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World War II in Europe and North Africa

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Daniel Santella

on 24 May 2016

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Transcript of World War II in Europe and North Africa

THE SECOND WORLD WAR: EUROPE & NORTH AFRICA
CAUSES OF THE WAR
Review Hodder "Causes of World War II" and be able to explain the major short & long term factors responsible for the beginning of the war in Europe.
PRESENT YOUR LIST TO THE CLASS
MAKE STRIPS OUT OF A3 PAPER, EACH WITH A DIFFERENT CAUSE. EXPLAIN ON THE STRIP HOW IT CONTRIBUTED TO THE BEGINNING OF THE WAR. IN A GROUP, RANK THEM BY ORDER OF SIGNIFICANCE TO THE OUTBREAK OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR.
CAUSES OF THE WAR
GERMAN DESIRE TO UNDO VERSAILLES
GREAT DEPRESSION
NAZI IDEOLOGY
ADOLF HITLER
SYMPATHY FOR GERMANY
APPEASEMENT
WEAKENED STATES SURROUNDING GERMANY
GERMAN REARMAMENT
GERMAN ECONOMIC TURNAROUND
WEAKNESS OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS
ABYSSINIAN CRISIS
THE NAZIS AND VERSAILLES
Investigate the steps taken by the Nazis that destroyed/violated the Treaty of Versailles.
Create a diagram with pictures showing these events and why they were allowed to happen.
Work in groups of two.
TREATY PROVISIONS VIOLATED
1.....
2.....
3.....
INSERT DIAGRAM/PICTURE/MAP HERE
PROVISION 2 WAS VIOLATED WHEN...
INSERT DIAGRAM/PICTURE/MAP HERE
PROVISION 3 WAS VIOLATED WHEN...
INSERT DIAGRAM/PICTURE/MAP HERE
PROVISION 1 WAS VIOLATED WHEN...
Remilitarizing the Rhineland
WHY WAS IT ALLOWED TO HAPPEN?
WHY WAS IT ALLOWED TO HAPPEN?
WHY WAS IT ALLOWED TO HAPPEN?
WHAT YOU NEED TO DO
SECOND WORLD WAR VOCAB
Adolph Hitler, Neville Chamberlain, Winston Churchill, Franklin Roosevelt, Harry Truman, Benito Mussolini, Joseph Stalin, Charles De Gaulle, Blitzkrieg, Sitzkrieg, Operation Barbarossa, Battle of Britain, Anschluss, Sudetenland, Appeasement, Operation Overlord, Operation Fortitude, Vichy France, Katin Forest, Einsatzgruppen, Wehrmacht, Luftwaffe, guerrilla resistance movements, Maginot Line, Siegfried Line, Neutrality Acts, puppet-state, Vichy France, El Alamein. Erwin Rommel, Bernard Montgomery, Free French, communist partisans, Operation Torch, cash and carry, lend lease, D-Day, enigma, Battle of the Atlantic, the Blitz, area bombing, firestorms, Dresden, Bomber Harris, Leningrad, Stalingrad, strategic bombing, Hienz Guderien, Molotov Ribbentrop Pact, scorched earth policy, Operation Uranus, Battle of Kursk, Operation Bagration, Tehran Conference, Yalta Conference, Balkan Campaign, Baltic Campaign, Battle of Berlin, Red Army, Unconditional Surrender, Battle of the Bulge, Herman Goering, Heinrich Himmler, Reinhard Heidrich, Dwight Eisenhower, Marshall Petain, Allies, Axis, Panzer, P-51 Mustang, B-52 Bomber, B-17 Bomber, Waffen SS, Rationing, War Productions Board, Georgii Zhukov, George Patton, tanks, mines, submarines, rockets, bombers, radar, Manhattan Project, concentration camps, death camps, Auschwitz, Polish Home Army, ghetto, partisans, Joseph Goebbels, Munich Pact, Anschluss, Abyssinia, Great Depression, unconditional surrender, VE Day, Nuremberg Trials, Victor's Justice
Have understanding related to the topic.
Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of key historical terms and concepts
Show an understanding of the chronological framework for the chosen areas of study
Demonstrate an understanding of historical processes; cause and effect;continuity and change
Compare and Contrast developments and/or events
Understand and evaluate different approaches to, and interpretations of, historical issues and events.
Construct balanced, accurate, and well-substantiated extended written arguments, within time constraints, in preparation for the examination

