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Unit 2 History Part 2 (World History)

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Lucy Van Der Merwe

on 9 March 2014

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Transcript of Unit 2 History Part 2 (World History)

Unit 2 History Part 2 (World History)
Long Term Causes of World War I
Short term cause of World War I
World History
Understand the significant events of the last century in South Africa, Africa and the World.

Understand and explain the significance that the First World War had on world affairs.

Understand and explain the significance that the Second World War had on world affairs.
Outcomes
World War I

Complicated
Chain of events that directly led to the fighting
Root of the causes are much deeper
Began
in Central Europe in
late June 1914
,

Factors:
Conflicts and hostility of the four decades leading up to the war.
Militarism
Alliances
Imperialism
Nationalism

Decisions
taken by statesmen and generals during the Crisis of 1914, after Gavrilo Princip assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria together with his wife (Keegan, 1998).

1. Mutual Defense Alliances
A number of alliances had been signed by countries between the years
1879 and 1914
.
If one country was attacked,
allied countries
were bound to defend them.
According to Fromkin (2004) before World War I, the following
alliances
existed:

Russia and Serbia
Germany and Austria-Hungary
France and Russia
Britain, France and Belgium
Japan and Britain
2. Imperialism
Imperialism is a
process
in which a country increases its power and wealth through the
control of other people

Through political influence, economic exploitation or the
imposition
of culture on another group (Keegan, 1998).

Imperialism led countries to have c
onflicting national interests = WAR.

Before World War I,
Africa
and parts of
Asia
were points of contention amongst the European countries. =
Raw materials

See example
3. Militarism
Between 1
900 and 1914
the great powers of Europe became
suspicious
of each other size of their armed services.
Turned into an
arms race
in which each country tried to build a much bigger and better military machine than their enemy.
By
1914, Germany
had the greatest increase in military build-up.
Great Britain and Germany both greatly increased their navies in this time period. I
Germany and Russia particularly, the
military
establishments began to have a
greater influence on public policy.
The rivalry between the powers led to a building up of
weapons
and an increase in
distrust = War
4. Nationalism
Nationalism which is regarded as the
love and support of one's country
, has always existed.
So much pride was devoted to countries, it made the possibilities of peace between past rivals less probable.
Would
rather fight a war
than back down
A contributing factor to the alliance system.
No one wants to go to war alone, and with the growing militaries in almost every country,
allies
provided much comfort
Each country tried to prove their
dominance and power.
1. The Balkan Crisis
Two conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula in south-eastern Europe
1912 and 1913.

Early 20th century, Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and Serbia had achieved
independenc
e from the Ottoman Empire, but large parts of their ethnic populations remained under Ottoman rule.
In 1912, these countries formed the Balkan League.
The First Balkan War broke out when the League attacked the Ottoman Empire on 8 October 1912 and was ended seven months later by the
Treaty of London.

Google Treaty of London
After five centuries, the Ottoman Empire lost virtually all of its possessions in the Balkans.

The
Second
Balkan War broke out on
16 June 1913
.
Erickson (2003) argues that Bulgaria was
dissatisfied over the division of the spoils
in Macedonia(made in secret by its former allies, Serbia and Greece), and attacked them.
The Serbian and Greek armies repulsed the Bulgarian offensive and c
ounter-attacked
into Bulgaria, while Romania and the Ottoman Empire also attacked Bulgaria and gained (or regained) territory.
In the resulting Treaty of Bucharest,
Bulgaria lost most of the territories
it had gained in the First Balkan War.
2. The Moroccan Crisis
The Moroccan crisis of 1911 began after the gunboat
Panther of Germany was dispatched
to Agadir on
July 1.

Request of German firms in Agadir for
protection
in the disordered state of the country.
BUT there were
no German subjects
at Agadir, and the port was
not open to Europeans
, it was clear that the real motive was a desire to reopen the whole question.
The crises =
devastating result
They occurred directly
after another.

Several crises in these regions followed by what is known as the
‘third Balkan crisis’
which led to what most would say was the
immediate cause of the war
. It was what caused the most damage
Videos on WW1
Immediate Cause
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
The immediate cause of World War I th
at made (alliances, imperialism, militarism, nationalism)
come into play.
In
June 1914
, a
Serbian nationalist assassinated
Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife while they were in Sarajevo, Bosnia, which was part of Austria-Hungary. This was in
protest
to Austria-Hungary having
control of this region.
This assassination led to Austria-Hungary
declaring war on Serbia.

