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AH2 - Unit 6 - World War II

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Jennifer Byrd

on 18 April 2016

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Transcript of AH2 - Unit 6 - World War II

World War II
World War II and the Beginning of the Cold War (1930-1963) - The learner will analyze the United States involvement in World War II and the war’s influence on international affairs in the following decades.

I can analyze the causes of WWII.
I can understand the rise of fascism in Europe.
I can analyze causes for US entry into the war.
I can describe and analyze the effects of the war on American economic, social, political and cultural life.
I can identify military, political, and diplomatic turning points of the war and examine their significance.
I can elaborate on changes in the direction of foreign policy related to the beginnings of the Cold War.
I can assess the role of organizations established to maintain peace and examine their continuing effectiveness.

Aggression begins....
......Good
Evil......
And the US finally steps in....
US on the homefront....

Strategy:
Island hopping
or leapfrogging -- focus only on strategic islands

Causes of WWII
Nuremburg Trials
November 1945
24 Nazi leaders put on trial for “crimes against humanity”
12 sentenced to death
Others received prison
The Nuclear Age
Introduction of nuclear warfare
US and USSR are enemies….only friends in WWII out of necessity
USSR begins to develop nuclear weapons
COLD WAR!!!!!!!!!
Aftermath of WWII
August 9, 1945 – second atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan
“Fat Man”
Japan finally surrenders – August 14
August 15 – V-J Day
Victory over Japan
Atomic Bomb - Nagasaki
August 6, 1945
“Little Boy”
Enola Gay – B29 bomber – dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan
Thousands of military and civilians killed
Soviet Union then invades Manchuria against Japan
Atomic Bomb - Hiroshima
Big Three discussing postwar policy
Truman is president now
Potsdam Declaration
Still want “unconditional surrender”
Japan refused to surrender until a guarantee that the position of the Emperor would be protected
Truman authorizes use of the atomic bomb
Potsdam Conference
One of the bloodiest battles
Took 100,000 US soldiers a month to defeat 25,000 entrenched Japanese forces
Iwo Jima
US’ first offensive operation in the Pacific
US Marines first experience with jungle warfare
Guadalcanal
After Pearl Harbor, Japanese destroyed a US air fleet in the Philippines
Japanese invaded and took over the Philippines
General Douglas McArthur forced to abandon the Philippines
Battle of Midway
War in the Pacific
Northern Migration
African Americans went north in search of jobs
Over 2 million went
Ended up in urban ghettos
Inner city poor emerge
The US at Home
Unions
No strikes or lockouts during war
John L. Lewis
Led a strike that was put down
Taft-Harley Act
Forbid the “closed shop” system
Right to refuse union membership
Automation
Machines replacing manpower
AFL-CIO
Huge labor organization that emerged
The US at Home
Japanese Internment
Executive Order 9066
US Military forced 110,000 Japanese Americans from their homes and business and put them in internment camps
Many lost everything
Korematsu v. US – said the order violated his civil rights – US Supreme Court ruled in US government’s favor, saying it was not unlawful because of the “military urgency of the situation”
The US at Home
War bonds
Movie stars advertised to sell bonds
