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Early Childhood

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Jazmyna Fanini

on 19 March 2014

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Transcript of Early Childhood

Social and Personality Development
Early Childhood is a time in one's life with rapid social ability development.
FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS AND STRUCTURE
Motor Development
Throughout a child's life, they experience many motor skill milestones.
Changes in Language
On average, a 2 1/2 year old's vocabulary consists of about 600 words.
Early Childhood
Fast-Mapping
The ability to link new words categorically to real-world objects.
• Attachment
• Parenting Styles
• Ethnicity Socioeconomic Status and Parenting.
• Family Structure
• Divorce
• Understanding the effects of family structure and divorce.

This means that every day, they would learn about one to two new words.
By the time they start kindergarten at age 5 or 6, a child's vocabulary will expand to maybe 15,000 words.
"More words a child knows, more advanced they will be to grammar."
Children are seen to change the way they look at words at the age of 3.
They pay attention to words within the same categories.
Ex: types of fruits, months
In their minds, toddlers begin to develop "slot-like" spaces for words to be put.
Within fast-mapping, the child has a hypothesis about a word's meaning. They test the hypothesis through their speech. The response they get from people helps them determine whether or not the word was correctly in the appropriate category.
Grammar Explosion
Simple sentences toddlers start with lacks inflections.
Inflections- additions to words to make listener understand.
Ex: "Daddy shoe" to show that the the shoe is the Dad's.
Earliest inflection that's used by toddler's is -ing.
Children go through times where they try out sentences that adults might not use. They would arrange words in the wrong order.
Ex: "Who you are?"
Another stage they go through is where they use the word "not", but not in the right way.
Ex: "I not tired."
Overgeneralization occurs overtime. This is where children put inflections onto regular words and making the word irregular.
Ex: "Goed" for "Went" and "Teeths" for "Teeth"
At around 38-40 months, once toddlers are able to figure out inflections and basic sentence structure, they will begin to create complex sentences.
Phonological Awareness
This is defined as the child's sensitivity to sound patterns that go with language.
Ex: Given word "cat" and without "c" it becomes? -at
If there is an "h" instead of "c", what does the word become? hat
Primarily, phonological awareness is developed from word play. An example of wordplay is nursery rhymes.
Japanese children play this game called "shirioti"
Children don't need to learn this now. This can also be picked up in Elementary years.
Ones who are very good with phonological awareness are able to use invented spelling when they try to write. This is where they try to sound out the words.
Testing for Intelligence
Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon made first modern intelligence test to determine if there's a chance a child might have problems learning.
Later on, Lewis Terman and his associates modify Stanford-Binet test for U.S. and describe child's performance in terms of "Intelligence quotient".
96% of scores fall within 70 and 130.
If a child is above 130= Gifted, and if lower 70= retarded.
Another test used is the Wechsler Tests, named after David Wechsler.
Problems range from very easy to very hard and there are various subgroups such as verbal scales (vocab, general world knowledge), performance scales (copy pattern with a set of blocks), working memory scales (info on child's short term memory capacity), and processing speed scales (how well information is processed).
There are limits to the IQ test and scores. The test itself doesn't tell person about their creativity, street smarts, etc. The scores may not reflect that all gifted are gifted and vice versa.
Factors of Individual Differences
In Intelligence
Within families, parents of children of higher IQ provide the child of appropriate toys for their age and respond warmly to their behavior.
Gross Motor Skills
Fine Motor Skills
Age
18-24 mo.
Runs awkwardly; climbs stairs with both feet on each step
Show clear hand preference; stacks four to six blocks; turn pages at one time
2-3 yrs.
Runs easily; climbs on furniture unaided
Picks up small objects; throws small ball whie standing
3-4 yrs.
Walks up stairs one foot per step; skips on two foot; walks on tiptoe; pedals and steers tricycle
Catches large ball between outstretched arms; cuts paper with scissors
Age
Gross Motor Skills
Fine Motor Skills
4-5 yrs
Walks up and down stairs one foot per step; stand runs, and walks on tiptoe
Strikes ball with bat; kicks and catches ball ; threads bead on a string
5-6 yrs
Skips on alternate feet; walks on a line; slides, swings
Plays ball games well; threads needle and sews large stiches
Growth and Motor Development
Changes in height and weight happen far more slowly in the school years than in infancy. Each year, the child adds about 2-3 inches in height and about 6 pounds in weight. At the same time, the young child makes steady progress in motor development.
The changes are not as dramatic as the beginning of walking, but they enable the child to acquire skills that markedly increase their independence and exploratory ability
At younger ages, it is very unlikely for a preschooler to be really skilled with fine motor and gross motor tasks. However, a "wait and a see" strategy is not the best approach to fix this conflict. Researchers have found that early training beginning at the age of two and a half can accelerate a child's rate of learning school related tasks (Callaghan & Rankin, 2002)
The Brain and Nervous System
Brain growth, synapse formation, and myelinization continue in early childhood, although at a slower pace than in infancy.
However, the slower rate of growth should not be taken to mean that brain development is nearly complete.
Corpus callosum is the brain structure through which the left and right sides of the cerebral cortex communicate, grows and matures more during the early childhood years than in any other period of life.
The growth of this structure accompanies the functional specialization of the left and right hemispheres of the cerebral cortex. This specialization is called lateralization.
Handedness
- the tendency to rely primarily on the right or left hand
Handedness is one of the neurological milestones of the 2 - to - 6 year old period
Evidence has been found in studies demonstrating that handedness appears very early in life, often before the first birthday, but does not become well established until the preschool years. (Stroganova, Posikera, Pushina, & Orekhova, 2003)
