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DIET

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on 14 November 2017

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Transcript of DIET

A BALANCED DIET
A Level PE
Maintaining a balanced diet
PROTEINS
These are a combination of many chemicals called amino acids and are important for muscle growth and repair, and help make enzymes, hormones and haemoglobin
Proteins are a minor source of energy and normally used when carb and fat stores are depleted.
Power athletes require greater volumes of Protein in their diet to help repair and develop muscle tissue.
Dietary considerations
Failing to maintain this balance it could result in following dietary imbalance and deficiencies:

Malnutrition- this is a physical weakness resulting from insufficient food or an unbalanced diet.

Obesity- this is a condition of being extremely fat or overweight, which frequently results in health problems.

Anorexia- this is an eating disorder primarily occurring in girls and women, related in fear gaining weight, in self-starvation and distorted

body image.
There may be particular occasions when a diet may need to be adjusted or even adapted for particular performer and particular activities.
Energy is needed by the body even when it is at rest, but as soon as you become more active your
basal metabolic rate
is affected and you will need to balance the requirements your body has taken in with the amounts that are being used up.
A balanced diet is essential for optimum performance. What we eat will impact on our health, weight and energy levels.
There are 7 classes of food; carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, fibre and water.

The eatwell plate makes healthy eating easier to understand by giving a visual representation of the types and proportions of foods needed for a healthy and well balanced diet.
Eatwell Plate
WATER/FLUIDS
These are absolutely essential because failure to replace lost water can result in
dehydration (the rapid loss of water from the body)
. More problems can be caused by lack of water then by lack of food.
5 minutes
MALNUTRITION
ANOREXIA
OBESITY
Specific diets
Lesson objectives:

1. Consider how diet is linked to the levels of activity of individuals
2. Consider the correct and appropriate times for food to be eaten
3. Consider special diets that particular types of performers might require or use
The number of
calories
needs to balance because if you have a higher intake than output you will tend to put on weight and if you are very active you will need to make sure that you are providing your body adequately.
When to eat is also a factor you need to consider carefully. The basic guidelines for this are:

Before Activity
-do not eat too close to performing.Try to wait about two hours after eating.

During activity
-generally you should not eat during activity but something light and in small quantities, such as a banana, would be fine.

After activity
- you should try to leave the same two-hour gap as you did before activity.
Liquids

may need to be taken before, during and after the activity to avoid dehydration, but do not take in too much liquid immediately after finishing as this can result in discomfort.
Carbohydrate loading
This is particular dietary plan that endurance athletes, mainly marathon runners, use involving eating plenty of starch-rich foods, such as pasta, in the week before an important competition or event. The starch increases the amount of
GLYCOGEN
in the muscle, which can help to delay tiredness and can improve performance in the end stages of s competition because it is slow-release form of energy.
High-protein diets
These diets are often used by bodybuilders as a mean of building muscle and losing fat. However, it must be remembered that extra protein in itself does not add muscle and high protein food can be difficult to digest so they should not be eaten just before training or competing. (recovery time after injury)
How is your maths? Can you quickly calculate amount of water you need during your normal day?
HOMEWORK

Sports diet is one of the most important factor which optimize athlete`s performance and to give them the best possible results.

On a piece of A4 paper, design a healthy and balanced diet poster/chart for your sporting idol.
Write the paragraph (min 250 words) on how you could improve your dietary habits. write what do you need to change in your daily diet to enhance your sporting performance.
Revise for end of chapter 3/4 test.





The minimum rate of energy required to keep all of the life process of the body maintained when it is at rest.
A unit that measure heat or energy production in the body.
FATS
There are two types of fats and they are commonly found in cheese, cream, meat, cooking oils, margarine and butter. Fats are a major source of energy for the body.
VITAMINS
Essential nutrients that your body needs in small amounts in order to work properly - If an athlete is healthy and has a good immune system they can train maximally and recover quickly
Everyone should try to choose different foods from the first 4 groups every day. Foods from the fifth group are not essential to a healthy diet.
Glycogen
is the form of carbohydrate storage, which is converted into glucose as needed by the body to satisfy its energy needs.
Activity 1
Answer the following questions on nutrients.