Victory Gardens
People encouraged to grow their own food
Rationing
Citizens got food points, once the points were used, they could no longer get these items until they got more points
The US at Home
Income taxes
Government began withholding income tax from paychecks
Employers had to withhold the money and send to the government
The US at Home
Rosie the Riveter
Song – described women who worked in the factory as a riveter while her boyfriend served in the Marines
Rosie became a symbol for women who helped with the war effort
The US at Home
War Production Board
Redirected raw materials and resources from the production of civilian consumer goods to the production of materials needed for the war
US at Home
Patriotism and Morale
US government had to have strong support at home
Patriotic war posters
Newsreels that depicted war in a positive light played in theaters
Magazine Ads
Radio broadcasts
The US at Home
Selective Service Act
Drafted military
WAC
Women’s Army Corps
Served in every role but combat
Tuskegee Airmen
All black squadron of fighter pilots
“Code talkers”
Native Americans – served as radio operators using the Navajo language, the Japanese were unable to break it
442nd Japanese Regiment
Japanese Americans who served in Europe
Most decorated unit in US history
The US at Home
6 Million killed
Allied armies liberated some
Others hid, escaped
Anne Frank family hid for awhile
Elie Wiesel
“Night”
Oscar Schindler
“Schindler’s List”
Survivors
Poisonous gas used
Some shot into mass graves
Many were cremated after death
Auschwitz
Belzec
Buchenwald
Death Camps
Jews gathered from ghettos
Separated at camps
Live or die
Lived, you worked until you died
Wooden barracks held those fit to work
Hunger, disease, lice
Concentration Camps
Hitler elected – Many Jews flee Germany
US not accepting Jewish refugees
Albert Einstein an exception
Jewish Refugees
November 9, 1938
Germans attacked Jewish communities and businesses
“night of broken glass”
Kristallnacht - 1938
Entirely convinced that the purity of German blood is essential to the further existence of the German people, and inspired by the uncompromising determination to safeguard the future of the German nation, the Reichstag has unanimously resolved upon the following law, which is promulgated herewith:
Section 1
Marriages between Jews and citizens of German or kindred blood are forbidden. Marriages concluded in defiance of this law are void, even if, for the purpose of evading this law, they were concluded abroad.
Proceedings for annulment may be initiated only by the Public Prosecutor.
Section 2
Extramarital intercourse between Jews and subjects of the state of Germany or related blood is forbidden.
(Supplementary decrees set Nazi definitions of racial Germans, Jews, and half-breeds or Mischlinge --- see the latter entry for details and citations. Jews could not vote or hold public office.)
Section 3
Jews will not be permitted to employ female citizens of German or kindred blood as domestic workers under the age of 45.
Section 4
Jews are forbidden to display the Reich and national flag or the national colours.
On the other hand they are permitted to display the Jewish colours. The exercise of this right is protected by the State.[4]
Section 5
A person who acts contrary to the prohibition of Section 1 will be punished with hard labour.
A person who acts contrary to the prohibition of Section 2 will be punished with imprisonment or with hard labor.
A person who acts contrary to the provisions of Sections 3 or 4 will be punished with imprisonment up to a year and with a fine, or with one of these penalties.
