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Five Components of Reading in Language Arts

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Monica Sanchez

on 12 February 2013

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Transcript of Five Components of Reading in Language Arts

By:
Abbi Johnson
Valerie Clementi
Monica Sanchez Five Components of Reading
in Language Arts The State of Reading Today Reading today combines meaning-based and whole-language approaches which in turn compliments the way children learn to speak and learn to read. Why So Many Students are Not Learning to Read Myths and Assumptions about Reading Instruction 1. Learning to Read is a natural process

2. Children will eventually learn how to red if given enough time

3. we used to do a better job of teaching children to read In 2003, the national assessment of education progress report stated that there was a drop of 4% from 4th grade to 8th grade in basic reading skills solely using the phonics approach, thus the need to combine the two learning strategies. For whatever the reason children fail to read by the end of the third grade, most non-readers share a common problem. They have not developed the capacity to recognize what reading experts call phonemes. Phonemes are the smallest units of speech—the basic building blocks of speaking and writing. The word "cat," for example, contains three phonemes—the /k/, /a/, and /t/ sounds. Reading: The first chapter . (1996). Informally published manuscript, , Available from ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education. Retrieved from http://www.hoagiesgifted.org/eric/frstchap.html Wren, S. (2002). Ten myths of reading instruction. Informally published manuscript, , , Available from SEDL Advancing Research Improving Education. Retrieved from https://www.sedl.org/pubs/sedl-letter/v14n03/2.html Truths Behind the Myths 1. Despite the fact that learning to read is not only unnatural, it is one of the most unnatural things humans do.

2. While it is true that children should be taught to read in developmentally appropriate ways, we should not simply wait for children to develop reading skills in their own time.

3. We are basically just as successful today as we have always been—which is not very successful. Wren, S. (2002). Ten myths of reading instruction. Informally published manuscript, , , Available from SEDL Advancing Research Improving Education. Retrieved from https://www.sedl.org/pubs/sedl-letter/v14n03/2.html Three Reports on the State of Reading Today Five Components of Reading Diagram Phonemic Awareness Diagram 1. In the report "Reading Next", fifteen elements for efficient literacy were addressed. Ideas included diverse texts, technology components, and ongoing summative assessment of students and programs (10-11).

2. "The Commission on Adolescent Literacy of the International Reading Association" asserts that "adolescent entering the adult world in the 21st century will read and write more than at any other time in human history (9).

3. "The Report of the National Reading Panel" lists ideas of effective comprehension including "vocabulary knowledge is strongly related to test comprehension and is especially important in teaching English learners (21-22). Vacca, R. T., Vacca, J. A. L., & Mraz, M. (2010). Content area reading, literacy and learning across the curriculum. (10 ed.). Boston. MA:Pearson: Allyn & Bacon. Phonemic Awareness Component Phonemic awareness is the understanding that words are created from phonemes (small units of sounds in language) Examples of Teaching Phonemic Awareness University of Oragon. (2012). Phenomic Awareness.
Retrieved from https://dibels.uoregon.edu/training/bir/phonemic-awareness.php Diagram for Fluency Fluency Component Fluency is a reader’s ability to read with speed, accuracy,
and expression

What this means for students is that the teacher is to
teach students how to read the text. If a student is fluent in reading,
they can read and understand texts at their grade level or above.
Examples of Teaching Fluency *Reading logs: Students are to take a book and read independently for thirty minutes every day as homework. At the end of the week, students are to summarize what they read.
*Reading in the classroom: As a group, students read out of a classroom novel or text. The teacher calls on each student to take turns reading out loud. Diagram for Vocabulary Vocabulary Component 1. Encourage wide reading
2. Exposing students to higher diction
3. Promote word consciousness
4. Provide explicit instruction of specific words
5. Provide modeling and instruction in independent word-learning strategies
Examples of Teaching Vocabulary
*Choose difficult words from a novel being taught in class. Discuss the words when they encountered. Have a test once a week of about 6-10 words encountered.
*Do vocabulary squares.
*Have a word wall.
*Use new words each week in class and encourage students to implement those words in their writing for the rest of the semester.
*Have students come to class with a word that they heard and do not know once a week.
*Implement new words in D.O.L’s and have the students try to figure out what the word means based on the context of the sentence. Then define.

Diagram for Comprehension Comprehension Component Reading comprehension is the act of understanding
what you are reading.

it is an intentional, active, interactive
process that occurs before,
during and after a person reads a particular piece
of writing.


Why Know the Reading Process and the Five Components Examples of Teaching Comprehension When students are beginning a new unit for Language Arts, if it deals with a novel, they can hypothesis about what the novel will be about.

The teacher can give them the scenario for the novel, the time period for which it deals, or the genre of the novel and have students share what they
already know about the topic.

