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Universal Design for Information Literacy

Presented at the 38th Annual LOEX Conference 2010: Bridging & Beyond. Dearborn, Michigan April 30. By Elizabeth Dolinger, Research Services Librarian, Landmark College & Ted Chodock, Reference and Instructional Services Librarian

Elizabeth Dolinger

on 25 June 2010

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Transcript of Universal Design for Information Literacy

white space
information in maps
information displayed as words
case studies
Multiple Intelligences
Howard Gardner
Life is learning
Concept Maps

90.3% use Social Networking Sites
89.8% use text messenging
age 18 to 19 use SNS's most frequently (95.4%)
use of SNS's by 30-39 year olds has more than tripled in 4 years & quadrupled among respondents 40 and over

Learning Styles
Today's Undergraduate Students
"Digital Natives"
-Marc Prensky
Universal Design for Information Literacy (UDIL)
Of those, 24% report having a mental, emotional, or psychiatric condiction such as depression.
19% reported having Attention Deficit Disorder.
Just under 10% reported having a specific learning disability such as dyslexia.
"Instruction is designed to be useful to and accessible by people with diverse abilities. Provide the same means of use for all students, identical whenever possible, equivalent when not."
"Instruction is designed to accomodate a wide range of individual abilities. Provide choice in methods of use."
"Instruction is designed so that necessary information is communicated effectively to the student, regardless of ambient conditions or the student's sensory abilities."
"Instruction is designed in a straightforward and predictable manner, regardless of the student's experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level. Eliminate unnecessary complexity."
"Instruction anticipates variation in individual student learning pace and prerequisite skills."
"Instruction is designed to minimize nonessential physical effort in order to allow maximum attention to learning."
"Instruction is designed with consideration for appropriate size and space for approach, reach, manipulations, and use regardless of a student's body size, posture, mobility, and communication needs."
"The instructional environment promotes interaction and communication between students and faculty. "
"Instruction is designed to be welcoming and inclusive. High expectations are espoused for all students."
2003-2004 12.3% of undergraduates reported that English was not the primary language spoken at home.
encourage students to see relationships between ideas
Photo by Aeioux
by just.Luc(just.censored)
by Helene Jutras
by Kyle May
9 Principles
A Vision of Today's Students
EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research 2009 Study of Undergraduate Students & Information Technology
The Learning Disabilities Association of America (LDA) defines a learning disability as “a neurological condition that interferes with a person’s ability to store, process, or produce information.”
“...a learning disibility [sic] is an opportunity for someone to be more creative, and someone that understands information in a different way, just goes in a different direction to get there but reaches the same destination.” -- Landmark College student
“...a learning disability is not having a disability but a difference. It is a difference in the way my brain takes in, processes, and spits out information. There is a stereotype that goes along with disabilities that some people assume that we are stupid or can’t do anything, but usually people with learning disabilities are smart they just don’t show it in the conventional ways.” -- Landmark College student
“common characteristics are difficulty with phonological processing and/or rapid visual-verbal responding.”
Slower than average reading and reading comprehension
Is a “persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyper-activity-impulsivity that is more frequently displayed and more severe than is typically observed in individuals at a comparable level of development.”
Working memory & problem solving processes
Control of emotions & impulses
Internalized speech
Between 1995 - 2006 enrollment of people age 25 or older rose by 13%

2006 - 2017 National Center for Education Statistics projects a 19% rise in enrollments of people 25 and over

1.06% of undergraduate students age 30 or older reported some type of disability
Learning Disability?
Learning Difference...
Difficulty handwriting & spelling
trouble with rapid visual-verbal responding
Concept maps may be helpful
Note-taking can be challenging
“is characterized by problems in coping with written symbols, despite normal intelligences.”
Misjudging available time
A 2005 report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 found that only “40% of postsecondary students with disabilities identify themselves as having a disability and have informed their postsecondary schools of that disability.”
Library Anxiety?
Provide Multiple Means of Representation (the "what" of learning)
Equitable Use
2. Flexibility in Use
3. Simple & intuitive instruction
4. Perceptible information
5. Tolerance for error
6. Low physical effort
7. Size & space for approach & use
8. A community of learners
9. Instructional climate
Artistic & Visual
Executive Function Dis
“Library anxiety is an uncomfortable feeling or emotional disposition, experienced in a library setting, which has cognitive, affective, physiological, and behavioral ramifications.”
Characteristics of Library
“75-85% of students described their initial response to using the library in terms of fear or anxiety, a sense of feeling ‘lost’”