Section 6
The Reich Minister of the Interior in agreement with the Deputy Fuhrer and the Reich Minister of Justice will issue the legal and administrative regulations required for the enforcement and supplementing of this law.
Section 7
The law will become effective on the day after its promulgation; Section 3, however, not until January 1, 1936.
Nuremburg Laws
Hitler commits suicide on April 30, 1945
Germany surrendered unconditionally
Victory in Europe!!!!!!!
V-E Day – May 8, 1945
End of Hitler
Yalta Conference
“Big Three” – Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin – met in Yalta
Discussed military and postwar policies
Stalin agreed to:
Declare war on Japan
Agreed to follow free elections to establish democratic governments in Eastern European countries freed from German occupation
FDR, Churchill agreed to:
Allow USSR to retain land in Poland
Allow USSR to have rights to certain islands and Chinese lands presently under Japanese control
USSR would receive ½ of the war reparations from Germany
All of this stated in Yalta Declaration
Germany divided into 4 zones after the war – France, Great Britain, USSR, US
Establish UN as peace keeping organization
Major Military, Political, and Diplomatic Turning Points of the War
Battle of Bulge
Allies win over Germany under command of General Patton
Major Military, Political, and Diplomatic Turning Points of the War
Airdrops
Used airplanes to drop needed supplies to soldiers in areas that were hard to reach on land
Food, tanks, artillery
Medical supplies
Propaganda
Pamphlets dropped
Intended to win over civilians and demoralize enemy soldiers
Allied Tactics
“Big Three” meet at the Tehran Conference - December 1943
Operation Overlord – commanded by Eisenhower – Allies to launch an attack on Germans in France
D-Day – June 6, 1944 – Allied troops enter France from beaches of Normandy, Omaha, Juno, Gold
500,000 troops ashore – heavy casualties
August 25, 1944 – Allies liberated Paris, liberating city from German occupation
Major Military, Political, and Diplomatic Turning Points of the War
Soviet Union and Stalingrad
Hitler attacks the Soviet Union
Germans raped, burned homes, executed large numbers of civilians
Battle of Stalingrad – city named for Stalin
Germany reduced the city to rubble by bombing
Used bold Russian weather to eventually hold German forces off
90,000 Germans surrendered
Major Military, Political, and Diplomatic Turning Points of the War
Casablanca, Morocco
FDR and Churchill meet and decide on “unconditional surrender”
Decided to invade Italy
Launch attack in Pacific against Japan
Major Military, Political, and Diplomatic Turning Points of the War
FDR’s had four freedoms he believed were essential for men and women fighting in WWII:
1. Freedom of speech and expression
2. Freedom of every person to worship
God in his own way
3. Freedom from want (physical needs)
4. Freedom from fear
Four Freedoms
FDR proclaimed Dec. 7 as a day that “will live in infamy”
Congress approved declaration of war against Japan, Germany, Italy
Japan – “We have awakened a sleeping giant”
Pearl Harbor
US responded to Japan’s aggression in China by imposing an embargo on oil and steel
Hurt Japan’s military
Japan decided to take resources by force in Southeast Asia
Realized US presence in Pearl Harbor was preventing them from invading SE Asia
Pearl Harbor
Lend Lease Act
President could send aid to any nation whose defense was considered vital to US national security

