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Ramona Mercer

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Melissa English

on 24 January 2014

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Transcript of Ramona Mercer

Ramona Mercer
Maternal Role Attainment- Becoming a Mother
Maternal Factors
"Maternal role attainment is an interactional and developmental process occurring over time in which the mother becomes attached to her infant, acquires competence in the caretaking tasks involved in the role, and expresses pleasure and gratification in the role." (Alligood, Tomey 2010 p.584)
Maternal factors
-Age at first birth
-Birth Experience
-Early separation from infant
-Social stress
-Social support
-Personality traits
-Self- concept
-Child-rearing attitudes
-Health
Infant Factors
-Temperament
-Appearance
-Responsiveness
-Health status
-Ability to give cues
Traits of the mother and infant may influence maternal role identity and child outcome
maternal traits and behaviors
-empathy
-sensitivity to infant cues
-self-esteem and self-concept
-parenting received as a child
-maturity and flexibility
-attitudes
-pregnancy and birth experience
-health
-depression
-role conflict

infant traits
-temperament
-ability to send cues
-appearance
-general characteristics
-responsiveness
-health
Four phases of maternal role attainment
a) anticipatory
b) formal
c) informal
d) personal
infant's developmental responses
a) eye contact with mother
b)smile reflex and quieting behavior
c)consistent interactive behaviors
d)eliciting responses from the mother; increasingly more mobile
Mercer's theory provides a framework that can be used to guide practice and care for mothers and children in various health care settings from birth to one year after birth.
Mercer used Bronfenbrenner's nested circles to display display interactions between mother, father, and infant
Six Assumptions:
- a relatively stable core-self, acquired through life-long socialization, determines how a mother defines and perceives events
- her developmental level and innate personality characteristics also influence her behavioral responses
-the infant will reflect the mother's competence in the mothering role through growth and development
-the infant is considered an active partner in the maternal role-taking process, affecting and being affected by the role of enactment
-the father's or mother's intimate partner contributes to role attainment in a way that cannot be duplicated by any other support person
-maternal identity develops concurrently with maternal attachment and each depends on the other (Alligood, Tomey 2010 p.586)
Microsystem
-immediate environment
-most influential on maternal role attainment
Stages of Maternal Role Attainment (stages of aquisition):
a) anticipatory- begins during pregnancy
b) formal- begins with birth
c) informal- begins as mother develops unique ways of dealing with role
d)personal- woman internalizes her role
Infant's developmental responses:
a) eye contact with mother and grasp reflex
b) smile reflex and quieting behavior in response to mother's care
c) consistent interactive behaviors with mother
d) eliciting responses from mother; increasingly more mobile
2004 proposed revisions:
- Becoming a Mother
-phases:
a) commitment & preparation
b) acquaintance, practice, & physical restoration
c) approaching normalization
d) integration of maternal identity
References:

Alligood, M. R., & Tomey, A. M. (2010). Nursing theorists and their work (7th ed.). Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby Elsevier

Fabio, R. A. (n.d.). Theory on maternal role attainment of Ramona T. Mercer. Retrieved from http://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/NursingTheories/conversations/topics/15
Intervals of study:
- immediate postpartum
- one month
- four months
- eight months
- one year after the birth
Who did she study?
- teens
- older mothers
-mothers with illness
- mothers of infants with congenital defects
- families with antepartal stress
- parents at high risk
- mothers who had cesarean sections
- fathers
Common Concepts in Nursing Theory:
-Nursing: nurses play a large role in providing care and information during pregnancy and the first year following birth and this influence can have long-lasting affects
-Person: uses the term 'self' or 'core-self'; self is viewed as separate from the role; how a woman feels about herself (self-esteem and self-confidence) affects how she attains the maternal role
-Health: health status of the mother, infant, and family affects the mother's ability to attain the maternal role
-Environment: development of a role/person cannot be considered apart from the environment; there is a mutual accommodation between the developing person and the changing properties of the immediate settings, relationship between the settings, and the larger context in which the settings are embedded
Father: "helps diffuse the tension developing within the mother-infant dyad" (Alligood, Tomey 2010 p.588)
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