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The Road to Equality
Transcript of The Road to Equality
: abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.
: granted citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States,” which included former slaves recently freed.
: granted African American men the right to vote
These amendments declared that the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Jim Crow Laws (Black Codes)
Laws that enforced racial segregation in the South between the end of Reconstruction in 1877 and the beginning of the civil rights movement in the 1950s.
These laws worked primarily to restricted the rights of African Americans to use certain schools and public facilities
In Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954), the US Supreme Court ruled that Jim Crow laws were unconstitutional.
The Rise of the KKK
The Ku Klux Klan was formed in Pulaski, Tennessee, in 1865. Originally founded as a social club for former Confederate soldiers, the Klan evolved into a terrorist organization that violently intimidated blacks and Republicans who tried to win political power.
Plessy v. Ferguson
U.S. Supreme Court case from 1896 that upheld the rights of states to pass laws allowing or even requiring racial segregation in public and private institutions such as schools, public transportation, restrooms, and restaurants.
The Court held segregation was constitutional under the Fourteenth Amendment Equal Protection Clause, as long as States provided equal accommodations for both races
Plessy basically granted legislative immunity to states regarding race.
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is an African-American civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909.
Ratified on August 18, 1920, the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution granted American women the right to vote—a right known as woman suffrage.
Prior to that point in time, women rarely had a "voice." This was a major step for the U.S. towards a more democratic government because more people were represented after women could vote.
The Red Scare and Rise of second KKK in the 1920s
The resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s coincided with the anti-radical and anti-immigrant hysteria of the Red Scare that had engulfed the nation. The second KKK was founded in 1915 by William J. Simmons. Its goal was to preserve the white, Protestant civilization and instigate the re-establishment of white supremacy.
Double V Campaign during WWII
When World War II erupted, over 2.5 million black men registered for the draft and one million served as draftees or volunteers in all of the branches of the Armed Forces during conflict. Most black men who served were in the Army and were relegated to segregated combat support groups.
The fight for EQUALITY
The Road to Equality
By: Lauren Assel, Sabrina Bernhard, and Lela Saville
The NAACP pushed for legislation to protect and further African american issues such as jobs, equal protection and equal rights. They also pushed strongly for anti-lynching legislation.
President Truman's Desegregation of the Military (Executive Order 9981)
Executive Order 9981 is an executive order issued on July 26, 1948 by President Harry S. Truman. It abolished racial discrimination in the United States Armed Forces and eventually led to the end of segregation in the services.
Brown v. Board of Education
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
Emmett Till murder
Emmett Louis Till (July 25, 1941 – August 28, 1955) was an African-American teenager who was murdered in Mississippi at the age of 14 after reportedly flirting with a white woman.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
The Montgomery Bus Boycott, a seminal event in the U.S. civil rights movement, was a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama.
Little Rock Crisis
Their enrollment was followed by the Little Rock Crisis, in which the students were initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school by Orval Faubus, the Governor of Arkansas. They then attended after the intervention of President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
A form of protest in which demonstrators occupy a place, refusing to leave until their demands are met.
Freedom Rides, in U.S. history, a series of political protests against segregation by blacks and whites who rode buses together through the American South in 1961. In 1946 the U.S. Supreme Court banned segregation in interstate bus travel.
The Birmingham campaign, or 1963 Birmingham movement, was a movement organized in early 1963 by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to bring attention to the integration efforts of African Americans in Birmingham, Alabama.
March on Washington
In full March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, political demonstration held in Washington, D.C., in 1963 by civil rights leaders to protest racial discrimination and to show support for major civil rights legislation that was pending in Congress.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964
A federal law that authorized federal action against segregation in public accommodations, public facilities, and employment.
Freedom Summer/Voter Registration
(also known as the Mississippi Summer Project) was a campaign in the United States launched in June 1964 to attempt to register as many African-American voters as possible in Mississippi, which had historically excluded most blacks from voting.
From Selma to Montgomery March
On 25 March 1965, Martin Luther King led thousands of nonviolent demonstrators to the steps of the capitol in Montgomery, Alabama, after a 5-day, 54-mile march from Selma, Alabama, where local African Americans had been campaigning for voting rights.
The Voting Rights Act of 1965
A law passed at the time of the civil rights movement. It eliminated various devices, such as literacy tests, that had traditionally been used to restrict voting by black people.
The rise of Malcolm X and his assassination
Malcolm X was a prominent figure during the Civil Rights era. Offering an alternative view to the mainstream Civil Rights movement, Malcolm X advocated for both the establishment of a separate black community (rather than integration) and the use of violence in self defense (rather than non-violence).
Black Panther Party
An organization of revolutionary community organizers. They fought against white racial prejudice and were extremely critical of the gap between American democratic ideals and the reality of segregation and discrimination in America.
Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr
In the early evening of April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King, Jr. was killed by a single shot which struck his face and neck. He was standing on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee, where he had come to lead a peaceful march in support of striking sanitation workers.