Atlantic Charter
Between US and Great Britain (FDR and Churchill)
Guaranteed freedom and security of nations after the war
Served as basis for founding the United Nations
US Enters the War
April 1940 – Hitler conquers Norway, Denmark
British Prime Minister Chamberlain resigns
Winston Churchill takes his place
Hitler forces France to surrender
The Fall of France
Hitler breaks the Munich Pact
Invades Czechoslovakia, Poland
Used new warfare techniques – Blitzkrieg
“lightening war”
Used air power and tanks to strike fast and hard
Soviets attack Poland from the east
Blitzkrieg
US in a depression
Still recovering from WWI
US passed the Neutrality Act, which prohibited the US from selling weapons to warring countries.
FDR – Quarantine Speech
FDR called for a quarantine against “aggressor nations”
Place economic sanctions on aggressor nations
These sanctions eventually led to Japan bombing Pearl Harbor
US Remains Neutral
Hitler signed with Joseph Stalin – the two countries promised not to attack each other
Stalin realized that Hitler would eventually attack, but the pact bought him some time to prepare for war
Soviets agreed to attack Poland from the East
Non-Aggression Pact
Hitler wanted to conquer the Soviet territory for “living space” for the empire he was intent on building
Realized he must defeat the Russians
Lebensraum
Great Britain and France agreed to Hitler’s capture of the Sudetenland
Hitler promised to claim no further land in Czechoslovakia or anywhere else.
Chamberlain called it “peace with honor” and “peace for our time”
Winston Churchill, member of Parliament, disagreed – predicted war
Munich Pact
European leaders still not willing to risk war in spite of Hitler’s aggression.
Followed a policy of appeasement
Appeasement
Hitler annexes Austria
No resistance from League of Nations
Demanded the right to annex the Sudetenland – western border of Czechoslovakia
Aggression Begins
Mussolini invades Ethiopia
League of Nations imposed economic sanctions on Italy
Aggression Begins
Inspiring speaker
Blamed the Jews and WWI enemies for Germany’s problems
Ascended power in 1933
No opposition to his leadership
Known as the “Fuhrer” of Germany
leader, guide
Germany known as the Third Reich
Hitler
Germany faced humiliation and economic hardships following WWI
Hitler took advantage of German people’s resentment of Treaty of Versailles
Hitler
As Hitler invades European countries, nothing is done
Policy in which it is believed that by giving in to an aggressor’s demands, the aggressor will be satisfied and future conflicts avoided
Appeasement
Stock Market Crash in US caused a ripple effect throughout Europe
Great Depression affected several nations
The Great Depression
Manhattan Project
Headed by Robert Oppenheimer
The Atomic Bomb
Very bloody
US and British forces took the island from the Japanese
Okinawa
MacArthur still upset about having to flee the Philippines
Convinces FDR to let him invade the Japanese on the Philippine Islands
Conquers the Philippines in the Battle of Leyte Gulf
Japanese respond by using “kamikaze” pilots to avoid defeat – suicide planes – crashed into
War in the Pacific
1939 – Hitler decided to rid Europe of all Jews and other “undesirables”
Jews
Gays
Mentally ill
Developmentally disabled
Handicapped
Concentration camps set up
Many experimented upon
Final Solution
“Mein Kampf” – blamed Jews for Germany’s problems
Nuremburg Laws
Took away civil rights of Jews
The Holocaust
Major Military, Political, and Diplomatic Turning Points of the War
US invades Sicily under command of George S. Patton
Allies win and Mussolini arrested
North Africa and Italy
Allies focus on Africa – Suez Canal access being blocked
Allies launch Operation Torch –
Invasion of North Africa to drive the Axis armies off the continent
Commanded by Dwight D. Eisenhower
German forces commanded by General Erwin Rommel – “Dessert Fox”
Allied forces drive Germans out of Africa
Major Military, Political, and Diplomatic Turning Points of the War
December 7, 1941
US detected the Japanese planes on radar, thought they were US planes flying in from the mainland
Damaged a dozen naval vessels
200 Warplanes
Killed, wounded 3,000 people
FDR - Infamy
Pearl Harbor
Hitler wanted to destroy Royal Air Force
July 1940 – October 1940
Germans bombed British airfields and cities
Battle of Britain
"My good friends, for the second time in our history, a British Prime Minister has returned from Germany bringing peace with honor. I believe it is peace for our time... “
“You were given the choice between war and dishonor. You chose dishonor, and you will have war." 
Emperor Hirohito
Proclaimed “Showa” – enlightened peace for his regime
1931 – occupied the Chinese province of Manchuria
Japan
Japan invades the Chinese province of Manchuria
League of Nations demanded that Japan withdraw troops
Japan withdrew from the League of Nations
Japan continues into Japan and takes all major Chinese cities along the coast
Aggression Begins
1. The rise of
totalitarianism
following WWI
Adolf Hitler – Germany
Benito Mussolini – Italy
Joseph Stalin - Soviet Union
Francisco Franco - Spain
Emperor Hirohito - Japan

