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Monotheistic Religions

Judaism, Christianity, Islam

Amanda Maki

on 27 March 2014

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Transcript of Monotheistic Religions

Monotheistic Religions
Judaism, Christianity, Islam
Islamic Empires
Holy Book
The Spread of Christianity
No longer will you be called Abram; your name will be Abraham, for I have made you a father of many nations.
The Temple
Abraham left Mesopotamia and settled in Canaan (KAY-nuhn), on the Mediterranean Sea. His descendants—the Hebrews—lived in Canaan for many years. Later, however, some Hebrews moved to Egypt, perhaps because of famine in Canaan.
According to the Hebrew Bible, a leader named Moses appeared among the Hebrews in Egypt. In the 1200s BC, God told Moses to lead the Hebrews out of Egypt. Moses went to the pharaoh and demanded that the Hebrews be freed. The pharaoh refused. Soon afterward a series of terrible plagues, or disasters, struck Egypt.
The plagues frightened the pharaoh so much that he agreed to free the Hebrews. Overjoyed with the news of their release, Moses led his people out of Egypt in a journey called the Exodus
In the mid-1000s BC the Philistines invaded the Israelites’ lands. Frightened of these powerful invaders, the Israelites banded together under a single ruler who could lead them in battle. That ruler was a man named Saul, who became the first king of Israel.
Jesus is the Messiah, the savior sent to forgive the world of their sins.
The Bible
Paul of Tarsus
Paul traveled throughout the Roman world spreading Christian teachings. In his letters he wrote about the Resurrection and about salvation. Paul also told Christians that they didn’t have to obey all Jewish laws and rituals. These ideas helped the Christian Church break away from Judaism.
Muhammad was born into an important family in the city of Mecca around 570. As a child, he traveled with his uncle’s caravans. Once he was grown, he managed a caravan business owned by a wealthy woman named Khadijah (ka-DEE-jah). At age 25, Muhammad married Khadijah
The central teaching in the Qur’an is that there is only one God—Allah—and that Muhammad is his prophet.
The Passover

21 Then Moses summoned all the elders of Israel and said to them, "Go at once and select the animals for your families and slaughter the Passover lamb. 22 Take a bunch of hyssop, dip it into the blood in the basin and put some of the blood on the top and on both sides of the doorframe. Not one of you shall go out the door of his house until morning. 23 When the LORD goes through the land to strike down the Egyptians, he will see the blood on the top and sides of the doorframe and will pass over that doorway, and he will not permit the destroyer to enter your houses and strike you down. 24 "Obey these instructions as a lasting ordinance for you and your descendants. 25 When you enter the land that the LORD will give you as he promised, observe this ceremony. 26 And when your children ask you, 'What does this ceremony mean to you?' 27 then tell them, 'It is the Passover sacrifice to the LORD, who passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt and spared our homes when he struck down the Egyptians.' "
The Return to Canaan
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Hebrews wandered for 40 years before they reached Canaan. Once there, they had to fight to gain control of Canaan before they could settle. After they conquered Canaan and settled down, the Hebrews became known as the Israelites. In Canaan, the Israelites lived in small, scattered communities. These communities had no central government.
1 Samuel 17:50 NIV

So David triumphed over the Philistine with a sling and a stone; without a sword in his hand he struck down the Philistine and killed him

David became king after Saul and captured Jerusalem which became the capital.
The Scattering of the Jews
The Babylonians captured Jerusalem and destroyed Solomon’s Temple in 586 BC. They marched thousands of Jews to their capital, Babylon, to work as slaves. The Jews called this enslavement the Babylonian Captivity. It lasted about 50 years. Led to the creation of the Torah.
In the 530s BC a people called the Persians conquered the Chaldeans and let the Jews return to Jerusalem. There they rebuilt Solomon’s Temple, which became known as the Second Temple.
331 BC: Alexander defeated the Persian Empire including Judea. The area came under Hellenistic Syria. They defiled the temple. The Jews took the temple back following the Maccabean Revolt. This is the meaning for the celebration of Hanakkah.
Jesus is the son of God born of the virgin Mary.
Jesus is a descendant of David
Jesus was crucified, died, and rose from the dead for the forgiveness of man's sins
Consists of the Old and New Testaments
The New Testament is about the life and ministry of Jesus
3 Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. 4 Blessed are they that mourn : for they shall be comforted . 5 Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth. 6 Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled . 7 Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy . 8 Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God. 9 Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God. 10 Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness' sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven
John 3:16: For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life.
2 Cor 5:21: God made him who had no sin to be sin for us, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God.
1 Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, but have not love, I have become sounding brass or a clanging cymbal. 2 And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries and all knowledge, and though I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, but have not love, I am nothing. 3 And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and though I give my body to be burned, but have not love, it profits me nothing. 4 Love suffers long and is kind; love does not envy; love does not parade itself, is not puffed up; 5 does not behave rudely, does not seek its own, is not provoked, thinks no evil; 6 does not rejoice in iniquity, but rejoices in the truth; 7 bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things. 8 Love never fails. But whether there are prophecies, they will fail; whether there are tongues, they will cease; whether there is knowledge, it will vanish away. 9 For we know in part and we prophesy in part. 10 But when that which is perfect has come, then that which is in part will be done away. 11 When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child; but when I became a man, I put away childish things. 12 For now we see in a mirror, dimly, but then face to face. Now I know in part, but then I shall know just as I also am known. 13 And now abide faith, hope, love, these three; but the greatest of these is love.
Muhammad often went to the hills to pray and meditate. One day, when he was about 40 years old, he went to meditate in a cave. According to religious writings, an angel spoke to Muhammad, telling him to “Recite! Recite!” Muhammad asked what he should recite.
"Recite in the name of your Lord who created, created man from clots of blood! Recite! Your Lord is the Most Bountiful One, Who by the pen taught man what he did not know.”
—From The Koran, translated by N. J. Dawood
Muslims believe that God had spoken to Muhammad through the angel and had made him a prophet, a person who tells of messages from God. The messages Muhammad received form the basis of the religion called Islam. In Arabic, Islam means “to submit to God.” A follower of Islam is called a Muslim. These messages were collected in the Qur’an.
Islamic law, based on interpretations of the Qur’an.
In 70 AD, the Romans captured Jerusalem, destroyed the temple, and forbade Jews to return Jerusalem. http://www.eduplace.com/kids/socsci/ca/books/bkf3/imaps/AC_10_345_diaspora/AC_10_345_diaspora.html
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