German Rearmament
Annexing the Saar
Anschluss
Czechoslovakia
& Sudetenland

HITLER'S FOREIGN POLICY
COULD GERMANY HAVE BEEN STOPPED?
SHOULD GERMANY HAVE BEEN STOPPED?
British and French militaries outnumbered the Germans 5 to 1 in 1936
Germans had orders to retreat at the first sign of French countermeasures.
THE RHINELAND
Assessing Appeasement
Was appeasement a reasonable and morally justifiable policy to prevent the great powers from stumbling into wars over nonvital issues? Or was it an admission of weakness and an invitation to further aggression?
Having read the documents on appeasement, create a role play between Chamberlain and Churchill over the issue of appeasement. The role play can include other actors, should be five minutes in length, and clearly outline the strengths and limitations of the appeasement policy (DO NOT USE ANY INFORMATION POST-MUNICH PACT).
---BLITZKRIEG---
Lightning Warfare
developed to avoid the stalemate of the First World War
Why Was Germany Effective against its foes up until 1942?
Why Was Germany Effective against its foes up until 1942?
Why Was Germany Effective against its foes up until 1942?
---BLITZKRIEG---
THE LEADERS
What are the characteristics of a great war leader?
In groups of two, choose one of the leaders above. Make a list of adjectives that describe them. Do these match up with the characteristics discussed earlier? Then make a chart showing their good and bad decisions as war leaders. Present your leader to the class. Then, based the presentations rank the leaders in order of best to worst war leader with a brief explanation for your decision.
WHO BEST MATCHES THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A GREAT WAR LEADER? WHO BEST MATCHES THE IB LEARNER PROFILE? DOES THE LEARNER PROFILE WIN WARS?
WORLD WAR I VS. WORLD WAR II
How were they similar? How were they different? Think in terms of scale and scope, the role of science and technology, the role of civilians, the nature of the war, the tactics used, causes, aims, the role of women, etc......
THE AIR WAR
HOW SIGNIFICANT WAS THE AIR WAR TO THE WAR'S OUTCOME?
P51 Mustang
German 87 Stuka
B17 Bomber
Messerschmidtt Bf 109
British Spitfire
Britain and the United States believed long range bombing of civilian and military targets would destroy the moral of the enemy to fight. This was believed, in itself, to be enough to win a war.
Germany, Russia, and France viewed air power as tactical support during coordinated attacks with ground forces.
After being driven from mainland Europe, Britain began long range bombing of Germany. However, this was VERY ineffective to start.
Only 1 in 3 British aircraft got within 5 miles of the target in 1941 due to navigation & fuel problems, anti-aircraft measures, & lack of effective escorts.
In 1943, balance of power over Europe changed with technological advancements like disposable fuel tanks that increased aircraft range.
The Luftwaffe sustained unsustainable losses: 1/4 of planes each month by the winter of 1944-45.
Air dominance allowed for the success of D-Day and diverted German air defenses from important areas in the later days of the war.
American air dominance over Japan could be considered decisive in the Pacific War.
BLITZKRIEG IN POLAND
BLITZKRIEG IN WESTERN EUROPE
THE AMERICAN EXPERIENCE: THE BOMBING OF GERMANY
Read "Lightening Victory", "A New Racial Order" from The Third Reich at War by Richard Evans. How would you describe the fall of Poland and Germany's treatment of it during the War.
September 1, 1939- German forces invaded Poland under the pretext of a Polish attack on German territory.
Hitler claimed he was invading to protect German minorities that had been mistreated by the Poles
Though they had almost equal numbers of soldiers, the Germans vastly outnumbered the Poles in tanks, jeeps, and aircraft.
Polish forces were thrown into confusion and quickly disheartened by the Blitzkrieg attack, which targeted their communications systems and aircraft.
SITZKRIEG/PHONEY WAR/BORE WAR
September 1939 to May 1940 on the Western Front
War was declared but no major operations were launched by either side on the German French border.
French and British sat behind the Maginot Line and the Germans behind the Siegfried Line. The French had decided to fight a defensive war.
"if we did not collapse already in the year 1939 that was due only to the fact that during the Polish campaign, the approximately 110 French and British divisions in the West were held completely inactive against the 23 German divisions."
-Alfred Jodl
As nothing happened on this border, the Germans invaded Denmark and Norway, Churchill replaced Chamberlain, the USSR invaded Finland, and the Battle of Atlantic raged.
A month later, Poland was conquered by the Germans and Soviets, the government fled to Romania, and up to 300,000 civilians were dead.
The Germans then implemented their plans to move the Poles east and move ethnic Germans to Germany.
Poland was to be used as a pool of slave labor and resources to fuel the mission of the Third Reich.
Search "BBC Animation World War II Fall of France" and use the information to come up with information for this "slide"
ACCOUNTING FOR THE GERMAN DEFEAT
DOWNFALL
THE BATTLE OF THE ATLANTIC
BATTLE OF
BRITAIN
LIMITATIONS OF BLITZKRIEG
