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Susan Hester Lecture 1

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Susan Hester

on 14 February 2013

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Transcript of Susan Hester Lecture 1

Qualitative Analysis is not easy! Qualitative Research Qualitative Research and Analysis examines words or phrases, concepts, videos, audio recording - anything that is not structured Labor intensive Complex Interpretative It is the non-numerical organization and interpretation of data (Wilson, 1989)
Qualitative Research:
Gives a voice to the participants
Allows for rich and detailed descriptions of a particular phenomena
Qualitative methodology seeks to understand patient beliefs.
May provide information to pursue quantitative studies to help patients
May be used for theory development or extension to further evidence care Purpose Nvivo helps organize, make meaning of enormous volumes of unstructured data Interviews Transcripts Voice Types of Qualitative Data Collection Subjective Sensitive
Subjects NSG 324 - Qualitative Research
Susan Hester, RN, BSN, CPN
Dr. Sharon Metcalfe, RN, EdD Qualitative Research - Characteristics Explores a problem and develops a detailed understanding of a phenomenon
Literature review plays a minor role - helps justify the problem (does not provide a major direction for the research questions)
States the purpose and research questions in a general and broad way
Collects data based on words from individuals so that the participants’ views are obtained
Analyzes data for descriptions and themes using text analysis - interpreting the larger meaning of the findings
Write the report using flexible, emerging structures and evaluative criteria (includes researchers’ subjective reflexivity and bias)
Qualitative data are more “raw” – seldom pre-categorized which makes organizing the data labour intensive and complex Coding qualitative data
Coding—using labels to classify and assign meaning to pieces of information—helps you to make sense of qualitative data, such as responses to open-ended survey questions. Codes answer the questions, “What do I see going on here?” or “How do I categorize the information?” Coding enables you to organize large amounts of text and to discover patterns that would be difficult to detect by reading alone. What are Research Methods? Phenomena The data collected in qualitative research can be termed "soft", "that is, rich in description of people, places, and conversations, and not easily handled by statistical procedures." Researchers do not approach their research with specific questions to answer or hypotheses to test. They are concerned with understanding behavior from the subject's own frame of reference. (Bogdan & Biklen, 1992). Data Collection Intimate Process: Researcher and Participant communicate in an interactive matter about senstive subjects Data Saturation - Data is collected until the researcher hears no new information. Unlike quantitative researchers who wait until the end of the study to analyze their data, qualitative researcher analyze their data throughout their study. Interviews/Questions: Open ended Bias can be a concern Field Notes Video Recordings Photographs Articles Focus Groups it's the non-numerical organization and interpretation of data (Wilson, 1989) prepare to be ...amazed by this
AMAZING NVivo demonstration by Lori and Courtney..... Prepare to be amazed!!! and now over to Lori and Courtney for the Nvivo Demo... you will be amazed!!! Research Methods:
The way, or manner, we conduct our research. Qualitative Interviews Transcripts Voice Field Notes Video Recordings Photographs Articles Focus Groups Easily Biased
Quantitative Mixed Method Researcher does data collection and analysis simultaneously A code in qualitative inquiry is most often a word or short phrase that symbolically
assigns a summative, salient, essence-capturing, and/or evocative attribute
for a portion of language-based or visual data Security Satisfaction Patient outcomes SHIFT CHANGE Sadness
Research Methods
Sampling Objectives: How do we use it in Nursing? Qualitative research is discovery oriented and helps nurses understand and predict behaviors Qualitative study examples: Sampling: Types of Qualitative Research Phenomenology Grounded Theory Ethnography Case Studies Historical Research Purposive Sampling: When researcher chooses a sample with a purpose in mind. Also called non probability or judgemental sampling.
Snowballing: Researcher asks participants to give referrals to other possible participants. Also called Network sampling. Sampling is the process of selecting units (people, organizations) from a population of interest to study. Qualitative
Sampling: :
Usually involves recruitment criteria. This criteria may be very specific. Example: researchers are examining decision making in pregnancy among women with multiple sclerosis.
May also have exclusionary criteria. Example: Must be 18 yrs of age, must be 1st pregnancy.
Small sample size - size limited by cost, time constraints, subject availability, data saturation. Purposive Sampling Learning and constructing the meaning of the human experience through intensive dialogue with those living the experience. Phenomenological Quality stands for the essence, the what, when and how of things. Soft Data Quantity refers to a numerical measurement. Hard Data. Both Qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of, or interpret, phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them. Data Collection
Types of Qualitative Research A fact or event of scientific interest What are the experience of Cherokee fathers concerning support for wives/partners during labor? (Analysis by Interview; N=5)