Weak
Left Germany in a bad position
Restricted militarily and economically
War-guilt clause
Germans felt “stabbed in the back”
Made it easy for Hitler to come to power...
Hitler was the German savior
2.
Treaty of Versailles
Weak
Did not have the power to act
once Hitler began his aggressive
policies
3.
League of Nations
Stock Market Crash in US caused
a ripple effect throughout Europe
Great Depression affected many nations
4.
The Great Depression
As Hitler invades European countries, nothing is done
Policy in which it is believed that by giving in to an aggressor’s demands, the aggressor will be satisfied and future conflicts avoided
5.
Appeasement
Wanted to make Italy an Italian empire similar to that of the ancient Romans
Was also a fascist
Called
Il Duce

Benito Mussolini
Vocabulary Alert!!!!

fascism
Germany faced humiliation and economic hardships following WWI
Hitler took advantage of German people’s resentment of Treaty of Versailles
Adolf Hitler
Inspiring speaker
Blamed the Jews and WWI enemies for Germany’s problems
Wrote
Mein Kampf
will in jail (Beer Hall Putsch - 1923) in 1925
Ascended power in 1933 - President Hindenberg appointed Hitler as chancellor; later takes complete control
No opposition to his leadership
Known as “
der Fuhrer
” of Germany (leader, guide)
Wanted Germany to create a new empire; known as
the Third Reich
Rose to power in the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers’ Party)
Was a
FASCIST
Of Japan
Proclaimed “Showa” – enlightened peace for his regime
Long, militaristic history
1931 – occupied the Chinese province of Manchuria
Hideki Tojo - aggressive military leader of Japan
Emperor Hirohito
Mussolini invades Ethiopia
League of Nations imposed economic
sanctions on Italy
Hitler annexes the French Rhineland & Austria
No resistance from League of Nations
Demanded the right to annex the
Sudetenland
– western border of Czechoslovakia
European leaders still not willing to
risk war in spite of Hitler’s aggression.
Followed a policy of
appeasement
Vocabulary Alert!!!


appeasement
Fearing another war, Great Britain and France agreed to Hitler’s capture of the Sudetenland
Hitler promised to claim no further land in Czechoslovakia or anywhere else.
Chamberlain called it “peace with honor” and “peace for our time”
Winston Churchill, member of Parliament, disagreed – predicted war
Munich Pact
Hitler wanted to conquer the Soviet territory for “living space” for the empire he was intent on building
Realized he must defeat the Russians
Lebensraum (living room)
Hitler signed with Joseph Stalin – the two countries promised not to attack each other
Stalin realized that Hitler would eventually attack, but the pact bought him some time to prepare for war
Soviets agreed to attack Poland from the East
Non-Aggression Pact
US in a depression; Still recovering from WWI
US passed the
Neutrality Act
, which prohibited the US from selling weapons to warring countries.
FDR –
Quarantine
Speech
FDR called for a quarantine against “aggressor nations”
Place economic sanctions on aggressor nations
These sanctions eventually led to Japan bombing Pearl Harbor
US Remains Neutral
Hitler breaks the Munich Pact
Takes the rest of Czechoslovakia
Sept. 1, 1939 - Invades Poland - SPARK!!

Allies declare war on Germany
April 1940 – Hitler invades Norway,
Denmark, France, Belgium, Luxembourg.....and finally the Netherlands.
Soviets attack Poland and Finland from the East


The Fall of France
Hitler wanted to destroy Royal Air Force
July 1940 – October 1940
Germans bombed British airfields and cities
Battle of Britain
Dec. 1940, FDR states in a speech that America must be, "...
the great aresenal of democracy
."
When the Allies desperately needed our help, FDR responds with a series of aid
Cash and Carry

= We would sell supplies to the Allies, but they had to pay cash, and come get them.
Lend Lease Act
=
President could send aid to any nation whose defense was considered vital to US national security...we loaned them war materials
Destroyers for Bases
= giving Allies ships, etc. in exchange for military bases.

Atlantic Charter
(
first war-time conference
)
Between US and Great Britain (FDR and Churchill)
Guaranteed freedom and security of nations after the war
Served as basis for founding the United Nations
...sort of....
And then there was one...
vs.
US had responded to Japan’s aggression in China by imposing an embargo on oil and steel
Hurt Japan’s military
Japan decided to take resources by force in Southeast Asia
Realized US presence in Pearl Harbor was preventing them from invading SE Asia

***
Dec. 7, 1941
- Japan attacks Pearl Harbor
a dozen vessels destroyed
200 airplanes destroyed
3,000 killed or wounded
2. Pearl Harbor
FDR had four freedoms he believed were essential for men and women fighting in WWII:
1. Freedom of speech and expression
2. Freedom of every person to worship
God in his own way
3. Freedom from want (physical needs)
4. Freedom from fear
Four Freedoms
North Africa and Italy
Allies focus on Africa – Suez Canal access being blocked
Allies launch Operation Torch –
Invasion of North Africa to drive the Axis armies off the continent
Commanded by Dwight D. Eisenhower
German forces commanded by General Erwin Rommel – “Desert Fox”
Allied forces drive Germans out of Africa
Turning point in the African theater is
El Alamein
Major Military, Political, and Diplomatic Turning Points of the War

