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TOWRE: Test of Word Reading Efficiency

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Katelyn Kramer

on 12 November 2013

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Transcript of TOWRE: Test of Word Reading Efficiency

TOWRE: Test of Word Reading Efficiency

Background Information
Published : 1999
Identify Need for Additional Preventative Instruction
• Regular intervals during 1st and 2nd grade
Test Content
Publisher : pro-ed, inc
Author(s) : Joseph K. Torgesen, Richard K. Wagner, and Carol A. Rashotte
Testing Time : 5 minutes including directions and practice items for both Phonemic Decoding Efficiency and Sight Word Efficiency subtests
• Monitor early reading growth with only one form of subtest
• Allocate resources
• Emotional consequences of early reading failing
• Falling behind in critical word reading skills, difficult to bring back to "normal"
kinds of reliability tested

Content Sampling errors

Time Sampling errors

Scorer errors
coefficients for reliability
content sampling .93

Time sampling .93

Scorer .99

correlates with high reliability
High Standards Met For Reliability
Nunnally and Bernstein (1994)

must have a minimum of a .90 coefficient

Towre reaches or exceeds .90 coefficient
TOWRE Validity
reflects fluency rather than accuracy

WRMT-R shows accuracy and not fluency

Need both accuracy and fluency to show reading comprehension
Validity coefficients

confirmatory factor showing support for the validity of TOWRE
6 constructs to underlie the TOWRE
average vs. below avg. kids
should correlate with word reading efficiency
A factor analysis of the subtests should confirm the relationship of the subtests to constructs inherit in the model
should be highly correlated to total score
intervention can be measured because the measurement in reading efficiency
Correlation between TOWRE and WRMT-R
correlations between TOWRE and WRMT-R very high
Correlation to Woodcock Reading Mastery tests
Correlation to woodcock Reading Mastery tests was .85

representative of construct validity
Catherine Ahaus, Nate Long, and Katelyn Kramer
Nature of the Test = verbal
Important Reading Processes
• Context is not a very accurate way to identify words
• Skilled readers do not rely on context as a major source of information
• Use information abut all the letters in words to identify
Purpose and Age
Characteristics of Poor Readers
• Difficulties understanding and applying phonemic decoding skills and identifying words
• Severely restricted sight vocab
• Goal = quantify the degree of skills possessed in word identification processes that contribute to ultimate reading success
• Age group : 6-0 - 24-11
• Monitor growth in efficiency of phonemic decoding and sight word reading skills
• Identify children who will require more intensive or explicit instruction
• Part of a battery of tests for diagnosis of specific reading disabilities
• Deficiencies in word reading skills are diagnostic of specific reading disabilities
• Older children with reading disabilities - monitor accuracy and speed of word reading
• Provide focused assessment of both speed and accuracy of context- free words
• Monitor response to intervention, one form of subtest
• Part of battery - both forms of each subtest
• For those students struggling with reading: need structured, systematic, and explicit instructions
• Measure of an individual's ability to pronounce printed words accurately and fluently
• Subtest 1 = Sight Word Efficiency
- Stop Watch
- Forms A and B Sight Word Efficiency Reading Cards
- No ceiling
- Practice List
- Test List
- Score = number of words correctly read within 45 seconds; skipping a word is an error; hesitation is an error
• Subtest 2 = Phonemic Decoding Efficiency
- Stop Watch
- Forms A and B Phonemic Decoding Efficiency Reading Cards (nonsense words)
- No Ceiling
- Practice List
Test List
- Score = number of words pronounced correctly within 45 seconds
• Age and Grade Equivalents
- Labeled according to content of test
- Reading Efficiency Ages
- Calculate average normative group's score at 6-month interval
- Generated age and grade equivalents for raw scores
- APA advocates for discontinuing these

• Percentiles
- Values that indicate percentage of distribution that is equal or below a particular score
- Popular scoring and sharing method
- Generated for subtests
• Subtest Standard Scores
- Provide clearest indication of overall performance
- Precise estimate to which performance is different from average of other subjects at age or grade level.
- Based on a distribution with a mean of 100 and Standard Deviation of 15
Types of Clinical Decisions
Types of Scores
• Raw Scores
- Total number of items scored
- Little Clinical Value
- Limited to research purposes

Torgesen, Joseph K., and Lynda Hayes. "Diagnosis of Reading Difficulties Following Inadequate Performance on State Level Reading Outcome Measures." N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Oct. 2013.
Torgesen, J. K., Wagner, R. K., & Rashotte, C. A. (1999). TOWRE, Test of Word Reading Efficiency: Examiner's manual. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
Pros and Cons
+ Can be given by a variety of professionals
+ Eliminates context

- Does not diagnose
- Cost
- Difficult to retest
- Small Sample Size
Tanna, N. (n.d.). Test of Word Reading Efficiency [Review of article Test of Word Reading Efficiency].
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