"Germany lost the war because of the failed military leadership of Adolph Hitler."
-Saniel Dantella
Hitler's Goal
Hitler's Methods
Why Hitler Failed
Implications
To force Britain into a peace treaty
In order to destroy Britain's RAF, the Luftwaffe targeted airfields, factories and infrastructure.
"Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few." -WC
Luftwaffe was not suited for strategic role. Best when used in support role.
Read"David and Goliath" chapter on the battle of Britain for a sociological explanation for the failure of terror bombing to destroy the moral of civilians.
Britain would survive to fight again.
"We will kick the door in and the whole rotten building will fall down"
-Adolph Hitler on the Soviet Union
Blitzkrieg worked extremely well in short wars over short distances.
By 1941, Hitler was convinced of the Wehrmacht's infallibility
But the Soviet Union was a different animal than the Nazis had captured before.
Despite massive initial losses the SU was able to trade space for time.
Hitler expected the war in the East to last three months, so did not equip his divisions for the long, bitterly cold Russian winter (-40 degrees C).
Panzers would race ahead faster than the troops could advance, isolating them.
Supply lines were vulnerable to counterattack and difficult transportation issues
The Nazis had lost the element of surprise.
The Soviets had developed new strategies to blunt the impact of Blitzkrieg
The once powerful Nazi army was "demodernized" and came to rely more on horses than mechanized units later in the war.
While the Wehrmacht maintained a good deal of tactical effectiveness, the overall strategy implemented by Hitler became a major liability.
In an ironic twist, it was the Allies later in the war that began to effectively use blitzkrieg. D-Day in many ways was blitzkrieg in reverse.
THE WAR IN THE EAST
The Nature of the War in Photographs
Complete the photo walk around the classroom. Look at each of the photos and get an idea of what living through World War II in Europe was like, especially on the Eastern Front.
Leave post it notes on the five photos you find most interesting and write a brief description as to why you find it interesting.
Leave another five post it notes on photos that leave you with questions. Write the questions on the post it notes.
Photographs are from the In Focus section of
The Atlantic
Magazine's website. The project is called World War II in Photos: A Retrospective in 20 Parts.
Chronicles Hitler's final days, which took place in a bunker in besieged Berlin
It is an amalgamation of many historical accounts of Nazi Germany's collapse; most notably
Inside Hitler's Bunker
by historian Joachim Fest and the memoirs of Traudl Junge.
It was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film
The movie met with some controversy, however, concerning its depictions of Hitler and the others in the bunker.
The movie met with some controversy, however, concerning its depictions of Hitler and the others in the bunker.
Concern about the film's depiction of Hitler led The New Yorker film critic David Denby to note:
As a piece of acting, Ganz's work is not just astounding, it's actually rather moving. But I have doubts about the way his virtuosity has been put to use. By emphasizing the painfulness of Hitler's defeat Ganz has [...] made the dictator into a plausible human being. Considered as biography, the achievement (if that's the right word) [...] is to insist that the monster was not invariably monstrous – that he was kind to his cook and his young female secretaries, loved his German shepherd, Blondi, and was surrounded by loyal subordinates. We get the point: Hitler was not a supernatural being; he was common clay raised to power by the desire of his followers. But is this observation a sufficient response to what Hitler actually did?
With respect to German uneasiness about "humanizing" Hitler, Denby said:
A few journalists in [Germany] wondered aloud whether the "human" treatment of Hitler might not inadvertently aid the neo-Nazi movement. But in his many rants in [the film] Hitler says that the German people do not deserve to survive, that they have failed him by losing the war and must perish – not exactly the sentiments […] that would spark a recruitment drive. This Hitler may be human, but he's as utterly degraded a human being as has ever been shown on the screen, a man whose every impulse leads to annihilation.
After previewing the film, Hitler biographer Sir Ian Kershaw wrote in The Guardian:
Knowing what I did of the bunker story, I found it hard to imagine that anyone (other than the usual neo-Nazi fringe) could possibly find Hitler a sympathetic figure during his bizarre last days. And to presume that it might be somehow dangerous to see him as a human being – well, what does that thought imply about the self-confidence of a stable, liberal democracy? Hitler was, after all, a human being, even if an especially obnoxious, detestable specimen. We well know that he could be kind and considerate to his secretaries, and with the next breath show cold ruthlessness, dispassionate brutality, in determining the deaths of millions.
Addressing other critics like Denby, Chicago Sun-Times film critic Roger Ebert wrote:
