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Long Term Effects of Exercise

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by

Ross Baber

on 22 April 2015

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Transcript of Long Term Effects of Exercise

Long Term Effects of Exercise
Cardiovascular Effects
Cardiac Hypertrophy
CARDIAC HYPERTROPHY IS WHEN THE HEART INCREASES IN SIZE AND VOLUME. SOMEONE LIKE CHRIS HOY WILL HAVE A STRONG HEART, BECAUSE CYCLING IS A CARDIOVASCULAR EXERCISE.
Stroke Volume
STROKE VOLUME IS A MEASUREMENT OF HOW MUCH BLOOD IS PUMPED AROUND THE BODY IN EACH BEAT. CHRIS HOY WOULD ALSO HAVE A HIGH STROKE VOLUME BECAUSE HIS HEART WILL BE MORE POWERFUL SO IS ABLE TO PUMP MORE BLOOD.
Cardiac Output
DURING EXERCISE CARDIAC OUTPUT INCREASES AS A RESULT OF THE INCREASE IN HEART RATE AND STROKE VOLUME. STROKE VOLUME DOES NOT INCREASE MUCH AFTER COMPLETING LOW INTENSITY WORK RATES SO THE INCREASE IN CARDIAC OUTPUT AT HIGHER LEVEL IS ACHIEVED THROUGH ANY INCREASES IN HEART RATE.
Resting Heart Rate
THIS DECREASES AFTER AEROBIC ENDURANCE TRAINING AS A RESULT OF THE INCREASED RESTING STROKE VOLUME THE HEART DOES NOT
HAVE TO BEAT AS FAST AT REST. SOMEONE LIKE MO FARAH WILL HAVE AN EXTREEMLY LOW RESTING HEART RATE BECAUSE OF THE AMOUNT OF EXERCISE HE DOES TO IMPROVE THIS.

Capillarisation
LONG TERM EXERCISE CAN LEAD TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CAPILLARY NETWORK TO A PART OF THE BODY. AEROBIC EXERCISE CAN INCREASE
THE NUMBER OF CAPILLARIES.
The Cardiovacular System
Blood Volume
BLOOD VOLUME REPRESENTS THE AMOUNT OF
BLOOD CIRCULATING IN THE BODY AND VARIES FROM PERSON TO PERSON AND CAN INCREASE
AS A RESULT OF TRAINING. CAPILLARISATION IS THE CAUSE OF THE INCREASE.

Blood Pressure
EXERCISE INCREASES BLOOD PRESSURE DURING
THE ACTIVITY BUT IT RETURNS TO NORMAL AFTERWARDS. THE QUICKER IT DOES THIS THE
MORE AEROBICALLY FIT YOU ARE LIKELY TO BE.
Recovery Time
HEART RATE RECOVERY IS A MEASURE OF HOW
MUCH YOUR RATE FALLS DURING THE FIRST MINUTE AFTER EXERCISE. THE FITTER YOU ARE
THE QUICKER THE HEART RATE WILL RETURN TO NORMAL.
Respiratory Effects
Airflow
EXERCISE EXPOSES YOUR LUNGS TO STRONGER RUSHES OF AIR FLOW. AEROBIC EXERCISE IN PARTICULAR EXPOSES YOUR LUNGS TO STRONG AND CONSTANT RUSHES OF AIR. THIS ACTIVITY HELPS CLEAR MUCUS IN YOUR LUNGS. MUCUS BUILD-UP CAN LOWER YOUR LUNGS CAPACITY AND LEAD TO BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.
Stroke Volume
CAPILLARIES ARE THE SMALLEST BLOOD VESSELS IN YOUR BODY. OXYGEN LEAKS OUT OF THIN CAPILLARY WALLS AS CARBON DIOXIDE LEAKS IN DURING RESPIRATION. EXERCISE STIMULATES VASODILATION, WHICH INCREASES THE DIAMETER OF BLOOD VESSELS, INCLUDING CAPILLARIES.
Vital Capacity
THE SKELETAL MUSCLES THAT CONTROL RESPIRATION INCLUDE YOUR DIAPHRAGM AND INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES. THE INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES FORM THE MUSCLE TISSUE INBETWEEN INDIVIDUAL RIBS. THE LONG-TERM EFFECT OF EXERCISE IS TO BUILD THE ENDURANCE OF THESE RESPIRATORY MUSCLES, ALLOWING DEEPER, FULLER AND MORE EFFICIENT BREATHS.
The Respiratory System
Muscular System
Hypertrophy
MUSCULAR HYPERTROPHY IS THE GROWTH AND INCREASE OF THE SIZE OF MUSCLE CELLS. THE MOST COMMON TYPE OF MUSCULAR HYPERTROPHY OCCURS AS A RESULT OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE, THIS WILL HAPPEN TO SOMEONES BICEP WHEN THEY BICEP CURL A HEAVY WEIGHT.
Tendon Strength
Like muscles, tendons adapt to the mechanical loading of regular exercise. A general adaptation is increased strength but different types of training will exert differing effects on muscle
Muscle Stores & Mitochondria
Muscles increase their oxidative capacity (their ability to use oxygen to produce energy) with regular training. This is achieved by an increase in the number of mitochondria within the muscle cells which will increase the supply of ATP and an increase in the number of enzymes involved in the production of ATP.
Lactic Acid
Enzymes
Fat
Fats are the primary fuel source for muscle during low intensity exercise. Fats can account for approximately 75 per cent of the total energy required. So when considering the effects of long term exercise it is clear that trained athletes have a greater opportunity to burn fat as a fuel than non trained athletes.

A long term adaptation on your lactic acid system is that your body will cover the muscles in lactic acid which will teach your muscles how to get rid of it faster. Training continuously at about 85-90 per cent of your maximum heart rate for around 25 minutes will improve your body’s tolerance to lactic acid.
Energy Systems
Aerobic and anaerobic enzymes are both used to produce energy by converting energy to ATP. These increases mean more ATP is produced. The increase in anaerobic enzymes would get broken down and this means that more energy can be produced to fuel the athlete.
With an increased number of aerobic enzymes, muscle tissue then has the ability to generate ATP. This affects he body because more energy can be produced to fuel the athlete.
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