When Russia
mobilised
due to its
alliance with Serbia,
Germany declared war on Russia.

The period
1900-1914
Activity 2: Newspaper article on Franz Ferdinand

Consequences of World War I
Borders were radically changed.
New countries
were formed, for example Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia.
New governments
emerged, for example the Weimer Republic in Germany and the revolution in the Russian Empire, transforming Russia into the Soviet Union.
New major world players
= Japan and the United States.
The
Treaty of Versailles
was signed on
28 June 1919
, and it stated a number of
demands
which Germany had to fulfill, as it was deemed to be responsible for the war.
It had to
pay reparations
,
disarm and remove its troops
from the Rhineland
1. Political Effects
2. Economic Effects

Inflation
figures rose

Germany
was one of the countries which felt the effects of the war the most.
There was world-wide
depression = long-term
effect
European
countryside
was
devastated
.
The
United States
became a c
reditor nation
. England had been the great creditor nation of the world, providing shipping and insurance services to the rest of the world.

World's financial centre shifted
from England to the United States, that is, from London to New York.
European countries were
left in debt
as a result of the enormous financial cost of war (Germany especially so).
The war brought ruin and destruction to Europe.
Infrastructure
was destroyed
Homes ransacked
All
communication channels
were left damaged. Many people in Europe were left without a home, food, fuel or clothes.
Millions of people
died
and many more were wounded, (more women died as compared to men). Millions were left without limbs.
There was a
baby boom
, on account of the millions of people that were killed during the war.
In some countries, like England,
women were granted the right to vote
; they could now have access to
job opportunities equal to men.
3. Social Effects
Activity 3:

Download Smart draw your tablet and draw a diagram during key words based on the different effects the WORLD WAR I had.
The Great Depression
During the
1930s
= most devastating economic calamities (greatest one in the 20th century)
Originated in the
United States of America
=
stock market crashed
on 29 October 1929 (known as
Black Tuesday)
.
Bankrupt
overnight, including companies and banks.
Sent a
panic
through the country
The crash also spread to
business
.
Prices plummeted, businesses could
not make a profit
, and so had to close, or
lay off employees
and then eventually
close
anyway.
Unemployment rose by
607 percent
in the USA
Spread to other countries across the world with similar effects.
Forced governments to take a more
active part in the economic development
of their countries.
In the USA, this ushered in the era of the
New Deal
, where government sought to support the masses of unemployed people by creating a
social safety net
on which they could rely
Creating set prices for products, forcing businesses to work with the government and creating
government projects
that required intensive labour.
The effects of the Great Depression were only completely undone by the
end of the Second World War
in 1945 (to be discussed later),
sixteen years
after it had started.
Inflation
was so high that money was
useless
Video: Great Depression




Activity 4: Causes of WW1
World War II
Causes

Began in
September 1939
, when Britain and France declared war on Germany following its invasion of Poland.

Nationalistic tensions
Unresolved issues
Resentments resulting from the end of World War I
Great Depression in the 1930s
(Fromkin, 2004).

The
main causes
of World War II can be listed as:

The failure of the Versailles Treaty
The failure of the League of Nations
The failure of Appeasement
1. The failure of the treaty of Versailles
Signed
after World War I
Treated
Germany very harshly
.
Germany was
accused
of causing the war and it had to pay reparations to the
sum of 6.6 million pound
s to compensate the war victims.
Allowed a s
mall army, and six naval ships.
No tanks, no air force and no submarines.
(Demiliterised)
Land
taken away
People were
not happy
with the administration and incompetence of the Weimar Republic and they voted
Hitler
into power.
He was a man who promised that Germany would stand up to the League of Nations
‘bullies’
and he would rip up the Treaty of Versailles.
He
re-armed
the nation, built up a massive army, re-militarised the Rhineland, and threatened neighbouring states.
It was obvious he was
preparing for war

Activity 5:
Answer the following question?

Do you think it was fair for the leaders who were present at the signing of the Versailles Treaty to put all the blame on Germany? And blaming them for the outbreak of WW1? Motivate your answer.

