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Chemical Compounds in Cells
Transcript of Chemical Compounds in Cells
Element- any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances.
Atom- The smallest unit of an element.
Compound- When 2+ elements combine chemically.
Molecule- Smallest unit of most compounds.
Organic Compounds- Most compounds that contain carbon.
Inorganic compounds- Compounds that don't contain the element
Proteins- large organic molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur.
Animo acids- Protein molecules that are made up
of smaller molecules.
Enzyme- a type of Protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing.
Carbohydrate- an energy-rich organic compound made up of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Lipids- Fats, oils, and waxes.
Nucleic acids- very large organic molecules made of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus.
DNA- genetic material that carries info about an organism that is passed from parent to offspring,
Cells use proteins for many different things. For instance, proteins form parts of cell membrane. Proteins also make up many of the organelles within the cell. Certain cells in your body use proteins to build body structures such as muscles. Although there are only 20 different ways to form thousands of different proteins. The kinds of animo acids and the order in which they link together determine the type of proteins that forms. Without enzymes, many chemical reactions that are necessary for life would either take too long or not occur at all.
Elements and Compounds
Oxygen and nitrogen are examples of elements. An element is made up of only one kind of atom. The most common elements in living things, including you, are Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen. An example is water which is made up of the elements hydrogen and oxygen. Each water molecule is made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.
Organic & Inorganic Compounds
The most important groups of organic compounds found in living things are Proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. Although carbon dioxide contains carbon, its classified as an inorganic compound. Other inorganic compounds include water and sodium chloride, or table salt.
Sugars are produced during the food-making process that takes place in plants. Foods such as fruits and some veggies are high in sugar content, Sugar molecules can combine, forming large molecules called starches. Plant cells store excess energy in molecules of starch. Carbohydrates are essential components of some cell parts, The cellulose found in the cell walls of plants is a type of carbohydrate. Also found in cell membranes,
Like carbohydrates, lipids are energy rich, organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Lipids contain even more energy than carbohydrates. Cells store energy in lipids for later use. For ex, during winter a dormant bear lives on the energy stored as fat within its cells.
Nucleic acids contain the instructions that cells need to carry out all the functions of life. There are 2 kinds of nucleic acids, DNA and RNA. The info in DNA directs of all the cells functions. Most of the DNA in a cell is found in the chromatin the nucleus. RNA plays an important role in the production of proteins. RNA is found in the cytoplasm and the nucleus.
H2o & Living things
Water plays many vital roles in cells. For ex, most chemical reactions that take place in cells can occur only when substances are dissolved in water. Without water, most chemical reactions within the cells could not take place. Water also helps cells keep their size and shape.
Photosynthesis: The process by which a cell captures the energy in sunlight and uses it to make food.
Pigments: Colored chemical compounds that absorbs light.
Chlorophyll: Main pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants.
Stomata: Carbon dioxide that enters the plant through SM openings on the undersides of the leaves.
What is Photosynthesis?
Every living thing needs energy. All cells need energy carry out their functions, such as making proteins and transporting substances into and out of the cell. The term photosynthesis comes from the root words photo, meaning "light", and synthesis meaning "putting together". Photosynthesis means using light to make food.
A Two-Stage Process
During Photosynthesis, plants and some other organisms use energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and sugars, including glucose. You can think of Photosynthesis as taking place in 2 stages: capturing the suns energy and producing sugars.
Capturing the Sun's Energy
The 1st stage of photosynthesis involves capturing the energy in sunlight. In plants, this energy-capturing process occurs in the leaves and other green parts of the plant. In most plants, leaf cells contain more chloroplasts than do cells other parts of the plant. The chloroplasts in plant cells give plants their green color. The main pigment in chloroplasts of plants is chlorophyll. Chloroplasts may also contain yellow and orange pigment, but are usually masked by the green color of chlorophyll. Chlorophyll and other pigments function in a manner similar to that of the solar "cells" in a solar-powered calculator. Solar cells capture the energy in light and use it to power the calculator. Similarly, the pigments capture light energy and use it to power the 2nd stage of photosynthesis.
Using energy to Make Food
In the 2nd stage of photosynthesis, the cell uses the the captured energy to produce sugars. The cells need 2 raw materials for this stage: water and CO2. In plants, the roots absorb water from soil. The H2O then then moves up through the plants stem to the leaves. C02 is 1 of the gases in the air. Inside the Chloro, the H2O and CO2 undergo a complex series of chemical reactions. The reactions powered by the energy captured in the 1st stage. 1 of the products of the reactions is oxygen. Other products are sugars, including glucose. Sugars are a type of carbohydrate. Cells can use the energy in the sugars to carry out important cell functions.
The Photosynthesis Equation
Plant cells use some of the sugar for food. The cells break down into the sugar molecules to release the energy they contain. This energy can then be used to carry out the plants funtions. Some sugar molecules are converted into other compounds, such as cellulose. Other sugar molecules may be stored in plants cells for later use. The other product of photosynthesis is oxygen. Most of the oxygen passes out of the plant through the stomata and into the air. All organisms that carry out photosynthesis release oxygen.
6 CO2 + 6 H20 --- C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Photosynthesis and Life
Nearly all living things obtain energy either directly or indirectly from the energy of sunlight captured during photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is also essential for the air you breathe. Most living things need oxygen to survive. About 21% of Earths atmo is oxygen- thanks to plants and other organisms that carry out photosynthesis. Almost all oxygen in Earths atmo was produced by living things through the process of photosynthesis.