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Shakespeare

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Lena Nischwitz

on 2 July 2014

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Transcript of Shakespeare

Plot summaries
Themes and motifs
Atmosphere
Structure
Characters
Sources
Structure
Plot
Malcolm orders his soldiers to camouflage with branches
Deeds and their consequences
Plot
Scene 1
Act 5, Scene 1-9
Shakespeare´s Macbeth
Themes and motifs
Lady Macbeth: guilt/bad conscience (Scene 1: l.31-39; l.53 ff.)
Evil caused by evilness
Betrayal and revenge
Menteith wants to avenge Malcolm's, Macduff's and Siward's deficits (Scene 2: l.1 ff.)
Malcolm wants to be revenged (Scene 7: l.28 f.)
Themes and motifs
Unnatural deeds cause unnatural developments
Nature
as an instrument / clue: Macbeth's fate is sealed (Scene 4: l. 4 ff.)
= natural order / system, that Macbeth has destroyed
Birnam wood moves towards Dunsinane
Themes and motifs
Manhood / gender
soldiers fight for proving their manhood (Scene 2: l.10 f.); so does Macbeth (Scene 5)
Lady Macbeth lost her manlike attitude (Scene 1)
Prophecies
Macbeth tries to convince himself of his invincibility (Scene 3, l. 1-10)
announce Macbeth's downfall (Scene 4)
Themes and motifs
Sickness
doctor describes Lady Macbeth's psychological disorder (Scene 1: l. 46 f.)
responsible for sleepwalking (equivocation = danger) (Scene 1)
caused by evil deeds, violence and crime
the country is sick, can only be cured by Macbeth's death (Scene 3: l. 27)
Structure
Structure
Exposition
Lady Macbeth's weird condition is caused by her bad conscience (Scene 1); Scottish noblemen converge to the country near Dunsinane (Scene 2)
Rising action
Preparation for the war: english army is heading to Birnam; the whole situation doesn't look good for macbeth; everyone agrees that Macbeth is a bad King and needs to be defeated; Macbeth feels invincible; Macbeth's obsession of devilish power (Scenes 2 and 3)
Structure
Climax
Lady Macbeth death -> Macbeth realizes that life is useless; the witches prophecy that the forest moves to Dunsinane becomes true; Macbeth's fears become stronger, he realizes the devilish ambiguity of the witches (Scene 5); beginning of the battle (Scene 6)
Falling action
Macbeth kills Siward because of prophecy; capitulation of Macbeth's troops; Macbeth realizes that the fight is lost; Macbeth curses the witches but doesn't give up without fighting (Scenes 7 and 8)
Denouement
Structure
Macbeth is killed by Macduff, Malcolm's coronation

