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THE RISE OF RED CHINA
Transcript of THE RISE OF RED CHINA
FORMATION OF THE CHINESE COMMUNIST PARTY...
CHINESE CIVIL WAR
GMD (JIANG) VS CCP (MAO)
UNEASY TRUCE BROKERED WHEN JAPAN INVADES CHINA IN 1937
JIANG (GMD leader) believed the CCP to be a threat to the heart of China while Japan was simply merely a threat to the skin
MOST IMPORTANT IMPACT OF GMD/CCP CONFLICT:
nullified YALTA agreement on China and east Asia between USA and USSR
YALTA AGREEMENT: Russia would regain all rights and privileges lost to Japan during 1905 Russo-Japanese war, including those of Manchuria. In return USSR would enter war vs. Japan 3 months after defeat of Germany and would not support the CCP
October 1, 1949, Mao declares China communist
THE MYTH OF AMERICA’S
LOST CHANCE IN CHINA
“LOST CHANCE” scholars base argument on:
-CCP earnestly sought U.S. recognition to expedite China’s postwar economic reconstruction
-Sino Soviet relation strained due to Moscow’s failure to offer sufficient aid to the CCP during China’s civil war
In 1948-49 it was next to impossible for the 2 sides to establish normal working relations let alone reach accommodations
-Mao was unwilling to pursue Western recognition or to establish diplomatic relations with them.
-Mao pointed out that Sino-American relations had been dominated by a series of unequal treaties since China’s defeat in the Opium wars of 1839-42
-had a deep rooted belief that in a moral sense, western powers owed China a heavy historical debt.
-he would only deal with countries that would deal with China on equal footing
MAO’S DEF. OF EQUALITY: meant a total negotiation of America’s role in China’s modern history and posed a crucial challenge to the existing principles of international relations to which western parties adhered.
MAO’S FOREIGN POLICY PATTERNS
believed China was unique in non western societies due to the age old Central Kingdom concept.
MAO’S SENSE OF INSECURITY
1.Quest to make China world power would lead them to feel insecure until goal was accomplished
2.They felt they were threatened by reactionary forces against worldwide communist revolution
3.Mao used international tension as a way to mobilize domestic populace
CCP’s 3 FUNDAMENTAL DECISIONS ON EXTERNAL RELATIONS
1.Making a fresh start
3.Lean to one side
1949- CHINA AND USSR SIGN TREATY OF ALLIANCE AND FRIENDSHIP-both agreed to share responsibility for worldwide communism (China responsible for the east)
-Treaty gave Stalin rights to natural resources at Xinjiang and allowed him to retain rights to Ports of Dairen and Arthur.
-Mao received 20,000 soviet experts to help in reconstructing China and 80,000 Chinese students allowed to travel to USSR for edu. And training
-treaty would lead to Chinese involvement in Korean War
-between 700-900,000 Chinese killed or wounded
-160,000 Ame , 520,000 N.K. 400,000 S.K.
-Mao’s oldest son killed in combat
-Alliance would lead U.S. to overextend itself in Korea/Vietnam during the 50’s and 60’s
-During the 1960’s and 70’s reversal of alliance would lead USSR to overextend itself
DOMESTIC POLICY: 1ST STEPS
1950 AGRARIAN REFORM LAW
1950 AGRARIAN REFORM LAW
used reform to draw millions of peasants/farmers into the revolutionary process
-CCP cadres assigned to villages to distribute land process
-“Speak Bitterness Meetings” were organized. Landlords were declared as symbols of oppression
-2-3 million landlords were executed
-about of China’s agricultural land was redistributed
-N. China peasant’s avg. 2.3 acres
-S. China peasant’s avg. .5 acres
Made men and women equal before the law
-gave women the right to seek divorce
- legal age of marriage set at 20 for men and 18 for women
-women could not be forced into marriage
“Women now hold up half the sky”
THE “FOUR PEST CAMPAIGN”
Chinese farmers asked to exterminate flies, mosquitoes, rats and sparrows
in order to reduce sickness and increase farm output
The “100 FLOWERS CAMPAIGN”
“let 100 flowers bloom, let 100 schools contend”
Goal was to have wide spread discussion on how to implement socialist economy w/ as few shortcomings as possible
-by June CCP called for an end to campaign
-sharpest critics labeled “rightist” were sent for re education at the hands of the peasant poor
THE RADICAL MAOIST PHASE
1958 “THE GREAT LEAP FORWARD”:
China was to catch up to European powers in 15 years
-peasants were organized into 24,000 communes
- each commune was to deliver a quota of agricultural produce, the remainder of their produce could then be sold by its members
-single most important change: women entered work force
-Mao’s goal was to make each commune self reliant
-bad agricultural tech. lead to “three bitter years” 1959-61
-an estimated 30 million died due to food shortages
1962 “Socialist Education Campaign”
Goal: rekindle revolutionary fervor
-became a destructive violent campaign which set party member vs party member, generation vs. generation
-new generation born under communism would finally destroy old society
1966 THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION
-directive called for an open attack on all remnants of the old society or the “FOUR OLDS”: old culture, old customs, old ideas, old habits
-RED GUARDS were formed under the direction of Mao
-heirlooms were destroyed
-party leaders, teachers, professors and elders were under attack
-Mao used widening chaos to attack his own chosen targets
-Deng Xiaoping(future leader of China) attacked as the “number one capitalist roader” disappeared only to reappear in 1973.
- Red Guards and PLA began fighting each other as different Red Guard groups fought to establish themselves as the “ true protectors of Mao Zedong’s thoughts”
- Mao calls end to Cultural Revolution in 1969
-1/2 million died from torture or forced suicide
-Most expelled or abused Chinese pardoned by Mao
-a whole generation came to the realization that their loyalties earned them nothing but manual labor.
-this contributed to the changing attitudes toward the party and its aging leadership
China’s modern history is characterized by the humiliation caused by western incursions. Frustration was later intensified by the 1911 revolution which destroyed an empire but did not establish a true republic
china's century of shame
Self Strenghtening Movement...
The Hundred Days...
Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895
REVOLUTION OF THE DOUBLE TENTH
Revolutionary Nationalism (GMD)
Three People's Principals...
The May 4th Movement...
The Warlord Era...
1. The May 4th Movement...
2. The Bolshevik Rev...
3. Karl Marx's Manifesto...
THe northern expedition
the white terror
The White Terror...
Key Jiang GMD Assets
1- military force...
2- financial backing...
the nanjing decade
1. End of Warlords...
2. Built up infrastructure..
1. Old bueracrats...
2. Lacked popular support...
3. dependnt on army...
4. No parlimentary government...
5. Dictatorship of Jiang
6. The Army and the economy...
7. Lack of Reforms...
8. Failed to unite China...
9.Foreign domination continued...
the ccp before the yanan era
1. Lower class support...
2. Land Reform...
4. Strong Leadership...
strenghts of the ccp during the yanan era 1935-1946
2. Adopted Marxism to peasantry...
3. Broadened support...
4. Won over peasants...
5. Land expansion...
6. Organization of the Red Army..
7. Stronger Nationalist credentials than GMD...
Main Events in Civil War
1946-47 The Battle of Manchuria part 1....
1947-48 The Battle of Manchuria part 2...
1948-49 three decisive battles.
1. Climax of Manchuria campaign...
2. Battle of Tianjin and Beijing...
3. The Huaihi campaign...
The Conquest of the South...