Casablanca, Morocco
FDR and Churchill meet and decide on “unconditional surrender”
Decided to invade Italy
Launch attack in Pacific against Japan
Major Military, Political, and Diplomatic Turning Points of the War
Major Military, Political, and Diplomatic Turning Points of the War
US invades Sicily under command of George S. Patton - July 1943
Allies win and Mussolini arrested and killed
Soviet Union and Stalingrad
Hitler attacks the Soviet Union
Germans raped, burned homes, executed large numbers of civilians
Battle of Stalingrad

– TURNING POINT!!
Germany reduced the city to rubble by bombing
Used unbearable Russian weather to eventually hold German forces off
90,000 Germans surrendered
Major Military, Political, and Diplomatic Turning Points of the War
“Big Three”

meet at the
Tehran Conference
- December 1943
Operation Overlord

– commanded by Eisenhower – Allies to launch an attack on Germans in France
D-Day – June 6, 1944
– Allied troops enter France from beaches of Normandy, Omaha, Juno, Gold
500,000 troops ashore – heavy casualties
August 25, 1944 – Allies liberated Paris, liberating city from German occupation
Major Military, Political, and Diplomatic Turning Points of the War
Airdrops
Used airplanes to drop needed supplies to soldiers in areas that were hard to reach on land
Food, tanks, artillery
Medical supplies
Propaganda
Pamphlets dropped
Intended to win over civilians and demoralize enemy soldiers
Allied Tactics
Battle of Bulge
Last major German offensive - Dec. 1944-Jan. 1945
Allies defeat Germany
Major Military, Political, and Diplomatic Turning Points of the War
Yalta Conference
“Big Three”
– Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin – met in Yalta
Discussed military and postwar policies
Stalin agreed to:
Declare war on Japan
Agreed to follow free elections to establish democratic governments in Eastern European countries freed from German occupation
FDR, Churchill agreed to:
Allow USSR to retain land in Poland
Allow USSR to have rights to certain islands and Chinese lands presently under Japanese control
USSR would receive ½ of the war reparations from Germany
All of this stated in
Yalta Declaration
Germany divided into 4 zones after the war – France, Great Britain, USSR, US
Establish
United Nations
as a new peace keeping organization
Major Military, Political, and Diplomatic Turning Points of the War
Hitler commits suicide on April 30, 1945
Germany surrendered unconditionally
Victory in Europe!!!!!!!
V-E Day – May 8, 1945
End of Hitler
“Mein Kampf” – blamed Jews for Germany’s problems
Nuremburg Laws
Took away civil rights of Jews

When Hitler was elected, many Jews fled Germany
US did NOT accept Jewish refugees (Albert Einstein was an exception...)
The Holocaust
Entirely convinced that the purity of German blood is essential to the further existence of the German people, and inspired by the uncompromising determination to safeguard the future of the German nation, the Reichstag has unanimously resolved upon the following law, which is promulgated herewith:
Section 1
Marriages between Jews and citizens of German or kindred blood are forbidden. Marriages concluded in defiance of this law are void, even if, for the purpose of evading this law, they were concluded abroad.
Proceedings for annulment may be initiated only by the Public Prosecutor.
Section 2
Extramarital intercourse between Jews and subjects of the state of Germany or related blood is forbidden.
(Supplementary decrees set Nazi definitions of racial Germans, Jews, and half-breeds or Mischlinge --- see the latter entry for details and citations. Jews could not vote or hold public office.)
Section 3
Jews will not be permitted to employ female citizens of German or kindred blood as domestic workers under the age of 45.
Section 4
Jews are forbidden to display the Reich and national flag or the national colours.
On the other hand they are permitted to display the Jewish colours. The exercise of this right is protected by the State.[4]
Section 5
A person who acts contrary to the prohibition of Section 1 will be punished with hard labour.
A person who acts contrary to the prohibition of Section 2 will be punished with imprisonment or with hard labor.
A person who acts contrary to the provisions of Sections 3 or 4 will be punished with imprisonment up to a year and with a fine, or with one of these penalties.
Section 6
The Reich Minister of the Interior in agreement with the Deputy Fuhrer and the Reich Minister of Justice will issue the legal and administrative regulations required for the enforcement and supplementing of this law.
Section 7
The law will become effective on the day after its promulgation; Section 3, however, not until January 1, 1936.
Nuremburg Laws
November 9, 1938
Germans attacked Jewish communities and businesses
“night of broken glass”
Kristallnacht - 1938
Jews gathered from ghettos
Separated at camps
Live or die
Lived = you worked until you died
Wooden barracks held those fit to work
Hunger, disease, lice
Concentration Camps
Poisonous gas used
Some shot into mass graves
Many were cremated after death
Auschwitz
Belzec
Buchenwald
Death Camps
6 Million killed
Allied armies liberated some
Others hid, escaped
Anne Frank family hid for awhile
Elie Wiesel - “Night”
Oscar Schindler
“Schindler’s List”
Survivors