Admiration I did not feel. Sympathy I felt in the sense that I would feel it for a rabid dog, while accepting that it must be destroyed. I do not feel the film provides "a sufficient response to what Hitler actually did", because I feel no film can, and no response would be sufficient. As we regard this broken and pathetic Hitler, we realize that he did not alone create the Third Reich, but was the focus for a spontaneous uprising by many of the German people, fueled by racism, xenophobia, grandiosity and fear. He was skilled in the ways he exploited that feeling, and surrounded himself by gifted strategists and propagandists, but he was not a great man, simply one armed by fate to unleash unimaginable evil. It is useful to reflect that racism, xenophobia, grandiosity and fear are still with us, and the defeat of one of their manifestations does not inoculate us against others.
THE END
OPERATION
BARBAROSSA
http://english.pobediteli.ru/
You have 20 minutes individually to research the reasons for Germany's loss in the Second World War, 5 minutes to discuss as a larger group, and then argue against the great historian Saniel Dantella.
EFFECTS
EFFECTS
MOVIES TO WATCH
PP 158-163 in your text
World War II in Color: Lightning
Hitler told his leading generals how he envisaged the coming
war with Poland:
"Our strength lies in our speed and our brutality. Genghis Khan hunted millions
of women and children to their deaths, consciously and with a joyous heart.
History sees in him only the great founder of a state ... I have issued a command
- and I will have everyone who utters even a single word of criticism shot - that
the aim of the war lies not in reaching particular lines but in the physical
annihilation of the enemy. Thus, so far only in the east, I have put my Death's
Head formations at the ready with the command to send man, woman and child
of Polish descent and language to their deaths, pitilessly and remorselessly ...
Poland will be depopulated and settled with Germans."
"The Battle of the Atlantic was the dominating factor all through the war. Never for one moment could we forget that everything happening elsewhere, on land, at sea or in the air depended ultimately on its outcome."
WINSTON CHURCHILL
It was critical for Britain to maintain a solid supply of materials over sea during the war. Germany wanted to starve the British out of the war.
In this theater, which included merchant ships, battleships, destroyers, U-Boats, convoys, and airplanes, the advantage swung back and forth between the Allies and the Germans several times.
These swings in advantage often aligned with the development of new technologies and tactics to combat the enemy's moves.
By 1943, it was clear that Germany had lost this battle and had moved its submarines to the Mediterranean.
Research the tactics and technology of this theater in order to answer the question "How did the Allies win the Battle of the Atlantic?"
"The conflict will be very different from the conflict in the west."
Adolf Hitler
GENERAL PLAN FOR THE EAST
The General Plan for the East, now the official policy of the Third Reich, proposed to remove between 80 and 85 per cent of the Polish population, 64 per cent of the Ukrainian and 75 per cent of the Belarussian, expelling them further east or allowing them to perish from disease and malnutrition. Not counting the Jewish population of these areas, the Plan thus envisaged the forcible uprooting of at least 31 million people from their homes, in what would no doubt be a murderously violent process of dispossession; some estimates, taking into account projected population increases, put the number at no fewer than 45 million.
-Third Reich at War
Named after Fredrick Barbarossa, the Holy Roman Emperor from the 12th Century, who sought to establish German dominance over Europe.
At the time, it was the largest invasion force ever assembled. 3,600 tanks,
600,000 motor vehicles and 700,000 field guns and other artillery, 2,700 aircraft.
The theater of the Eastern front was brutal: death rates of the Soviet POWs was something like 60-70 percent. Treatment of civilians was brutal.
After initial disappearance of Stalin, he came back with a vengeance: speeches rallied support of the people. Focus now on defending the motherland.
Brutal tactics by the Germans solidified support for the Soviets. Partisan groups formed behind German lines issued resistance.
The Soviet quickly changed their tactics in the first few months of the war, adapting to the German advance.
The cumbersome structure of the Red Army was simplified, creating flexible units that would be able to respond more rapidly to German tactical advances. Soviet commanders were ordered to concentrate their artillery in anti-tank defences where it seemed likely the German panzers would attack. Soviet rethinking continued into 1942 and 1943, but already before the end of I94I the groundwork had been laid for a more effective response to the continuing German invasion. The State Defence Committee reorganized the mobilization system to make better use of the I4 million reservists created by a universal conscription law in 1938. More than 5 million reservists were quickly mobilized within a few weeks of the German invasion, and more followed.

