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MAMMALS

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bjae millos

on 26 January 2013

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Transcript of MAMMALS

A. Distinguishing Features There are three bones in the middle ear of every mammal: the malleus, incus, and stapes.

Embryos develop in uterus with placental attachment.

Mammals have a larger, well-developed brain than other animals.

Mammals have a unique heart.

Vertebrates B. Habitat Mammals inhabit every terrestrial biome, from deserts to tropical rainforests to polar icecaps.

Many mammals are partially aquatic, living near lakes, streams, or the coastlines of oceans Whales and dolphins are fully aquatic, and can be found in all oceans of the world, and some rivers. C. Size (Range) Mammals range in size from the 30-40 millimeter (1 to 1.5 inch) bumblebee bat, to the 33-meter (108-foot) blue whale. D. Homoeothermy Mammals are warm-blooded. Their body temperature remains about the same all the time, even though the temperature of their surroundings may change. They are able to maintain a constant internal temperature, or being homeothermic. All mammals are endothermic, generating heat internally, and most are homeothermic. Mountain Zebra (Equus zebra) Have distinctive black and white stripes,
Have the ability to run at high speeds.
Zebras and their horse relatives have only one toe on each foot. The mountain zebra is distinguished from other zebras by having a fold of skin, called a dewlap, on their throat. Their diet consists of tufted grass, bark, leaves, fruits and roots. They occur in the mountainous slopes and plateaus of South Africa and are threatened by hunting and habitat loss. 2. Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) tree-dwelling primate
reside in tropical forests
has orange-red fur, long arms and hand-like feet
young orangutans cling to their mother as she navigates the forest canopy, feeding on fruit and other plant parts as well as honey, lizards, birds and eggs
threats to the orangutan include hunting, loss of habitat and being captured for the illegal pet trade Tiger (Panthera tigris) the largest member of the cat family
a majestic animal with an orange coat, black stripes and white markings
lives in tropical forests
nocturnal
threatened by poaching, habitat loss and loss of prey species. Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris) the world’s smallest marine mammal
sea otters are smaller and stouter than other otters
has large lungs, very thick fur, a powerful tail and flipper-like hind feet
their diet consists of marine invertebrates such as crabs, octopus and sea urchin
sea otter populations have declined dramatically in recent years, possibly because of predation or poaching and oil spills Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) The world’s fastest land animal that can reach speeds of more than 60 miles per hour.
A golden-yellow cat with black spots and a ringed tail.
They are found in areas with tall grass and shrubs in the Sub-Saharan Africa and Northern Iran.
It is endangered due to habitat loss, reduction of prey species, inbreeding and high infant mortality.
They prey on mainly gazelles, impalas, antelope young and small animals. Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) Is a giant yet graceful marine mammal that can reach a length of more than 40 feet.
It spends its summers at the poles and winters at lower latitudes.
Both males and females sing, but the song of the male is long and complex, containing variations in rhythm and melody and sometimes lasting 30 minutes or more. It is used to attract females, to warn other males, and possibly to locate individual whales.
Feeding includes krill and small schooling fish.
The primary threat to the humpback whale comes from commercial whaling. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Has a distinctive white head with black eye patches, ears and shoulders.
Herbivorous
spends up to 12 hours a day chewing bamboo shoots and roots.
Because of poaching and habitat loss, they are extremely rare. F. Feeding Many mammals can be carnivores, herbivores or omnivores. They eat invertebrates and vertebrates (including other mammals), plants (including fruit, nectar, foliage, wood, roots, seeds, etc.) and fungi. G. Reproduction Most mammalian species are either polygynous (one male mates with multiple females) or promiscuous (both males and females have multiple mates in a given reproductive season). About 3 percent of mammalian species are monogamous, with males only mating with a single female each season. Polyandry can also be found among mammals. Some species (African lions) display cooperative breeding, in which groups of females, and sometimes males, share the care of young from one or more females.
Like social insects, naked mole rats are eusocial, with a queen female mating with several males and bearing all of the young in the colony. Thank you! Duck-billed Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) E. Most Famous Members member of the Order Monotremata or egg-laying mammals
the only mammals that lay eggs instead of giving birth.
It is one of the few venomous mammals, the male platypus having a spur on the hind foot that delivers a venom capable of causing severe pain to humans.
Red Kangaroo (Macropus rufus) member of the Order Diprotodontia and Infraclass Metatheria or Marsupials
have large, powerful hind legs, large feet adapted for leaping, a long muscular tail for balance, and a small head.
Like most marsupials, female kangaroos have a pouch called a marsupium in which joeys complete postnatal development
Hedgehogs (Erinaceus albiventris) member of the Order Erinaceomorpha

named because of its peculiar foraging methods

As a hedgehog picks its way through the hedges it emits piglike grunts—thus, the hedgehog.
Bats (Pipistrellus Pipistrellus) member of the Order Chiroptera
the only true flying mammals
Wings of bats have modified forelimbs in which the second and fifth digits are elongated to support thin membrane for flying. The first digit (thumb) is short with a claw. European Rabbit or Common Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) member of the order Lagomorphia. is well known for digging networks of burrows, called warrens, where it spends most of its time when not feeding
Unlike the related hares, rabbits are altricial, the young being born blind and furless, in a fur-lined nest in the warren, and they are totally dependent upon their mother.
Eastern Grey Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) member of the Order RodentiaMore than 200 squirrel species live all over the world, with the notable exception of Australia.
Like other rodents, squirrels have four front teeth that never stop growing so they don't wear down from the constant gnawing.
Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) member of the Order Proboscidea

The Asian Elephant is the only living species of the genus Elephas.

The Asian elephant is smaller than the African elephant and has the highest body point on the head.
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