Minorities....
Tuskegee Airmen
All black squadron of fighter pilots

Code talkers

Native Americans – served as radio operators using the Navajo language, the Japanese were unable to break it




442nd Japanese Regiment
Japanese Americans who served in Europe
Most decorated unit in US history
The US at Home

War Production Board
Redirected raw materials and resources from the production of civilian consumer goods to the production of materials needed for the war

War Labor Board
Mediated labor disputes to keep industry pumping
John L. Lewis - Coal miners' union did go on strike -- America hated him for it.
Raising $$$
War bonds sold
Income taxes
Government began withholding income
tax from paychecks
Employers had to withhold the money and send to the government


Propaganda
-- again, the US uses it to raise moral and patriotism
War bonds
Movie stars advertised to sell bonds
Rationing
Citizens got food points; once the points were used, they could no longer get these items until they got more points
Victory Gardens
People encouraged to grow their own food
Japanese Internment
Executive Order 9066
US Military forced 110,000 Japanese Americans from their homes and business and put them in internment camps
Many lost everything
Korematsu v. US
– said the order violated his civil rights – US Supreme Court ruled in US government’s favor, saying it was not unlawful because of the “military urgency of the situation”
Northern or "Great" Migration
African Americans went north in
search of jobs
Over 2 million went
Ended up in urban ghettos
Inner city poor emerge
The US at Home
Scientists are put to work inventing new war technology: radar, sonar, penicillin are all used by the military during WWII
Manhattan Project

– J. Robert Oppenheimer heads the secret project to build an atomic bomb . Officially started in 1942, costing $2 billion for 3 bombs
July 1945 – first bomb tested at Alamogordo, NM
2 bombs – Fat Man and Little Boy – were saved for future use.
New Technology
After Pearl Harbor, Japanese destroyed a
US air fleet in the Philippines
Japanese invaded and took over the Philippines
General Douglas McArthur
forced to abandon the Philippines
Battle of Midway
- TURNING POINT!!
MacArthur still upset about having to flee the Philippines
Convinces FDR to let him invade the Japanese on the Philippine Islands
Conquers the Philippines in the
Battle of Leyte Gulf
Japanese respond by using “kamikaze” pilots to avoid defeat – suicide planes – crashed into aircraft carriers, etc.
War in the Pacific
US first offensive operation in the Pacific
US Marines first experience with jungle warfare
Guadalcanal
One of the bloodiest battles
Took 100,000 US soldiers a month to defeat 25,000 entrenched Japanese forces
Iwo Jima
Big Three discussed postwar policy
Truman is president now
Potsdam Declaration --
Still want “unconditional surrender”
Japan refused to surrender until a guarantee that the position of the Emperor would be protected
Truman authorizes use of the atomic bomb
Potsdam Conference
August 6, 1945
“Little Boy”
Enola Gay – B29 bomber – dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan
Thousands of military and civilians killed
Soviet Union then invades Manchuria against Japan
Hiroshima
August 9, 1945 – second atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan
“Fat Man”
Japan finally surrenders – Aug. 14, 1945
Sept. 2 –
V-J Day