Students can they get into groups and share what
connections they have with that topic.

When they are reading they can continue to make those personal connections.
Students can be required to make chapter summaries including the main topic of each chapter.

From there, they can infer what the meaning of the novel was and what the point of reading the novel was.
Vacca, R.T., Vacca, J.L., & Mraz, M. (2011). Content area reading: literacy and learning across the curriculum. (10th ed.) Boston, MA: Pearson.
When children learn to read, they begin to understand that the words on the page correspond to the words they encounter every day in spoken English. That’s why it’s much easier for children to make sense of written words that are part of their oral language.

Reading or learning how to read is a combination of all the skills. The interconnectedness of each of the five components makes it impossible to teach them in isolation or in a particular order. It is more important to use the individual child’s knowledge and stage of development as a starting point for instruction. However, since there is a constant give and take among the components, one will sometimes be emphasized over another. Knowing each component will ultimately help with student's overall understanding.


http://www.nationalserviceresources.org/filemanager/download/learns/NationalReadingPanel_FAQ.pdf Rashid, D. (2013). Comprehension components of a reading program. Unpublished manuscript, George Mason University, , Available from Literacy at School and Home. Retrieved from http://mason.gmu.edu/~cwallac7/TAP/TEST/comprehension/1.html Vacca, R. T., Vacca, J. A. L., & Mraz, M. (2010). Content area reading, literacy and learning across the curriculum. (10 ed.). Boston. MA:Pearson: Allyn & Bacon. The components of effective vocabulary instruction. (2002). Informally published manuscript, Texas Education Agency, , Available from Adolescent Literacy. Retrieved from http://www.adlit.org/article/19691/ Vacca, R. T., Vacca, J. A. L., & Mraz, M. (2010). Content area reading, literacy and learning across the curriculum. (10 ed.). Boston. MA:Pearson: Allyn & Bacon. University of Oragon. (2012). Phonics.
Retrieved from https://dibels.uoregon.edu/training/bir/phonemic-awareness.php University of Oragon. (2012). Phenomic Awareness.
Retrieved from https://dibels.uoregon.edu/training/bir/phonemic-awareness.php *Sound and Word discrimination: What word doesn't belong with the others: "cat", "mat", "bat", "ran"? "ran"
*Rhyming: What word rhymes with "cat"? bat
*Syllable splitting: The onset of "cat" is /k/, the rime is /at/
*Blending: What word is made up of the sounds /k/ /a/ /t/? "cat"
*Phonemic segmentation: What are the sounds in "cat"? /k/ /a/ /t/
*Phoneme deletion: What is "cat" without the /k/? "at"
*Phoneme manipulation: What word would you have if you changed the /t/ in cat to an /n/? "can"
Vacca, R.T., Vacca, J.L., & Mraz, M. (2011). Content area reading: literacy and learning across the curriculum. (10th ed.) Boston, MA: Pearson. Vacca, R.T., Vacca, J.L., & Mraz, M. (2011). Content area reading: literacy and learning across the curriculum. (10th ed.) Boston, MA: Pearson. The components of effective vocabulary instruction. (2002). Informally published manuscript, Texas Education Agency, , Available from Adolescent Literacy. Retrieved from http://www.adlit.org/article/19691/ Rashid, D. (2013). Comprehension components of a reading program. Unpublished manuscript, George Mason University, , Available from Literacy at School and Home. Retrieved from http://mason.gmu.edu/~cwallac7/TAP/TEST/comprehension/1.htm Rashid, D. (2013). Comprehension components of a reading program. Unpublished manuscript, George Mason University, , Available from Literacy at School and Home. Retrieved from http://mason.gmu.edu/~cwallac7/TAP/TEST/comprehension/1.htm The components of effective vocabulary instruction. (2002). Informally published manuscript, Texas Education Agency, , Available from Adolescent Literacy. Retrieved from http://www.adlit.org/article/19691/ Diagram for Phonics Phonics Component Examples of How to Teach Phonics Phonics is a method of reading and spelling based upon the phonetic interpretation of ordinary spelling *Use alphabet cards to activate prior knowledge by asking the student to identify each letter
*Increase instruction by asking student to tell you the sound a given letter makes
*Use puzzles to connect sounds with letters and words
*Play word games with magnet letters and cookie sheets
*Read decodable books

University of Oragon. (2012). Phonics.
Retrieved from https://dibels.uoregon.edu/training/bir/phonemic-awareness.php University of Oragon. (2012). Phonics.
Retrieved from https://dibels.uoregon.edu/training/bir/phonemic-awareness.php University of Oragon. (2012). Phonics.
Retrieved from https://dibels.uoregon.edu/training/bir/phonemic-awareness.php
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