-Third Reich at War , 196
1300 arms and munitions factories dismantled and moved east past Urals. Soviets followed a scorched earth policy, depriving the Germans of resources.
Stalin introduced policy of killing/relocating the ethnic Germans and political prisoners.
Inexhaustible human resources:
"At the outset of the war we reckoned with about 2.00 enemy div[isions]. Now we are already counting 360. These div[isions] are certainly not armed and equipped in our sense of the words, and tactically they are often poorly led. But they are there. And when a dozen of them have been destroyed, then the Russians put up another dozen."
- General Halder
Stalin eventually made the decision made to defend Moscow to the end, with Georgi Zhukov in charge of defense. Soviet forces were reinforced by moving forces away from Japan.
Autumn rains slowed down Nazis. Freezing weather and snowstorms weakened the army and its morale. Subsequently, the encirclement of Moscow failed.
This was followed by a crisis in leadership in the German military where several generals were dismissed. This left Hitler in full control of the military from this point on, for better or worse.
By December of 1941, it was clear that the Nazi conquest of the Soviet Union would take much longer than Hitler expected. In fact, the Nazis would never be closer to victory than they were in the autumn of 1941.
THE HOLOCAUST
To what extent was appeasement responsible for the Second World War?
WAS WWII HITLER'S FAULT?
Orthodox historians tend to think so. They view Hitler as an all powerful fanatic that pushed a unique, consistent program of aggression as outlined in
Mein Kampf
Others view Hitler's foreign policy as a continuation of a long term German foreign policy
Lebensraum can be traced back to propaganda pamphlets produced by the Pan German League before 1914
German dominance in eastern Europe and the subordination of the Slavs were key aims of the German government during WWI
The restoration of the German Army power was a desire for the Army throughout the Weimar period
Hate for socialism was a major feature of the old Junker class who welcomed the destruction of socialistic parties and trade unions
Several of Hitler's foreign policy aims was chaired by Weimar governments, especially the ones between 1930 and 1933
Geoffrey Eley also sees a continuation of Austrian policies... Anti-Semitism was common in Austria. So was the desire to control Eastern Europe and to weaken Slav nationalism.
APPEASEMENT
Treaty of Versailles
Postwar Economic Problems
The Great Depression
The Nazis
German Economic Recovery
German Rearmament
Stresa Front and Abyssinia
German Foreign policy Success
Appeasement
WHAT CAN THESE PHOTOGRAPHS TELL US ABOUT THE ANSCHLUSS?
Having read the documents on appeasement, create a role play between Chamberlain and Churchill over the issue of appeasement. The role play can include other actors, should be five minutes in length, and clearly outline the strengths and limitations of the appeasement policy (DO NOT USE ANY INFORMATION POST-MUNICH PACT).
APPEASEMENT HISTORIOGRAPHY
Chamberlain's conduct of British foreign policy was ”diplomacy of illusion".
ORTHODOX VIEW
Chamberlain's policy made the aggressive German foreign policy possible and ensured that, when the war broke out, B and F had no major allies. They were also in a very weak military position.
REVISIONIST VIEW
The complex set of domestic, international, military and economical factors made a policy of standing up to the dictators impractical, and finding peace preferable
It's wrong to blame Chamberlain exclusively - he was an able and realistic politician who realized that B and F could not keep order in Europe, and who wanted B to retain its world power status, which he believed would be lost in a second major world war
The British economy did not contain enough skilled workers to effect a large scale rearmament program without endangering the fragile British recovery
The military chiefs constantly warned that B was not prepared for a simultaneous war against Germany, Italy and Japan, and advised appeasement
Public opinion consistently opposed rapid rearmament and a strong stand being taken against the dictators
Most revisionists avoid moral judgments on Chamberlain and instead focus on social, economic and strategic factors:
View appeasement and Chamberlain far more sympathetically.
WHAT WOULD STALIN DO?
In groups of 3, you need to decide what Stalin should do in vaious key junctures during the 1930s.
You will be given points based on how well your decisions match with Soviet objectives and how well they match with Stalin's actual decisions.
Soviet Objectives:
Keep Peace in order to keep Stalin in power as well as strengthen the Soviet Union.
Create a buffer zone to protect you from your enemies, particularly Germany and Britain.
Your foreign policy options are:
a. Go to war with Germany
b. Offer an alliance to Britain
c. Join the League of Nations
d. Do nothing
e. Leave the League of Nations
f. Offer an alliance with Germany
g. Go to war with Britain
SCENARIO 1
1933
Hitler has come to power in Germany, and you are afraid of his intentions.

