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Chapter 12 Intergroup Behavior and Conflict

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Larry Zhang

on 21 March 2011

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Transcript of Chapter 12 Intergroup Behavior and Conflict

Competition and Cooperation Altruism
Behavior intended to help someone else with no expectation of an immediete extrinsic reward for helping Cooperation
The relationship that exists between two or more individuals who both benefit from working together and share the benefits of their joint efforts Competition
Intragroup competition
Intergroup competition
Individual competition Conflict
Interaction between individuals and groups in which wach one attempts to defeat, destroy, or inflict damage on the other because of mutually exclusive goals or values An interaction between two or more parties in which the parties cannot meet their goals simultaneously. The success of one individual or group prevents other gruops or individuals from being successful Effects of Competition and Cooperation Competition and Productivity Competition and Satisfaction Organizational Citizenship Behavior
when an employee voluntarily helps other employees with no promise of reward. Behavior directed tward helping individuals are also called altruism, which behaviors directed toward helping the organization are called compliance Leader Fairness and Task Characteristics
Personal Responsibility
Character Development
Perception of Need
Similar People
Implications for Organizations OCB are more likely to occur when the members are treated fairly Cohensiveness
The degree of interpersoanl attraction of group members for each other and for membership in the group Factors Influencing Cohesiveness
Inerpersonal Atrraction
Frequency of Interaction
Rigor of Initiation
Agreement on Group Goals
Group Success
Outside Threats Consequences of Cohensiveness
Conflict and Oranizational Performance Functional and Dysfunctional Conflict
relationship conflict
process conflict
task conflict Functional Conflict
Conflict that contributesto the effectivness of the organization by increasing motivation or improving the quality of decision making Dysfunctional Conflict
Any interaction between two parties that hinders or destroys the achievement of organizational or group goals Studies of Conflict
The Prisoner's Dilemma Game
The Trucking Game
The Robber's Cave Experiment Zero-sum Conflict
A type of conflict where the gains to one party representlosses to the other. For one party to win, the other must lose Mixed-motive conflict
A situation in which an indiidual can either compete to maximize his or her personal gains or cooperate to maximize te joint gains Causes of Intergroup Conflict Task Interdependence
Pooled interdependence
Sequential interdependence
Reciprocal interdependence An aditive group ask taht does not require group members to coordinae their eforts; instead, ther individual effots are simply summed or pooled to from the goup product Situation in which the task structure is similar to an assembly line in which the performance of later groups depends upon the performance of earlier groups A conjunctive group task in which eachmeber of the group is mutually dependent upon each of the other members of the group and successful task completion can be obtained only is each member does his or her part Goal Incompatibility
Use of Threats
Group Identification
Win-Lose Attitudes
The conflict between the groups was a natural outcome of increased group cohesiveness. get bigger pie not larger share of the smaller pie The level of conflict increase when one party has the capacity to threaten other. Consequences of Intergroup Conflict Changes within the Group
Increased Cohesiveness
Increased Loyalty
Rise in Autocratic Leadership
Activity Orientation
Inflated Evaluation Changes between Groups
Decreased Communication
Distorted Perceptions
Negative Stereotyping Resolving Intergroup Conflict Avoidance Strategies
Ignore the Conflict
Physical Separation A method of responding to conflict situations by either ignoring the conflict or separating the conficting parties Power Intervention Strategies
Regulated Interaction
Political Maneuvering
A method of responding to conflict by having higher-level management impose a solution or political maneuvering among the conflicting members to obtain a majority vote Diffusion Strategies
Identifying a Common Enemy A conflict resoution mthod that trie to reuce the emotional anger by eiher smoothing over the diagreement, developing a comprimse, or creating a common enemy to distract attention Resolution Strategies
Intergroup Interaction
Superordinate Goals
Problem Solving
Structural Change A method of trying to resolv conflict by identifying the cause of the problem through problem solving, removing the causeof the problem through problem solving, removing the cause of conflict by structural change, or by creating a higher-level goal that requires cooperationA method of trying to resolv conflict by identifying the cause of the problem through problem solving, removing the causeof the problem through problem solving, removing the cause of conflict by structural change, or by creating a higher-level goal that requires cooperation Creating Functional Conflict
Altering the Communication Flow
Creating Competition
Altering Organizational Structure
Recruiting Outside Experts
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