Activity 6: Treaty of Versailles
2. Failure of the League of Nations
(LON) was an
organisation
=
1919
to help keep
world peace
.
All the countries would be
members
= peaceful resolutions through
negotiations.

Total failure (
USA
never joined, did not step in when
invasions
happened, did nothing to stop
Hitler
) .
Hitler’s reference to the Munich Agreement as a
‘scrap of paper’
made clear his intentions.
LON only provided
paper protests
The Versailles treaty became
irrelevant
.
WWII was started not only by
Hitler's aspirations
, but by the
West
which was
weak
and did not understand the magnitude of its inaction.
Main reasons for the failure of the LON
Not all countries joined the League
The League had no power
The League had no army
Unable to act quickly
Please read page 39 and 40
3. Failure of Appeasement
"Appeasement means giving in to someone, provided their demands are seen as reasonable."
The appeasement policy (France and Britain) in the 1930s to allow Nazi Germany to have nearly anything it wanted in the hopes that eventually Hitler would
cease his aggressive policies.
During the 1930s, some politicians (
Britain
), saw that the Treaty of Versailles had placed restrictions on Germany that were
unfair
. Hitler's actions such as
re-militarising
,
re-arming and rebuilding
as well as the annexing of Austria =
understandable and justifiable.
They let him build up the German armed forces in contravention of the Treaty of Versailles.
The
effect
of the policy was that, each time Hitler was allowed to
get away
with something he would just do something
worse.
They realised that he would never be appeased and they would have to fight in order to stop him.
Effects of WW II
Millions of people
died
(more civilians than soldiers)

1. Politically

Weaker influence
of Western Europe. After World War II, though, when these nations became
exhausted economically and militarily
, the result was a
bipolar equilibrium
, that is,
two superpowers
: the United States (US) and the Soviet Union (USSR).

- The
Cold War was the main result of WW II
. The world lived with the threat of
nuclear warfare
between the two most powerful nations, the United States and the Soviet Union.
- Militarily, new technologies, from
much improved tanks and airplanes
to the deadly
atomic bomb
, had been developed to make wars faster and more brutal.
-
Bombs
destroyed many buildings.
- Short of
food
for a few years after the war.
-
Children
had their parents leave them to go to war.
- Many countries became
Communist

Good effects
More people had
jobs
.
Women
had a chance to work.
Women =
voting
in France and Italy.
Independence for some nations.
Realisation that human rights needed to be protected = signing of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
(UDHR)
in
1948.
The economic depression
subsided.
As a result of the death of many civilians, the Geneva Convention was signed which sought to
protect civilians
during war times.
The Cold War
End
of the Second World War,
tensions
between between the United States of America and the United Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) rose dramatically.
Based on
opposing ideologies
of what direction the world’s future was supposed to take.
Was it to be a world based on
capitalism (USA)
or one based on
communism (USSR)
?
The tension between the USA and USSR
never
spilled over into
open war
, however (thus, the term
‘Cold War’)
.

Instead, the superiority of these ideologies was to be decided by different means:
Arsenal build-up race
: Both the United States and the USSR
Proxy wars:
Support the causes of people who either fought for or against communism.
Some of the more well-known wars included the Korean War, Vietnam War and the Soviet-Afghan War.
Acquisition of allies:
The two primary alliances were both in Europe: the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) and the WARSAW pact split West and Eastern Europe between the sides of the USA (NATO) and the USSR (WARSAW).
USA and USSR would support regimes that were not necessarily in line with their own ideology but did oppose their opponent’s (such as the USA supporting the National Party of South Africa’s regime because they opposed communism).
This acquisition of allies also sparked the creation of the non-aligned movement.
The space race:
Another field of competition was that of prestige, and during the Cold War there were no greater prestigious achievements than those achieved in outer space. Initially the USSR were the frontrunners in this space race (first man-made satellite in space [Sputnik], first animal in space, first human in space) but eventually in the late 1960s the USA overtook their opponents (first man on the moon).
One period
in cold war that looked like there will be a confrontation
13 Days called Cuba Missile Crisis
Cuba = Revolution 1950's
Americans
supported the forces of Fidel Castro (Prime Minster of Cuba)
He got power =
Communism
Threat
to America
The Kennedy government recruited
Cuban refugees
and trained them to overthrow Castro
Cubans were
alerted
and the refugees (would-be insurgents were all killed.
Castro reached out to the
USSR = nuclear weapons
Americans heard this and said if there is one more shipment of these weapons that they will see it as a
declaration of war
The were able to
negotiate, removed the weapons
After this crisis = period = detente(reduction of tensions) until 1980's
USSR could not keep up with
USA'S spending on military
USSR = Greater reform =
Policies = perestrokia (economic restructuring and glasnot (freedom and transparency of the press)
Soviet Union collapsed in 1991
Civil Rights Movement
Policy of segregation
was not just isolated to South Africa.
Found in the
USA
sparked a national movement that became known as the
Civil Rights Movement
.
The movement originated from various incidents, two of them being the following:
The
death of Emmett Till
and the
Montgomery bus incident
with Rosa Parks.