Health and Wellness
Eating Habits
Because children grow more slowly during the early childhood years, they may seem eat less than when they were babies
Food aversions also develop during the preschool years
Most importantly, parent and children conflicts also focus on the child's eating behavior.
Nutritionists say that parents should not be concerned about a child's diet sweets and other fatty foods.
Many children acquire eating habits during these years, which could cause weight problems in the future
Parents should also keep in mind that young children eat only about half as much food as adults, therefore, don't consume as much calories in regular meals
Cognitive Changes
Forms of play change over the early childhood years because children's thinking changes.
At the beginning of the period, children are just beginning to learn how to accomplish goals
By the time they reach age 5 to 6, they are proficient at manipulating symbols and can make accurate judgements about others' thoughts, feelings, and behavior
This understanding of manipulating symbols into judgements is called semiotic or symbolic function.
Piaget's Preoperational Stage
According to Piaget, children acquire the semiotic function between the ages of 18 to 24 months.
Once this function is understood, the child is then in the preoperational stage.
During this stage, children become proficient at using symbols for thinking and communicating but still have difficulty thinking logically.
At age 2 to 3, children begin to pretend in their play.
Although young children are good at using symbols, their reasoning about the world is often flawed.
According to Piaget, this tendency is referred to as egocentrism
Challenges to Piaget's View (con't)
Due to egocentrism, a young child's would have a tendency to think of the world in terms of one variable at a time, which is referred as centration
But because of centration and irreversibility, children go through conservation, which is the understanding that matters can change in appearance without changing the amount
Preschool influences children by enabling them to learn new vocabulary and skills that help with reading to ensure that all children have an equal chance of success in school.
Typically, there is a gain of 10 IQ points as a result of these programs (Zigler & Styfoco, 1993).
Group Differences in IQ Test Scores
There is a noticeable difference in IQ scores in African Americans and White children.
Some developmentalists believe that the cause may be from the African American children being born with a low birth weight, they suffer from poor nutrition, and have high levels of lead (Fagan & Holland, 2002).
Flynn Effect- average IQ scores increased in all racial groups in the 19th and 20th century. James Flynn then goes about suggesting that cultural changes has an effect on IQ scores.
Ex: Asian vs African American views on math and science
Freud's Psychosexual Stages
Anal (ages 1-3 years)
Developmental task of the anal stage are self-care skills (toilet training)
Phallic (ages 3-6 years)
Purpose is to create a standing ground for gender and moral development by identifying with same sex parent
So during this time, young children gain control of their bodily functions and examine their relationship with their parents to prepare for stepping out into the world of peers
Personality and Self-Concept
During school a young child's personality and concept of self begin to emerge through temperament. How a young child handles frustration is a key part in determining temperament
Erickson's Psychosocial Stages
Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
Mobility and control of bodily functions creates a new sense of freedom and thus a desire for autonomy
Often displayed as saying "No!" all the time, or not listening to parents or authority
Initiative vs. Guilt
Cognitive development allows child the ability to plan thus take initiative to see the plan succeed
Self control is developed withing these years
If does not develop, may encounter feelings of guilt and defensiveness
Key to healthy development during these stages:
Strike a balance between child's emerging skills and desire for freedom and parent's need to protect and control the child
Social-Cognitive Perspectives:
Person perception
is the ability to classify others according to categories such as age, gender, and race
Young children use person perceptions to classify people into groups such as "
people I like
" and "
people I don't like
"
Judgments are inconsistent because they are based on the most recent interactions
Social Cognitive Theory:
the theoretical perspective that asserts that social and personality development in early childhood is related to improvements in the cognitive domain
Person Perceptions
Understanding Other's Intentions
Understanding Rule Categories
This understanding is developed by increased capacity for understanding and adult's tendency to emphasize morals
Children begin to react differently to violations of different kinds of rules between the ages of 2 and 3
Young children learn that breaking some rules are more serious than others
Piaget suggested that young children are not fully capable of understanding other's intentions
However, when a young child says "
it was an accident
" when receiving a punishment suggest that young children have some knowledge that intentional wrongdoings are worse ans should be punished more severely than unintentional ones.
Subjects
: 60 preschool children be-
tween the ages of 3 and 4 years and 30 second-grade children between the ages
of 6 and 8 years
Young Children's Use of Motives and Outcomes as Moral Criteria (Nelson, 1980)
A child with low temperament, or low emotional regulation, is more likely to become angered when he or she does not get what they want.
A child with high emotional regulation, is more likely to get along with peers and form healthy relationships
Helping a child regulate their emotions and behaviors effectively leads to healthy social and personality development. Conversely, if a parent rejects a difficult child psychological consequences may develop and hinder social relationships
Emotional Self
The development of the emotional self of a young child is focused on obtaining emotional regulation
Development of emotional regulation is related to temperament and the child's ability to recognize moral rules
Emotional regulation
Empathy
Has 2 parts:
1.) understanding other's emotional state
2.) Matching that emotion to oneself
The amount of empathy a young child displays is linked to the amount of aggression displayed as well.
Development of empathy sets the foundation for more sophisticated emotions that are developed in late childhood and adolescence
Global Empathy
In the first year children may match the emotions they witness (crying when another infant is crying) but the emotion is involuntary and undifferentiated).