In his book, Mein Kampf, Hitler has openly said that you are the Dungervolk (dung people) and that he wants to conquer you, take your land and give it to the German people, who you will serve as slaves.

Nazism is the exact opposite of Communism, and you hate the Nazis. On coming to power, Hitler arrested many German Communists, and either shot them or put them in concentration camps.

Hitler has started to re-arm Germany, against the Treaty of Versailles, although his army is still very small and weak.

Russia is still VERY weak.
SCENARIO 2
1938
Hitler’s power has grown.

Hitler has re-occupied the Rhineland and taken over Austria. Now he has claimed and taken over the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia. You are convinced that these are merely the first steps in his policy of lebensraum - taking ‘living space’ for Germans in eastern Europe and Russia. You are VERY frightened of his intentions.

In Germany his propaganda minister, Goebbels, blames you and the Jews for all the troubles of the world. Meanwhile, Russian newspapers are attacking Germany’s reputation.

Meanwhile, Britain and France are simply appeasing Hitler - giving him what he wants. They gave him the Sudetenland without even asking Stalin what he thought. You are disgusted by their weakness. With them in control, the League of Nations is useless - it has failed in Manchuria, in Abyssinia and now in the Sudetenland.

Some Russians think that Britain and France are trying to encourage Germany to attack Russia.

Russia is growing stronger all the time - the Five Year Plans are really beginning to work. But you are nowhere near as strong as Germany.
SCENARIO 3
MARCH 1939
Hitler has just torn up the Munich agreement and marched into the rest of Czechoslovakia.

Now he is claiming Danzig and the Polish corridor; it is clear that he intends to continue to expand eastwards - into Russia.

Poland is the buffer between you and Germany; if it falls to Hitler, then you have lost one of your basic principles of foreign policy.

Britain has promised to defend Poland if Hitler attacks it - but it is clear that this is a bluff; Britain cannot send a land army to Poland. The only country that could defend Poland is the Soviet Union (you).