“The majority of users may experience library anxiety at certain stages of their library use or potential use.”
Non-native English speakers
How many students
“In traditional postsecondary education… the capacity of enrolled students to master the content and achieve the outcomes is essentially assumed, often within the range defined by a bell curve. A certain amount of failure and sub-par performance is expected and even required to validate other successes.”
Low reading comprehension and reading vocabulary
Visual learners
Feelings of uncertainty & helplessness
Negative self-defeating thoughts
Mental disorganization
The design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design.
Universal Design
-Ron Mace
Universal Design for Learning (UDL)
“The burden of adaptation should be first placed on the curriculum, not the learner. Because most curricula are unable to adapt to individual differences, we have come to recognize that our curricula, rather than our students, are disabled.”
Provide Multiple Means of Expression (the "how" of learning)
Provide Multiple Means of Engagement (the "why"of learning)
“With an absence of legal mandates relating to planning individualized instruction for students with disabilities at the postsecondary level, change will be fueled by thoughtful approaches that are responsive to the culture of faculty and features of their work that are distinctly different from those of their colleagues in elementary and secondary settings.”
Universal Design for Instruction (UDI)
Universal Design & Libraries
“Libraries should use strategies based upon the principles of universal design to ensure that library policy, resources and services meet the needs of all people.”
Entrance ramps rather than steps
Wide stacks to accommodate wheel chairs
Low service desks
Computer tables that allow for height changes
Elevator controls available from a seated position
Websites, Computers & Technology
Screen-readers friendly
Assistive Technologies available
Usability Testing
ACRL Standards
ACRL Standards for Proficiencies for Instruction Librarians & Coordinators
6.6 Designs instruction to best meet the common learning characteristics of learners, including prior knowledge and experience, motivation to learn, cognitive abilities, and circumstances under which they will be learning.
6.7 Integrates appropriate technology into instruction to support experiential and collaborative learning as well as to improve student receptiveness, comprehension, and retention of information.
9.2 Presents instructional content in diverse ways (written, oral, visual, online, or using presentation software) and selects appropriate delivery methods according to class needs.
12.2 Modifies teaching methods and delivery to address different learning styles, language abilities, developmental skills, age groups, and the diverse needs of student learners.
UDI & Active Learning
Active Learning methods of teaching become even more essential in the framework of UDI
Applying UDI
“Barriers exist in the instruction, not in the user, and thus it is the instruction that must change. This change in mindset alone improves interactions between the non-disabled and people with disabilities, as they become potential partners in addressing the common problem of shortcomings in instructional design rather than exhibiting an inequitable power relationship where one person is the problem and the other the problem solver.” -Creamer (2007) p 14.
Create online & print course guides & handouts
Use a sans serif font
Print words (avoid cursive)
Video or screencast library tours, tutorials, and handouts
Spell vocally & write out search words
Preview & review lesson plan with a vocalized & written agenda
Use of active learning methods that engage multiple senses
Repeat back questions
Focus attention internally by asking many questions of the students
Eliminate library lingo & library-centered concepts
Teach only skills directly related to completing the assignment
Provide one-on-one instructional assistance and workshops to reduce library anxiety
Use student-chosen topics
Scaffold instruction (hard and soft scaffolding)
Teach research as a PROCESS: model it's recursive patterns
Shorten task instructions by using few words in giving directions
Stress usability features in databases & websites, built in dictionaries and ability to get HTML version rather than PDF versions
Present information in multiple formats
Allocate 1/3 to 1/2 of each class for assisted individual work time
Allow time to recurperate from mistakes (essential for moving the new knowledge from the working memory to the long-term memory)
Use conversation to help move student from an ill-structured topic to one that is better suited both to their interests and research level.
Build new knowledge upon familair concepts
Use of citation making software, print icons, and other built-in time-saving shortcuts
Decrease repetitiveness of tasks
Redesign library instruction space to maximize collaboration and minimize distractions (see Chevron style for larger groups).
Have open spaces, akin to white space on a web page to reduce feelings of being overwhelmed
Bring a sign-up sheet to class to make follow up appointments
Embed research tools and ways to ask for help on the class page on the course management system
Encourage collaboration among the students during class
Meet with faculty to collaborate on developing inclusive instruction
Stress that anxiety is a normal part of doing Library research
Have a goal that provides motivation
Work with faculty to have a specific goal, such as finding at least one research article on the topic
Meet with faculty individually and in groups to collaborate on developing learning outcomes
Be aware of your body language
Have empathy
are we willing to accept
we won't...
reach ?
the AVERAGE student
is fictional
This represents a 50 percent or more increase since 2000 and shows that, in most classrooms, there are one or more students with a learning disability or AD/HD
In 2008, 11% of postsecondary students reported having a disability.
Stack of books by Max Sparber
Normal curve by AJC1, http://www.flickr.com/photos/ajc1/3330979478/
Government Accountability Office: Higher Education & Disability. October 2009. GAO 10-33
Horn, Laura, and Katharin Peter, and Kathryn Rooney. U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics, Profile of Undergraduates in U.S. Postsecondary Institutions: 1999-2000, NCES 2002-168 (Washington, D.C., 2002), table 5 & fig. 7.