Themes and motifs
Tyranny and Kingship
Caithness: Macbeth is not able to lead the kingdom (Scene 2: l.12 ff.)
Macbeth isn't a worthy representative of a real king; he's a "secret murder" (Scene 2: l. 16 f.)
Macbeth's title no longer fits him (Scene 2: l. 20-22)
in contrast to Duncan: unfair behaviour towards subjects (Scene 3)
Themes and motifs
The Fall of Men
Macbeth in the end: no confidant (Lady Macbeth) or friends left; couldn't enjoy his status of being a king; hopeless and disillusioned; only despair is left
rearrangement of the natural order
Scene 2
Lady Macbeth's bad conscience makes her that ill that she is sleepwalking; doctor says she needs a priest
Macbeth's enemies want to fight against him; they meet in Birnam forest, while Macbeth's deeds get public
Scene 3
Macbeth is confident of victory because he believes in the prophecy; orders his servant not to inform him anymore about the actions outside
Scene 4
Lady Macbeth commits suicide and Macbeth hears that Birnam forest moves towards the castle; Macbeth realizes that the weird sisters linked him
Scene 5
Scene 7
Macbeth kills Young Siward; Macduff searches Macbeth to take revenge
Plot
Scene 8
Macbeth and Macduff fight and Macduff says he is born caesarian; he kills Macbeth
Scene 9
Macduff appears with Macbeth's head in the castle; Malcolm becomes King of Scotland
Characters
Characters
Characters
Atmosphere
Atmosphere
Ominous, dark, and pessimistic
Lady Macbeth's behaviour ( Scene 1; l. 23 f.) and how she talks about the deeds (l. 31-35)
Hopeless
"This disease is beyond my practise" (Scene 1; l. 50)
Exciting and thrilling
determined soldiers (Scene 2)
Confusing and nerve-racking
Macbeth's behaviour; his discussion with the doctor (Scene 3)
points out his mental condition -> despair
keen mood
attack/showdown is near; audience know that Macbeth will fall (Scene 4+6)
Atmosphere
Panic, dark and pessimistic
Macbeth's attitude because of his viewless situation -> starts to philosophise (Scene 5)
Contradictory
Macbeth = hopeless
Macduff can avenge himself (Scene 7+8)
Laid-back mood
war is over; Malcolm gets his heritage: the throne of Scotland (Scene 9)
Sabrina Schwerdtfeger, Alina Tauer, Lara Pontani, Lena Nischwitz 12EN2
illegitimate king of Scotland, tyrant
others describe him as: a creature from hell, something profoundly evil
self-confident
unkind
in a blind fury, disillusioned
biggest fear: loss of the crown, his own death
biggest enemies: the rebellion, the lords, Malcolm

Macbeth
on the one hand: the witches’ predictions make him feel safe - on the other hand: he is afraid that anyone might fulfill the prediction and later on he feels chased into a corner
he is sick at heart
even though he finally loses the battle: he won’t give up → he will fight till death
wants his wife to be cured → insists on the doctor helping her, even though he isn’t able to
realization: the witches played a mean trick on him

Characters
Characters
Characters
Characters
Characters
desired and legitimate king of Scotland
leader of the English forces
others describe him as: medicine which is supposed to heal the empire from Macbeth’s outrages
biggest enemy: Macbeth
truly respected by his adherents
his motive: he wants revenge

battle - strategy: the soldiers camouflage themselves with the trees of Birnam Wood
his advantage: most of his soldiers are part of the rebellion now
hands some of his rights over
new titles: pronounces the thanes will from now on be earls of Scotland


Malcolm
Macduff
biggest enemy: Macbeth
calls himself: “kingdom’s pearl”
ambitious → he puts every single effort into fighting and hopefully winning
was born by Caesarian section → he’s able to kill Macbeth
biggest aims: taking revenge on Macbeth and killing Macbeth by his own hand; helping Malcolm to be crowned king

he calls upon the Fortune to help him finding Macbeth
explains that he “speaks” through his sword and him entering the fray
he finally kills Macbeth
instructs the lords to hail the new king with him → remains true to Malcolm

Lady Macbeth
Macbeth’s wife
illegitimate queen
others describe her as: an angry evil creature
confessions: Macbeth (the paid murderers) killed the former king Duncan, Banquo and Macduff’s wife (and children)
biggest fear: someone finding out about their guilt and dispossessing them
haunted by her guilt and the cruel deeds → sleepwalking

connected to (evil) higher spirits
the gentlewoman and the doctor analyse her behaviour in order to help curing -> doctor isn’t able to cure her even though he has seen similar cases before -> he is pretty sure that she won’t outlive her “disease”
on the one hand: “caring” husband -> Macbeth orders the doctor to cure his wife
on the other hand: he doesn’t cure her himself and also doesn’t (really) mourn her death
she commits suicide

Sources
Gocke, Rainer / Stock, Angela: Discover.... William Shakespeare: Macbeth, Paderborn 2014
http://www.sparknotes.com/shakespeare/macbeth/themes.html
http://www.cliffsnotes.com/literature/m/macbeth/critical-essays/major-themes
Full transcript