What is the experience of hope for women with advanced ovarian cancer? (Analysis by Interview; N=20)
Describe findings through samples of participant’s words and researcher’s interpretation
Goal of research Is to unveil the LIVED EXPERIENCE of the individual under study, for example, the one who has experienced the phenomenon of interest Phenomenology
Participants chosen because they are experiencing the phenomena or social process under investigation
Explain, interpret the phenomena
Social reality and human behavior
Grounded Theory Qualitative research often proposes a *new theory* for how patients, subjects or participants experience a life event
Ethnography literally means 'a portrait of a people.' An ethnography is a written description of a particular culture - the customs, beliefs, and behavior - based on information collected through fieldwork
Focuses on scientific description & interpretation of cultural or social groups Ethnography Ethnographic Research Examples How do elders survive in the midst of "gang warfare" in an inner city community known for its dangerous streets and public places? Cultural behaviors of nurses during shift change on a busy Med/Surg floor? Grounded Theory
Systematic approach for understanding the past
Collection, organization, & critical appraisal of facts
Data sources are examined for authenticity
Primary sources
Eyewitness accounts provided by varying sorts of communication appropriate to time
Secondary sources
Provide view from another’s perspective, not first-hand account Here is the foundational question in phenomenology: What is the meaning, structure, and essence of the lived experience of this phenomenon by an individual or by many individuals? Goal is to understand the natives’ view of their world
Insider’s view
Emic perspective (i.e., the insider’s perspective) and emic terms (i.e., specialized words used by people in a group).
Etic perspective (i.e., the external, social scientific view) and etic terms (i.e., outsider’s words or specialized words used by social scientists).
Researcher questions focus on ways of life or particular patterns of behavior Ethnography Here is the foundational question in ethnography: What are the cultural characteristics of this group of people or of this cultural scene? Case Studies ■Here is the foundational question in case study research: What are the characteristics of this single case or of these comparison cases? A case is a bounded system (e.g., a person, a group, an activity, a process).
The case study final report should provide a rich (i.e., vivid and detailed) and holistic (i.e., describes the whole and its parts) description of the case and its context.
May include quantitative or qualitative data or both ■Here is the foundational question in grounded theory: What theory or explanation emerges from an analysis of the data collected about this phenomenon? (such as coping with Aids in Africa)
Phenomenology Research Examples Interview Moms regarding maternal/infant bonding with micro-preemies after extended NICU stays

Interview nurses regarding moral distress while caring for dying patients • Theory comes from data, i.e., theory is
“grounded” in data
• Everything related to the subject of study is data
• Approach data to find theory, rather than
approach data with theory
• Allow data to move toward a hypothesis, rather
than start with a hypothesis Grounded Theory Develop a theory on IV drug use
after interviews with addicted youths ■Here is the foundational question in historical research: Does illuminating the past help guide the present and the future? Historical Research Historical Research Example:
Comparison nurse/patient ratios during wartime Nurses conduct historical research to often understand trends of patient care throughout the last century of clinical nursing care
Focuses on reducing large volume acquired data to facilitate examination
Everything looks important ‘at first’
Begin to attach meaning to elements of data
Discovers classes of things, persons, events
Narrows down Data Reduction
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