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Psychology unit 5: Learning and Memory

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Joe Berchtold

on 7 January 2014

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Transcript of Psychology unit 5: Learning and Memory

Learning
Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Observational Learning
&
Memory
Based on the work of Ivan Pavlov and his dogs

This type of learning occurs by creating an
association
between two different types of stimuli, one of which already causes a response and one which initially does not.

if the two stimuli are presented together repeatedly, eventually a response will be created by the thing/stimulus that didn’t start with one.
Based on the theories of B.F. Skinner. He said that behavior is the result of the seeking of
rewards
or the avoidance of
punishments
.
-Learning through observation


Based on the ideas of Albert Bandura who proved that some behaviors are done because we see others perform the same behavior.
the thing that creates a natural response
the natural reaction to the thing
something that causes no response (yet!)
now this gets a response (bell after learning)
Advanced
Classical Conditioning
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
Neutral Stimulus (NS)
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
Conditioned Response (CR)
Schedules of Reinforcement
Shaping
: for more complex tasks sometimes behavior has to be learned gradually – over time the behavior reinforced will change to be a specific behavior (for example chickens could learn to bowl)
Increases behavior by adding a stimulus
Elements of
Operant Conditioning
Learning with no immediate behavior change (we learn stuff before we need it, making it easier when we do)
Learned Helplessness
a person learns that nothing that they do matters and often then cease to try (often leads to Depression)
Latent Learning
Unconditioned Stimulus (food)
Unconditioned Response (drooling)
Done correctly and repeatedly, a Neutral Stimulus will be transformed into a...
Unconditioned Stimulus (food)
UCS?
the response is the same as before, except now it comes after the conditioned stimulus
At the beginning...
NS?
then we introduce...
CS?
and we end up with...
(Airsoft gun)
(Pain reaction)
("That was easy")
("That was easy")
(Pain reaction)
Before conditioning
During conditioning
After conditioning
Ivan Pavlov
Reinforcement (+)
Punishment (-)
Positive (+)
Negative (-)
Positive Reinforcement
FOOD
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
Unconditioned Stimulus (food)
Unconditioned Response (drooling)
DROOL
Presented together with a...
produces a...
produces a...
Conditioned Stimulus (CR)
UCR?
UCS
(Airsoft gun)
(Pain reaction)
UCR
CR?
produces a...
A relatively permanent observable change in behavior resulting from practice, experience or observation
UCS?
At the beginning...
NS?
then we introduce...
CS?
and we end up with...
(Mint)
(Salivate)
(Computer Sound)
(Computer Sound)
(Salivate)
UCR?
UCS
(Mint)
(Salivate)
UCR
CR?
John Watson
Similar stimuli will create a similar response (With Pavlov, it didn't matter what type of bell)
Different stimulus do not generate the same response (the dog won’t drool at the sound of a trumpet)
If presented alone often enough the conditioned response will stop (after constant bell ringing without food the dog will eventually stop drooling)
After the behavior has been extinguished, it may suddenly return at a random point in the future
Generalization
Discrimination
Extinction
Spontaneous Recovery
With Little Albert, fear of white mice...
Generalized into fear of...
Furry Animals...
Furry people...
...and furry things
B.F. Skinner
Speaker
Signal Lights
Lever
Pellet Dispenser
Dispenser Tube
Food Cup
Electric Grid
Skinner Box
(ex: you did well, have a cookie)
The Bobo doll experiment
sense information is turned into something the brain can use
Parts of the brain involved in memory (that we know of)
Stages of Memory
Each of the senses has the ability to hold a near exact representation of the world for a fraction of a second so it can decide if the information is important
Sensory Memory
Short Term Memory
if the information is important enough it goes to the next level – here the information will stay for just a few moments, unless it is rehearsed.
(also called working memory)
Long Term Memory
if the information is worked on it might go to the next level – it is theorized that the long-term memory is limitless in its storage capabilities.
Encoding
Storage
Retrieval
Adds emotional component to memory (allowing recall of an emotional event to also be emotional)
converts information from short to long term memory
Amygdala
Hippocampus
we can re-perform skills we have learned
Types of Long-Term Memory
Semantic
we remember the details of our own life
we can recall basic facts we have learned
we retain the rules of language
Episodic
Declarative
Procedural
We will distinguish between new information and stuff we have already dealt with (think multiple choice)
We can also reconstruct details of past experience
Unfortunately this can be tainted by the context we do the recalling in or by gaps in details of memory filled in with what makes sense but not necessarily what is accurate (called confabulation)
perfect recall also known as photographic memory
Tricks which help memory recall by...
adding meaning/connection
or
reducing the amount to be remembered
Mnemonics
Space and Movement
Visual Imagery
Rhythm & Rhyme
Parentheses Exponents Multiplication Division Addition Subtraction
Acronyms
Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge
Meaningless
Meaningful
Meaningless
Meaningful
North
East
South
West
Meaningless
Meaningful
The Memory Palace
A mansion or building inside one's mind where clues to memories can be "placed"
The more vivid and detailed the pictures in your memory are, the more likely you will be to remember them
In 1492, Columbus sailed the ocean blue!
Capacity: Full scene for short time

Duration: 0.5 seconds
Capacity: 7 +/- 2 items

Duration: 3-12 seconds
Capacity: Infinite (theoretically)

Duration: Several years - Entire lifetime
THE END
The magic of the number 7
Memory:
Sensory Memory
Short-Term Memory
Long-Term Memory
Retrieval
Injury that results in memory failures
Recognition
Recall
Retrieval Failures (a.k.a. forgetting)
Once something is in long term memory, it never leaves it.

So then
why can’t we remember everything?
If we stop using information then we eventually lose the ability to locate it
New information gets in the way of old (or vice versa)
unconsciously the brain decides that information is too devastating to deal with
Decay
Interference
Repression
Amnesia
Eidetic Memory
Anterograde Amnesia
Retrograde Amnesia
inability to recall memories that occurred, or information that was learned, before an injury
Inability to create new memories after an injury, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past
Chunking
a memory strategy that involves taking individual units of information and grouping them together
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Sense Association
Encoding
Storage
Negative Reinforcement
Positive Punishment
Negative Punishment
Increases behavior by removing a stimulus.
(you have to stay in your room until your homework is done)
Decreases behavior by adding a stimulus
Decreases behavior by taking something away
Mirror Neurons
A mirror neuron is a neuron that fires both when an animal acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by another
Full transcript