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# Chapter 4. Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation

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## Jenny Sardona

on 9 March 2014

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#### Transcript of Chapter 4. Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation

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CHAPTER 4
Preparing Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
Presentation
Analysis
Interpretation
Presentation of Data

WRITING THE RESEARCH REPORT
A. Tabular Presentation

B. Graphical Presentation of Data

C. Textual Presentation
Constructing a Table:
Title
Number
Body
Notes
Presentation
is a way of arranging data into a logical, chronological and significant categories and classification
Three ways of Presenting data:
Tabular
Graphical
Textual
Tabular Presentation:

Tables organize and compress data into standardized forms.

Facilitate the study and interpretation.
Reason for using Tabular Presentation of Data:

Data in tables are grouped and are arranged systemically

Relationships of data are seen easily

Presents ideas that are understood even without reading the textual presentation

Tables includes:
Title
Number
Body
Notes
Title

The title should identify the table briefly.

Omits the words Frequency and Percentage Distribution of/ Distribution of/ According to.
-generally expressed in phrase or clause form.

It contains:
Stub
Row labels

Master caption
Column caption
Column sub caption

The body or text of the table

Contains all the quantitative and proportional information presented in the table in rows and in columns.
Body:

Notes
If there are items in the table that are not easily understood

If the respondents of the study are not the sources of the data in the table
There are three types of notes for tables:
General notes

Specific notes

Probability notes

Example: Note. The racial categories used by the US Census (African-American, Asian American, Latinos/-as, Native-American, and Pacific Islander) have been collapsed into the category “non-White.” E = excludes respondents who self-identified as “White” and at least one other “non-White” race.
Table Data Spacing
Guidelines in Constructing tables for research paper:
1. A double line written 2 spaces below the title separates the title from the table.
2. Horizontal lines separate the stub head and the column caption.
4. Side ends of Tables are unruled.
3.Lines do not separate rows and columns. Rows are double-spaced.
5.A line from the last row of information separates bottom total.
6. Table is separated from the textual presentation by two spaces. If the table succeeds the textual presentation, there should be 3 spaces in between the last line of the text and the table number.
Guidelines in Preparing Chapter 4
Graphical Presentation
Bar Graph
Line Graph
Circle Graph
Picture Graph
Map Graph
Inverted Pyramid:

Table

Effects of Mass Media

Paragraph Form:

Table 1. Classification of Student Leader Respondents by Year Level and School/College

Block style:

Table 1. Classification of Student Leader Respondents by Year Level and School/College

Table Title Format
Number

Number all tables with arabic numerals sequentially.

If the manuscript includes an appendix with tables, identify them with capital letters and arabic numerals (e.g. Table A1, Table B2).

If the chapter contains only one table, the number is unnecessary.

Only the initial letter of the word “Table” is capitalized.
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