as I got more interested I did more research and I wanted to know "What can counter act this?'' What is the Stroop Effect? The Stroop Effect was discovered by John Ridley Stroop in 1935. The Stroop Effect is when you see a colour word written in a different colour than it is. Saying the ink colour it's written in is tricky and can confuse you. This is when the Stroop Effect comes into play. Test #4 was the most effective form of warping the words.
Why?
Because when the brain sees the words and they are
mixed up or hard to read, the brain does not
register a meaning for them and that makes it
to focus on the colour of the text.
Test #4 was the most jumbled up and hard
to read so the brain registered less of a meaning
for them than other tests. blue orange black pink red yellow green The Anterior Cingulate Cortex is the part of the brain located above the brain stem which controls rational functions such as emotions, empathy and decision making as well as autonomic functions such as heart rate and regulating blood pressure. The Stroop Effect happens when this part of the brain is faced with 2 options- saying the word which is what you normally do or saying the colour the word is written in which is what you were told to do. You were told to say the colour of ink but you are so used to reading the word that it becomes hard. This is called interference. Why does this happen? Anterior
Cingulate
Cortex Cerebellum Brain Stem Try It! Say the colour the words are written in- not the word itself. Do this as fast as you can without making any mistakes. Good Luck! Test 1 BLUE ORANGE GREEN RED YELLOW Test 2 The second test was much harder, right? That was because of the Stroop Effect. BLUE PURPLE BLACK
YELLOW GREEN PINK
BROWN "What can counter act this?" My Hypothesis
My first hypothesis was that if a word
is written in a different colour ink
than the word itself is, then people
will struggle and it will take longer
than if they were to say the ink colour
if the ink colour and the word were
matching. What can you
do when being
faced with the
Stroop Effect? Read the word Say the Ink Colour Reading is a simple task
we have been doing all
our lives. It's automatic Comes naturally Is a process that is not
automatized My Purpose The second purpose of this experiment was to
determine whether or not the Stroop Effect
would still occur if the words were shown in
different angles such as upside down,
sideways and in a circle. The first purpose of my experiment was to see
if people had a hard time saying the colour ink
a word is written in if the word itself doesn't match. red red matching
ink mismatched
ink My second hypothesis is
that when the words are
shown at different angles
the Stroop Effect will not
occur and the saying of
ink colour will be faster
and easier. Materials What were the results? -Chair x2
-Table
-15 volunteers
-5 Word sets on paper
-25 words in each set
-Timer
-Spreadsheet x2
-Answer sheet
-Instruction sheet

-List of questions
-Pencil Procedure
Step 1: Create 5 tests that will demonstrate the Stroop Effect.
Step 2: Print off papers with the tests on them.
Step 3: Find 15 test volunteers.
Step 4: Get volunteers to sign permission slips to participate.
Step 5: Bring 1 volunteer into the room at a time.
Step 6: Seat first volunteer in chair with papers in front of them at a desk.
Step 7: Read the instructions, making sure they understand.
Step 8: Tell them to start the test.
Step 9: Start timing them.
Step 10: Listen carefully for mistakes.
Step 11: If mistakes are made mark them down.
Step 12: When they finish, stop the timer.
Step 13: Record any mistakes made and the final time.
Step 14: Give them the next set of words.
Step 15: Repeat steps 8-15 for test 3, 4, 5.
Step 16: Ask volunteer questions.
Step 17: Record answers.
Step 18: Thank volunteer, repeat steps 5-18 for the rest of the volunteers.
Step 19: Analyze the data. After completing the Stroop Test on 15 test volunteers I came up with the following results.

The results of this experiment were that on average Test #1 took 13 seconds with an average of 0 mistakes. Test #2 took 29 seconds with 4 mistakes. Test #3 took 18 seconds with 2 mistakes. Test #4 took 16 seconds with 1 mistake. Test #5 took 25 seconds with 3 mistakes.

According to my experiment the test subjects had a harder time stating the text colour when the font colour and the word were not matching (independent variable). They took a longer time to do so (dependent variable) and found it harder than when the word and font colour were matching.

According to my experiments the Stroop Effect had a lessened effect on test subjects when the words were warped in a circle and upside down. This was because the test subjects did not register a meaning for the letters so they couldn't read it, making it easier to say the font colour.

According to my experiment the from of warping the words that was the most effective was Test #4 (backwards circle). Even though the word and font colour were not matching, the position of the word (backwards circle) made it easier for test subjects to state the font colour and lessened the time it took to do the test by 42%. My first hypothesis was that the word and font colour not matching would slow the subject's ability to state the font colour

My hypothesis was correct. The evidence of the average time for Test#1 (matching colour/word) is 13 seconds while Test #2 (non-matching colour/word) took 29 seconds. Test #1 required less time while the average time for Test #2 took 2.23 times the time of Test #1. My second hypothesis was that when the words were warped (Tests 3, 4 & 5) the time it takes to do the Stroop Test would be shortened.

My hypothesis was correct. The average time for Test #2 (non-matching colour/word) of 29 seconds compared to the average times of Test #3- 18 seconds, Test #4- 16 seconds and Test #5 with an average time of 25 seconds, there is a large difference. Test #3 was 1.611 times less with an 11 second time difference. Test #4 was 1.812 times less with a thirteen second difference. Test #5 was 1.16 times less with a 4 second time difference. My third hypothesis was that the fourth method of warping the words would be the most effective.

My hypothesis was correct. Test #4 (backwards circle non-matching colour/word) had the least average time and the least amount of mistakes made. Compared to Test #3 which took 2 seconds longer on average and 1 more mistake on average and Test #5 which took 9 seconds longer on average and 2 more mistakes on average. An interesting future study would be to see if gender has an effect on the times. I also wonder if the statement “practice makes perfect” is true for the Stroop Effect.

If I were to conduct the project again I would use more subjects and more words in a set. Conclusion Average Time Per Test
Test #1- 13 seconds
Test #2- 29 seconds
Test #3- 18 seconds
Test #4- 16 seconds
Test #5- 25 seconds Average Mistakes Made Per Test
Test #1- 0 mistakes
Test #2- 4 mistakes
Test #3- 2 mistakes
Test #4- 1 mistakes
Test #5- 3 mistakes Test #5 was the least effective form of warping the words because the brain still registered a strong meaning of the letters. Test #5 was the least garbled, making it the easiest to read, but the hardest to take out of Tests #3, 4 and 5. When these two pieces of information come in conflict with each other it is called an interference. This interference is the reason for the delay in reaction time. There are two theories that also explain the reaction time delay. They are: 1.The Selective Attention Theory: States that naming colours requires more attention than reading words.
2.The Speed of Processing Theory: States that words are read faster than colours are named. The third purpose of my experiment was to see which form of warped word worked the best and the worst, with the least and most amount of reaction time. My third hypothesis is that Test #4 will be the most affective way of counter acting the Stroop Effect and Test #5 will be the least affective way of counter acting the Stroop Effect. Materials Thank you for watching!
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