Egocentric Empathy
From the second year on children actively offer help. The kind of help offered is what they themselves would find comforting and is in that sense egocentric

Empathy for Another's Feelings
In the third year, with the emergence of role-taking skills, children become aware that other people's feelings can differ from their own. Their responses to distress may thus become more appropriate to the other person's needs.

Empathy for Other's Life Condition
By late childhood or early adolescence children become aware that others' feelings may not just be due to the immediate situation but stem from their more lasting life situation.


M.L. Hoffman's Four Levels of Empathy
Explaining Gender Development
Social Learning Explanations
Emphasizes the role of the parents in shaping children's gender development
Parents reinforce sex-typed activities from birth
Not a sufficient explanation because even young children whose parents seem to treat sons and daughters the same, learn sex-typed labels
Cognitive-Developmental Explanation
Kohlberg suggest that gender develops in stages:
1.) Gender Identity
the ability to correctly label oneself and others as male or female

2.) Gender Stability
the understanding that gender is a stable, lifelong characteristic

3.) Gender Constancy
the understanding tha gender is a component of the self that is not altered by external apperance
The Information-Processing Approach
Sex-Typed Behavior
sex-typed behavior
is different patterns of behavior exhibited by boys and girls and it develops earlier than ideas about gender.

18 months
children begin to show preference for sex stereotyped toys
3 years
show preference for same sex friends even when they do not yet have the concept of gender stability
Cross Gender Behavior
Cross gender behavior is behavior that is atypical for ones own sex but typical for the opposite sex

More common among girls because it is generally tolerated by adults and peers

However, boys are discouraged from engaging in cross gender behavior and it is more likely to elicit disaproval and/or ridicule from peers and adults
Gender Schema Theory
an information-processing approach to gender concept development, asserting that people use a schema for each gender to process information about themselves and others

Gender schema develops as soon as the child knows the difference between male and female, knows own gender and can label the people in the two genders (around ages 2-3)

Learn "
gender scripts
" that young children associate with each gender

Around ages 5 through 6, young children learn more elaborate schemas such as "
what people like me do
" and treat this "rule" as an absolute.
Biological Approach
This is the idea that biology and hormones play an important part in gender development

Animals with prenatal exposure to male hormones (testosterone) powerfully effect behavior after birth

Females exposed to testosterone behave more like their male counterparts and when experimenters prohibit the release of testosterone in male animals and expose them to female hormones they exhibit behavior more like that of the females