Victory over Japan
Japan formally surrenders to Gen. McArthur aboard the
U.S.S. Missouri
Nagasaki
Nuremburg Trials
November 1945
24 Nazi leaders put on trial for “crimes against humanity”
12 sentenced to death
Others received prison
The Nuclear Age
Introduction of nuclear warfare
US and USSR are enemies….only friends in WWII out of necessity
USSR begins to develop nuclear weapons
COLD WAR
BEGINS!!!!!!!!!
Aftermath of WWII
Vocabulary Alert!!

totalitarian --
And the U.S. comes to the aid of the Allies....
again....
But Britain did NOT fall....thanks to the RAF.
Economic distress leads people to become desperate for leadership....
***DOES NOT WORK!!!
"
Dictators ride to and fro on tigers from
which they dare not dismount. And the
tigers are getting hungry...
"
-- Winston Churchill
Bwahhhahahahaha!!
Japan, as an island nation, needs resources; invades
Manchuria. League of Nations demands they get out and Japan says....ummmmm......Let me think about it..... NO!!!! And they withdraw from the League and pounce on China.
Alliances form.....AGAIN!


Allies Axis

Gr. Britain -- Chamberlain
France -- Daladier
LATER: Soviet Union - Stalin
LATER: US - FDR
Germany -- Hitler
Italy - Mussolini
Japan - Hirohito
SURPRISE!!!!!!!!
Germany used new warfare techniques –
Vocabulary Alert!!!!

Blitzkrieg...
“lightening war”
Used air power (Luftwaffe) and tanks to strike fast and hard
Election of 1940 --
FDR is elected to a record 3rd term...
Outlines his goals in a speech to Congress.
FDR proclaimed Dec. 7 as a ..."date which will live in infamy...”
Congress approved declaration of war against Japan, Germany, Italy; Britain does the same. Germany and Italy then declare war on us.
Japan's Admiral Ogata Taketora –
“I fear all we have done is waken a sleeping giant and fill him with a terrible resolve...”
****He was right!!!!
Two HUGE mistakes by the Axis....

1. June, 1941 - Hitler finally invades the Soviet Union.
Stalin then joins forces with the Allies
Hitler is now fighting a two-front war.
Selective Service Act:
Millions were drafted and millions
volunteered.
Women in the War --
Women's Auxillary Corps (WAC's)
Thousands volunteered
Women took the place of men in the factories
Symbolized by
Rosie the Riveter
Neville Chamberlain resigns: Winston Churchill becomes Prime Minister
ITALY...
...the soft underbelly of Europe
The Final Solution
1939 -- Hitler decided to rid Europe of all Jews and undesirables

Jews
Gays
Mentally ill
Developmentally disabled
Handicapped
gov't which exerts
total
control over the lives of its citizens
Giving in to an aggressor's demands in hopes of avoiding conflict
Totalitarian regime which stresses the state over the people, INEQUALITY, strong military; NO CIVIL RIGHTS!
The US wanted to
stay out of the war...
but then....
Doofus....
You were given the choice between dishonor and war. You chose dishonor and you will have war."
***Election of 1944 - FDR is re-elected
for an unprecedented 4th term!!!
Held near Berlin, July 1945 -- was the last of the World War II meetings held by the “Big Three”
– President Harry S. Truman, Winston Churchill (and his successor, Clement Attlee) and Joseph Stalin

April 12 1945 – FDR died suddenly of a cerebral hemorrhage
– Established an Allied Control Council for administration of Germany.
– Various agreements on the German economy, punishment for war criminals, land boundaries and reparations
– Issued a declaration demanding “unconditional surrender” from Japan.

Potsdam Conference

War Labor Board
Mediated labor disputes to keep industry pumping
• Union membership rose, including women, but most people supported the war and agreed to no strikes or lockouts
• John L. Lewis (United Mine Workers) DID lead a strike and the country hated him for it.
Okinawa
-- very bloody; US & British forces took the island
War in the Pacific
Full transcript