5 minutes
CARBOHYDRATES
( The principle source of Energy)
These are separated into
simple
and
complex
carbohydrates.

Simple carbohydrates
, or sugars, include glucose and sugar.

Complex carbohydrates
, or starches, include pasta, bread and rice.

Glycaemic Index
Food with a
lower
glyacemic index cause a slower and more sustained release of glucose in the blood
Food with a
higher
glyacaemic index rapid short rise in blood glucose
Ranks carbohydrates according to their effect on blood glucose levels
3-4 hours low GI
1-2 hours High GI
1 hour before High GI liquids

Cholesterol can both be produced by the body itself and obtained from food sources. Cholesterol plays an important part in the human body. Its functions are as follows:
•Hormone production. Cholesterol plays a part in producing hormones such as estrogen, testosterone, progesterone, aldosterone and cortisone.
•Vitamin D production. Vitamin D is produced when the sun’s ultraviolet rays reach the human skin surface.
•Bile production. Cholesterol produces bile acids which aid in digestion and vitamin absorption.
•Cell membrane support. Cholesterol plays a very important part in both the creation and maintenance of human cell membrane

Cholesterol
Low-density Lipoprotein vs High-density Lipoprotein
Fat Soluble
( Vit A,D,E,K)
Found mainly in fatty foods and can be stored by the body in the liver and fat tissue for later use
Water Soluble
( the B Vitamins and Vit C - found in fruit and veg and dairy products - NOT stored in the body, excessive amounts are excreted in the urine we need a daily supply
FIBER/ROUGHAGE
Good sources of Fibre are Wholemeal breads and Pasta, cereals, pulses, nuts, seeds, fruit and vegetables.

Fibre slows down the digestion of food so therefore helps to maintain a steady supply of energy.
Fibre ( Insoluble type) causes bulk in the small intestine which helps to prevent constipation and aids digestion.

Studies have demonstrated that high fibre diets contribute to reduction in heart diseases as the soluble fibre reduces the absorption of cholesterol

Dehydration causes the following;
Blood viscosity reduces, reducing the blood flow to working muscles and skin
Reduces sweating to prevent water loss, therefore increases core body temp
Muscle fatigue and headaches
Reduction in the exchange of waste products/transportation of nutrients
Increased heart rate resulting in lower cardiac output
Decreased performance/decreased reaction time/decreased decision making
Dietary Supplements
Legal ones ..
Glycogen Loading
Creatine Monohydrate
Acid Buffering
Sodium bicarbonate

Caffeine
Write a brief Athlete profile including;
Weight, age, gender, general activity levels, sports specific training on a weekly basis, level of performance ( pro/amateur)

Identify calorific intake and macro nutrient balance for day to day consumption justify the macronutrient balance related to demands of training and sport.
Identify weekly supplements needed and state why and how they work. (consider any specific micronutrient that would be most beneficial for your athlete)

Write two 24 hour diet plans, one normal training day and one for competition you might want to think about additional supplements and very specific timings for competition day
Diet Plan Private Study Task
Process, Purpose, Pros & Cons
A balanced diet
is a diet that contains the right quantity of food so you consume only as many calories as you expend each day.

A balanced diet also contains the right mix of different types of foods so that the body receives all the nutrients, vitamins and minerals it needs to function.

No single food contains everything the body needs to be healthy.
If you eat
too many calories
, unused energy is stored as
fat
, which can lead to
obesity
. If you eat
too few calories
, you will become
underweight
and will not have the energy you need to carry out daily tasks or to take on physical activity or sport. And if you
limit the types of food you eat
, your body will not have the nutrients, vitamins and minerals it needs to turn food into energy, to
grow and to stay hydrated.
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