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Reading & Writing Disorders

Brain and Behavior (Spring 2013)
by

Dave Renter

on 12 April 2013

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Transcript of Reading & Writing Disorders

Disorder #1: Pure Alexia also known as "pure word blindness" or "alexia without agraphia" What treatments are available
and what is the prognosis for each of these? Disorder #2: Surface Dyslexia Disorder #3: Direct Dyslexia What is Pure Alexia? when a person can write but cannot read what they have written... What are the neural structures
implicated in Pure Alexia? the extrastriate cortex of the
left hemisphere does not receive visual information (Carlson, p. 397) What are the causes of Pure Alexia? Pure alexia is caused by a lesion or combination of lesions that cuts off input from the visual cortex to the left angular gyrus. Ok, that sounds interesting but WHERE is this angular gyrus located??? Disorders to be discussed Pure Alexia
Surface Dyslexia
Direct Dyslexia
Orthrographic Dysgraphia (an example of what a brain lesion looks like) It lies posterior to the post-central gyrus in the parietal lobe... Surface Dyslexia is a deficit in whole word reading The term 'surface' refers to the fact that people
with this disorder make errors related to the visual appearance of words and pronunciation rules (Carlson, p. 399) What are the neural structures & causes of Surface Dyslexia? Damage to the Parietal or Temporal lobes can lead to this type of dyslexia (Parietal lobe) (Left Temporal lobe) They have difficulty recognizing words as a whole and must sound them out first... A wonderful video explaining Dyslexia... A language disorder caused by brain damage in which the person can read words aloud without understanding them (Carlson, p. 402) What is Direct Dyslexia?? (Dr. Carl "Sella" Turcica) Stop, stop stop!! Dyslexia, dsylxeai, dsyelaix! I get it already.

There are lots of dyslexias out there, but what's the difference between the two you are talking about, surface and direct dyslexia!?

Surface Dyslexia means a person can read words phonetically but have difficulty reading irregularly spelled words, like 'yacht' for example.



Direct Dyslexia means a person can read words aloud without understanding what they mean. A person could read aloud the sentence "The Cat in the Hat" but have no idea what a 'cat' or 'hat' actually means. Hammer time Whew! Alright, I'm back on track.

What are the neural structures & causes of Surface Dyslexia? Similar to surface dyslexia, a person
with direct dyslexia has suffered damage to the left frontal and temporal lobes. This damage is often caused by suffering a stroke. Disorder #4: Orthrographic Dysgraphia Orthrographic Dysgraphia is a writing disorder in which a person can spell regularly spelled words but not irregular spelled ones (Carlson, p. 405) Words like 'care' or 'tree' are spellable, since these can be sounded out.

However, irregular words like 'busy' or 'half' may be written as haff or bizzy (Carlson, p. 405) What are the causes and location(s) of this disorder? Orthographic dysgraphia, like surface dyslexia, is caused by damage to the VWFA (visual word form area) on the base of the temporal lobe. Cortical surface rendering (A) and Axial slices through white matter (B) highlighting the VWFA Four Reading and
Writing Disorders by David Renter Here's another view of the Angular Gyrus... Now that I have covered 4 reading & writing
disorders, let's compare them and discuss some
possible treatments for these... Dyslexia Treatments/Prognosis Prognosis: Dyslexia is a lifelong condition that can be controlled through various educational means
An evaluation is often done first
Medication is not often used in treating dyslexias
An I.E.P. (Individualized Education Program) is often utilized since the severity of the disorder can vary
Examples of treatment include:
- Slingerland Method
- Orton-Gillingham Method
- Project READ Treatment/Prognosis for
Orthrographic Aphasia Treatment is directed towards relearning spellings by strengthening, and facilitating access to, specific orthographic representations for writing. (www.ncbi.com weblink)
Treatment focuses on a high frequency of irregular words
Prognosis: improved writing ability is possible for some individuals with dysgraphia Treatment and Prognosis for Pure Alexia Treatment often uses letter-by-letter
reading
Accuracy and speed are two areas treatment
focuses on
Prognosis: increased proficiency in reading and writing is likely if treatment is applied/maintained How do these four disorders compare
with one another? (Dr. Turcica's son, Fonzi, giving us
the go ahead - thanks Fonz!) All 4 of disorders follow similar
approaches in treatment
Surface Dyslexia and Orthrographic Dysgraphia both occur as a result of damage to the VWFA (visual word form area) in the left temporal lobe.
Both Surface & Direct dyslexia refer to difficulty comprehending irregularly spelled words. Ok, I'm starting to understand these four disorders much better. How do these four compare with one another? Well, great question!
Let's find out...(almost done) References Pure Alexia http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16509517

Orthrographic Dysgraphia
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16509517

Carlson, Neil R. (2011) Foundations of Behavioral Neuroscience. (8th ed.) New York: Allyn & Bacon publishing (pp. 380-405) One more interesting fact...
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