While the movement might have originally revolved around the dissolution of segregation (
in schools, universities, transportation, restaurants
etc.), the movement grew to incorporate other issues and
groups
of people who were also being d
iscriminated against in the 1950s
.

These issues included
women and gender equity rights
, as well as rights related to
sexual inclination
, as well as the American Indian movement and the dissolution of the army drafting laws.
1950s and 1960s
Peaceful sit-ins or boycotts.


Activity 7: Video on Cold War

Activity 8: Video on WWII

Activity 9: Video
Emmett Till
Montgomery Bus incident

What are your thoughts on these videos?

Activity 10: Activity on Causes on WW II
Activity 6:

Use app to create timelines on:

African History
South-African History
World War

Homework : Complete the Testmoz on your tablet
Bibliography
Allen, T. & Thomas, A, (2004), Poverty and Development into the 21st Century. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
Chigunta, F., (2002), The Socio-economic Situation of Youth in Africa: Problems, Prospects and Options. Draft.
De Beer, F., (2000), The community of the poor in: De Beer, F. and Swanepoel, H., Introduction to Development Studies, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp.1-17.
Deegan, H., (2001), The Politics of the New South Africa: Apartheid and After. Pearson Longman. Essex.
Erickson E, (2003), Defeat in Detail. The Ottoman Army in the Balkan, 1912-1913, Praeger Publishers, USA.
Fromkin D, (2004), Europe’s Last Summer. Who Started The Great War in 1914? Alfred A. Knopf, New York.
Genocide convention (2012), ‘Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide’, Available at: http://www.ppu.org.uk/learn/texts/doc_genocide_con.html, Accessed on: 27th September 2012.
Gilbert L. & Selikow T., (2010), Gender and HIV/AIDS in: Ellen Kuhlmann and Ellen Annandale, Handbook of Gender and Healthcare, Palgrave, pp. 189-203.
Haynes J (2008), Development Studies, Short Introductions, Polity Press, United Kingdom.
Heywood, A., (2007), Political Ideologies: An introduction. Palgrave Macmillan. New York.
Human Sciences Research Council, (2008), Citizenship, Violence and Xenophobia in South Africa: Perceptions from South African Communities.
Huffman L. M & Cohen N. P., (March 2004), ‘Occupational Segregation and the Gender Gap in Workplace Authority: National versus Local Labour Markets’, Sociological Forum, Vol. 19, No. 1, p. 121-147.
ICDP, (2012), ‘Comprehensive Theory of Social Development’ http://www.icpd.org/development_theory/comprehensive_theory_of_social_development.
Htm. Accessed: 27th September 2012.
Activity
testmoz.com/266108
Theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state
A system of social organization in which all economic and social activity is controlled by a totalitarian state dominated by a single and self-perpetuating political party.
The government runs every thing and it allocates all of the resources in the country. citizens are told what to make how much to make. Each citizen gets the same of everything no one is suppose to be any better off than the next person and their is not free market, meaning if you decide to run an ice cream stand it will belong to the government and all of the people you can not make a profit.
an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state
Capitalism is an economic system where things (property, for example) are owned by people or an individual, not by a government or communities. People have to barter or work for money so they can buy things they need or want, such as food. Capitalism mostly has a free market economy, which means people buy and sell things by their own judgment.
Communism
Capitalism
http://www.sahistory.org.za/article/capitalism-vs-communism-and-russian-revolution-grade-11
Full transcript