Horn, Laura, and Stephanie Nevill. U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics, Profile of Undergraduates in US Postsecondary Education Institutions: 2003-04, With a Special Analysis of Community College Students, NCES 2006-184. (Washington, D.C., 2006).
U.S.Dept. of Education. National Center for Education Statistics, 2003-04 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:04). Computation by DAS-T Online Version 5.0 on 4/16/2009.
Wagner, Mary, Lynn Newman, Renee Cameto, Nicolle Garza, and Phyllis Levine. U.S. Office of Special Education Programs, National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, SRI International Project P11182 (Menlo Park, Calif., 2005), 4-14.
Learning Disabilities Association of America (LDA), “Defining Learning Disabilities,” Learning Disabilities Association of America, http://ldanatl.org/new_to_ld/defining.asp (accessed September 23, 2008).
*See Turkington, Harris & American Bookworks (2006) “Dyslexia” p 81-83.
*See Matthews (2003) p 151.
*See Sterling, Farmer, & Riddick (2002) table 7.1 p 119.
*See Learning Disabilities Association of America, “Dyslexia.”
*See American Psychiatric Association(2000) p 85.
*See Conners (2006) p 8-15.
*See Turkington & Harris (2006) “Executive Functions” p 95-96.
*See Snyder, NCES,(2008) & (2009).
*See Jiao, Onwuegbuzie & Lichtenstein (1996) p 152 & 158.
*See Mellon (1988) p 138.
*See Onwuegbuzie & Jiao (2004) p 50.
See Jiao & Onwuegbuzie (2003) p 165, 166.
See Onwuegbuzie & Jiao (2000) p 49.
*See Gander & Shmulsky (2008).
*See Connell, et al. (1997, April 1).
*See Center for Applied Special Technology (2008). Universal design for learning guidelines version 1.0 (p. 4).
*See McGuire & Scott (2007) p 126.
*See American Library Association (ALA), Association of Specialized and Cooperative Library Agencies (ASCLA).
Social & outgoing
It's not about intelligence
Presented at:
38th Annual LOEX Conference 2010
Dearborn Michigan
April 29 - May 1

Ted Chodock,
Reference & Instructional Services Librarian
College of Southern Nevada
Elizabeth Dolinger,
Research Services Librarian
Landmark College
Full transcript