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Transcript of Creative Cognition-shared
We know what creativity is.
We know how creative people approach problems.
The creative process is complicated. It draws on all aspects of knowledge. Different types of strategies should be employed during different parts of the design process.
What is Creativity?
Creativity is generally defined as 'a process which results in unique or novel solutions which are tenable'.
Convergent vs. Divergent Thinking
You know it when you see it.
But how do you measure it?
Convergent thinking can be described as:
A line of thinking which leads to 1 possible solution.
Divergent thinking can be described as:
The ability to be able to come up with multiple answers to a problem with available information.
In a study Conducted by cross (2002),
the Cognitive processes of three designers at the top of their field, known for innovation and creativity, were studied.
They found 3 common factors which led to creative problem solving
Howard-Jones (2002) proposes a dual-state model to foster creativity in the classroom.
Relevant first principles
explored to establish
Used to identify
Developed to Satisfy
Tension between conflicting
Resolved by matching
Achieved by using
Howard-Jones, P. A. (2002). A dual-state model of creative cognition for supporting strategies that foster creativity in the classroom. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 12(3), 215-226. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/NsqBDk
General model of creative process strategies
followed by all three designers.
Cross, N. (2002, October). Creative cognition in design: Processes of exceptional designers. In Proceedings of the 4th conference on Creativity & cognition (pp. 14-19). ACM. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/1l1Va1J
Figure 2. General model of creative process strategies followed by all three designers. (Cross, 2002, p. 6.)
a design challenge is presented
Divergent thinkers tend to be more creative
1. How they framed the problem
2. The reliance on "First Principles".
3. Taking a broad systems approach and applying their own personal goals to the problem.
They looked at the problem from a distinctive point of view and often from a personal perspective. Thinking about how they would want their design to work.
They used their skills and knowledge of engineering and/or design principles to guide the process of design.
They thought beyond the problem at hand and added their own personal goals to the project. Taking form and function into mind.
The creative process by these experts was illustrated like this
But how do we design instruction to encourage creative thinking?
Essentially, Cross (2002) found that it was the tension between the client requirements and designer's own personal goals which led to creative solutions.
Attention : unfocused
Generative activity, associational thinking
Primary process thinking
Hindered by reward, competition, evaluation
Benefits from changes in context
Relaxation perceived as beneficial
Chiefly intrinsically motivated
Attention : focused
Non-generative activity, analytical,critical thinking
Secondary process thinking
Benefits from reward, competition, evaluation
Adversely influenced by distraction
Relaxation not particularly beneficial
Can be extrinsically motivated
The Dual Model is summarized Here
The 2 parts of the model are opposite from one another. How does that work?
When the design project is focusing on analytical portions of the problem, Non-generative strategies should be used. Free form thinking strategies such as brainstorming are found to be detrimental in these instances. However strategies which involve extrinsic motivation, focused attention and evaluation are helpful. These strategies encourage secondary process thinking.
when to use them...
When the design project is focusing on the generation of ideas (new or not) generative strategies should be employed. These strategies involve encouraging students to come up with novel ideas with techniques such as brainstorming. Interestingly, Researchers found that students who spent 30 minutes in a float tank before a brainstorming session were better able to generate new ideas, relaxation was a good way to help clear their minds and think freely. These strategies support primary process thinking.
when to use them...
The model is based on two modes of thinking proposed by Ernst Kris (1952):
concerned with unconscious, defocused, freely associated thinking
concerned with conscious, focused, analytical thinking.
(Primary process thinking)
(Secondary Process Thinking)
what does that mean for the instructor?
According to Howard-Jones (2002), the teacher has to use their judgement and gauge when to employ different strategies to encourage creativity in their students. Guiding them through the problem solving process and using the proper strategies at the proper time.