You are much stronger than you were ten years ago.
SCENARIO 4
AUGUST 1939
Here is a list of events since your last decision:

22 July You hear rumours that the British government wants to make a trade agreement with Hitler. The British government denies it, but you do not believe them. You are frightened that Britain is going to give Hitler what he wants again.

2 August Many British MPs are saying that Britain and Russia ought to be allied together. You ask to meet Lord Halifax, the British foreign secretary, but he refuses. Chamberlain, the British Prime Minister, is openly saying that he does not like Russian Communism or Stalin’s dictatorship.

17 August You are very insulted, but ask Britain to talk about what you both will do if Hitler invades Poland. Britain sends an unimportant foreign office official on a slow boat and train. When he arrives, he cannot negotiate because he does not have the authority to make decisions. You are convinced that Britain is going to give in to Hitler.

23 August The German foreign minister Von Ribbentrop asks to visit. When he arrives he proposes a peace pact whereby Russia and Germany will promise not to invade each other, but will invade Poland together and divide it between them. You are convinced that Germany is going to invade Poland.

Here are two questions for you:
• IF you make an alliance with Britain, and then Germany invades Poland, what will be the result for you?
• If you make an alliance with Germany and then Germany invades Poland, what will be the result for you?

You are stronger than ever, but you are still not strong enough to go to war with Germany.
REFLECTION QUESTIONS
*Why did Germany on one hand, and Britain and France on the other, try to come to an agreement with the Soviet Union in 1939?
*Why was it important for Germany to make an agreement with the Soviet Union in 1939?
*Do you think Britain and France wanted Germany to attack the Soviet Union?
*In August 1939, the Soviet Union signed a non-aggression pact with Germany. Why did the Soviet Union do this? Was this because the Soviet attitude towards the Nazis had changed?
Relied heavily on
tanks, jeeps, and aircraft
to break through defenses and create havok behind enemy lines. Reintroduced mobility to warfare.
Reliability, range, & power
of motor vehicles, tanks, and planes used with
surprise, speed, & movement
made blitzkrieg devastating until 1941.
First attack broke through enemy lines,
destroyed communications & air defenses
. Coordinated efforts reinforced soldiers & overwhelmed defensive forces.
Enemy was quickly demoralized and often surrendered quickly.
Blitzkrieg was developed in France & Britain but put into practice by Germany.
Allies would have a base from which to launch future operations.
First time the Nazis had been stopped from achieving their goals.
Forced Hitler to keep resources and manpower in Western Europe that would have otherwise been useful in fighting the Soviets.
After retaliatory raids on Berlin by the RAF, an enraged Hitler shifted to bombing political and civilian centers- terror bombing.
The Blitz against London began on September 7, 1940. Two months of continuous bombing followed.
By May 1941 the bombing raids effectively ceased. It was clear Hitler was not going to be able to achieve his objectives.
RAF was better able and more motivated to defend Britain against attack. Aircraft were more maneuverable and pilots showed extreme courage. Downed two Luftwaffe planes for every one they lost. They could also recycle pilots and damaged planes.
RADAR played a huge role, as there was sufficient warning before German air raids.
Hitler's decision to focus on cities backfired. Targeting airfields and aircraft production would have been more effective and the British morale was not broken.
To help prepare for German invasion of Britain: Operation Sealion
Finish up business in Western Europe before taking on the Soviets.
THE FALLEN OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR
http://www.fallen.io/ww2/#
TO WHAT EXTENT WAS HITLER RESPONSIBLE FOR THE GERMAN DEFEAT IN WWII?
Pretend you are a disgruntled army officer in late 1944 livid at what you see as Hitler's mistakes in conducting the war.
Make a propaganda poster or audio announcement highlighting Hitler's blunders and mistakes, trying to convince others to launch a coup against the Fuhrer.
* Use the reading "Hitler's stategic and military blunders" as a starting point.
Groups of two. Due Thursday
Read the article by Richard Evans. How does he account for the defeat of the European Axis Powers? Identify specific arguments he makes and the evidence he uses.
Full transcript