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Great Depression

1) Great Depression culture 2) New Deal Legislation today

Laura Man

on 16 June 2015

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Transcript of Great Depression

Great Depression Overview
Prior Reasons for Market Crash
Stock Market Crash
Cultural Reactions to Crash in Cities and the Dust Bowl
Creation of the New Deal
Credit/Installment Plans
Lack of Demand
Excess Spending on Material Items
Rachel Brightman and Laura Man
The Great Depression

Pre-1929 Crash: Optimistic/Upbeat

During Crash: Despair/Unemployment

FDR Becomes President: Songs about Hardworking/Perseverance
Art in the Dust Bowl and the Cities
The New Deal Overview
Number of various reforms addressing the Great Depression catastrophe

~ 1933 - 1938

FDR elected with overwhelming popularity for his campaign promising to create a New Deal
"I pledge you, I pledge myself, to a new deal for the American people" (Library of Congress)

A trial and error process, not all of the legislation was successful

Why I picked this topic

Stock Market Reasons for The Crash
Tennessee Valley
What is the Tennessee Valley Authority?
How Effective Was It?
May 18, 1933 - TVA Act
Built dams
Controlled floods
Hydro power construction program
12 hydroelectric projects
Very successful
electricity - helps electronics industry
The TVA Today
Largest public power provider
Covers TN, AL, GA, MS, KY, NC, VA
9 million customers
155 power distributors
56 fed. industries
Dams create reservoirs
(Norris Dam)
Country/Folk Music of the Dust Bowl
Music from City to Country
Jazz/Classical/Broadway Music of the City
Music in the Dust Bowl & the Country Side
Folk Music:
WPA Kept Folk Artists Employed
Wrote lyrics of Hardship, Poverty, Blues
Wandered US: Hobo-Camps, Cities, Etc.
Country Music:
Told Stories of Religion, Depression, Everyday Life
From the South/Rural Areas
Music in the Cities
Federal Deposit
Insurance Corporation
What is the FDIC? How Did It Help?
Response to thousands of bank failures
Prevents runs by insuring deposits
Strengthened public's confidence in financial system
The FDIC Today
Up to $250, 000
$100, 000 - 2008
Stabilize/regulate U.S. financial system
1934, no $ lost due to bank failure
Social Security
Came from Southern Cities
Lifted Spirits
Classical Music:
Operas written with Jazz/Folk themes
Performed on Broadway/Symphonies
What is Social Security? How did it create an impact?
Social Security Act 1935
Previously family or local issue
Will hurt jobs
Not applied to women or minorities + self- employed
Elderly ability to be self-sufficient
“We put those payroll contributions there so as to give the contributors a legal, moral, and political right to collect their pensions and their unemployment benefits. With those taxes in there, no damn politician can ever scrap my social security program”

- FDR 1941 on why SS is taken from payroll
Social Security Today
Life and disability insurance
Elderly out of poverty
yearly - inflation
2/3 - most of income
Affects children
1.1 mill. children
14 mill. elderly
Enough $ until 2033
Pay promised benefits
18 yrs - payroll taxes won't cut it
Joe Jones, Wasteland (1937)
Thomas Hart Benton, The Sower (1939)
Anton Refregier, San Francisco '34 Waterfront Strike (1940-48)
Photography in Cities
Photography in Country/Dust Bowl
About The Dust Bowl
Focused in Western Farming States
Drought/Overworked Soil
Start in 1931 End in 1939
Photography in the country and Dust Bowl
Focused on Natural Disaster and the Average Person
Dorothea Lange
Photography in the Cities
Focused on Strikes, Wealthy, Workers, Politicians, Food Lines
Strike in a Crowded City
National Labor Relations Board
What is the NLRB? What was its impact?

The National Labor Relations Act 1935 (Wagner Act)
Banned unfair workplace practices
Workers can form unions
NLR Board
Support for unions/right to organize
Helped with:
Work schedules
Dust Bowl/Country
Literature in the Cities/Urban Areas
Authors wrote about:
Important Politicians
Collapsing Economy
Too Many Loans
Too Many Installments
Buying on the Margin
Forced Sales
Silly Symphonies-King Neptune 1932
Authors focused on the Average American (Okies)
Traditional American Values
Dust Bowl Tragedies
Life as a Migrant
Literature in the Country/Dust Bowl
The NLRB Today
Orderly system enforcing worker's rights
Investigates unfair practices
5 person board with General Counsel by appointment
Protects right to speak online w/out fear
Discussing a boss/manager
Complaints of unfair treatment
Similiarities and Differences
Dust Bowl
Average farmer
Natural disaster
Traditional American Values
Stock Market
Changing Ideologies
Cultural revolutions
James N. Rosenberg, Oct 29 Dies Irae ("Days of Wrath"), 1929
"They breathe profits; they eat the interest of money. If they don' get it, they die the way you die without air, without side-meat" The Grapes of Wrath, John Steinbeck
Stock Market Prices in NY
Full transcript