Hormones play some role in gender development but it not the sole factor in the development of gender in a young child.
Children listened to stories about children playing catch. Pictures were used to convey the intention of the child in the picture.
The subjects were more likely to label the pictured child as "bad" when the the intention was to harm. However, the judgements of the subjects were influenced by the outcome.
References
Lippa, R. A. (2005). Gender, nature, and nurture (2nd ed.). Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Schaffer, H. R. (1996). Social Development. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
Nelson, Sharon A. (1980). Child Development, Vol. 51, No. 3, pp. 832-829
Boyd, D. R., & Bee, H. L. (2012). Lifespan development (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Deak, G. O., & Toney, A. J. (2013). Young Children's Fast Mapping and Generalization of Words, Facts, and Pictograms. Journal Of Experimental Child Psychology, 115(2), 273-296.
Nelson, E. L., Campbell, J. M., & Michel, G. F. (2014). Early handedness in infancy predicts language ability in toddlers. Developmental Psychology, 50(3), 809-814.
Kendall, Diana Elizabeth. Sociology in Our times. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth, 2008. Print.
PEER RELATIONSHIPS.
• Relating to peers through play
• Aggression.

Psychologists agree that family relationships constitute one of the most influential factors in every childhood development. These relationships reflect both continuity and change.
Attachment
By age 2-3 they already establish a clear attachment to a caregiver or family member who is mostly available. Attachment quality also predicts behavior during the preschool years. They also have high self-esteem, high IQ’s, do better in school and show delinquent behavior in adolescence or criminal behavior in adulthood. “Theorist using a functionalist perspective emphasize that families serve important functions in society because they are the primary focus for the procreation and socialization of children”. (Diana Kendal, 2008, p. 120)
Permissive
this is high in nurturing and low in maturity demands, control and communication.

Researchers shows that such kid do slightly worse in school during adolescence.
Authoritarian
it is low in nurtureance and communication but high in control and maturity demands. Children in such environment do less well in school, have lower self-esteem and less skilled among peers.
Authoritative
this style is high in nurturance, maturity demands, control and communication. Children reared in such family shows high self-esteem and are more independent, very confident and achievement oriented in school and among the society.
Family Structure
Authoritative parenting is more common among middle-class parents as well as in intact families, such family where the child lives with both natural parents, family structure plays a huge role in a Childs developmental stage. A child in a warm and pleasant home with both parent and adequate attention tends be less aggressive and well behaved compared to a single parent setting where the pressure is on only one person.
DIVORCE
divorce affect children’s behavior in early childhood and in later years. They are affected by multitude of divorce related factors, such as; Parental conflicts, poverty, disruption of daily routine and probably involvement of noncustodial parent. Negative effects of divorce on child leads to bad performance in school, show aggressive behavior and defiant. They are about twice as likely to drop out of high school.
In early childhood period playing is the predominant form of behavior, they learn the skills they need to relate to others and learn that relationships have both negative and positive aspects
RELATING TO PEERS
play is not only related to cognitive development but also to the social skills. By 18months a toddler engage in an associative play which is social interaction. By 3-4 yrs. a preschooler will engage in a cooperative play, this is a pattern which several children work together to accomplish a goal.
GROUP ENTRY
children who are skilled in group entry spend time observing others to find out what they are doing and try to be part of it
PEER REJECTION, IN TURN, IS AN IMPORTANT FACTOR IN FUTURE SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT.
AGGRESSION
it’s simply a behavior that is intended to injure another person or damage an object. Every young child shows at least some aggressive behavior, but the form and frequency of aggression change over the preschool years
“A 2-3 year kid that is upset or frustrated is likely to throw things or hit each other “
As their verbal skills improve they shift from such physical aggression towards verbal aggression such as name calling. The decline in physical aggression over the years also undoubtedly reflects the preschooler’s declining egocentricism and increasing understanding
of other children’s thoughts and feelings.
Instrumental aggression is used to gain or damage an object.

Hostile aggression is to hurt another person or gain an advantage.

A preschooler has shift from instrumental to hostile aggression.
Psychologist Albert Bandura found that children learn specific forms of aggression such as “hitting” by watching other people perform them (Bandura, Ross, and Ross, 1961, 1963)

Social-cognitivists researched that highly aggressive children lag behind their peers in understanding others intentions. (Crick and Dodge,1996; Webster-Stratton and Reid, 2003).
Parenting Styles
Presented by: Jasmine Paragas, Riley Francisco, Jazmyna Fanini, and Rashidat Sanusi
Types of Play
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