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Birth defects

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by

Jessica Chapman

on 13 August 2015

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Transcript of Birth defects

Problems in Prenatal Development Losing a baby Most babies develop normally and born healthy. However, sometimes the baby does not develop normally. Sometimes the baby dies. When a developing baby dies prior to the twentieth week of pregnancy, the event is called a miscarriage. If the baby dies after the 20th week, the event is called a still birth. Unfortunately miscarriages are fairly common. About 15% of recognized pregnancies end in a miscarriage. Still births only occur about 2% of pregnancies. The most common causes are problems with the placenta, abnormal chromosomes, poor growth and infections. BIRTH DEFECTS
A serious problem that threatens a baby's health, and is present at birth, is called a birth defect Approximately 120,000 babies are born each year in the U.S. with birth defects. Types and Causes Some birth defects cause an abnormality in the structure of the body. (misshapen foot, extra or missing finger, etc.) Other birth defects cause one or more systems of the body not to function properly (blindness, deafness, and mental retardation) Not all birth defects are obvious at birth. Sometimes abnormalities are not discovered until months or years later. Four main causes to birth defects.... Environment Heredity Errors in Chromosomes Combination of heredity and environmental factors The nutritional balance of the mother's diet
Any diseases or infections the mother has during pregnancy
harmful substances the mother consumes, such as alcohol, over the counter medications, tobacco, and illegal drugs
some medications that help the mother but hurt the baby
air pollution
exposure to Xrays and high levels of radiation, chemicals, solvents and pesticides Sometimes is the parents both pass the same faulty recessive gene (recessive inheritance).
2 examples would be Tay-Sachs and Cystic fibrosis Or if ONE parent passes a defective dominant gene, known as dominant inheritance Some inherited conditions, only affect one gender.

Hemophilia, blindness, and duchenne muscular dystrophy; which usually only affects males Several types of birth defects are caused by problems in the number of chromosomes.


An error may occur when an egg or a sperm is developing.

This can cause a baby to have too few or too many chromosomes, or have broken or rearranged chromosomes. The most common of this type of birth defect is known as Down Syndrome. This is where the child has three copies of chromosome 21 rather than two. one in every 800 babies have this condition Cleft lip, cleft palate, and spina bifida may be cause by a combination of bother heredity and environmental factors A genetic predisposition, (or tendancy) for spina bifida combined with the use of uncertain medications during pregnancy, will increase the chance of a child having the birth defect. Prenatal Tests (prevention) Eat well during pregnancy
Avoid marrying close relatives
Consider not having children after age 35 or 40
Avoid all medicines during pregnancy
Avoid contact with pesticides and other poisons
Avoid tobacco and alcohol
While pregnant, stay away from children with German measles Preventing Birth Defects Change in genetic code
Down line birth defects
Agents causing fetal deaths
Reproduction toxins
Long term carcinogens Long-term Effect of Meth Chemicals Environmental Factors influencing birth defects A genetic disorder of bone growth that is evident at birth. It affects about one in every 20,000 births and it occurs in all races and in both male and female genders. It is estimated that there are about 10,000 individuals with this disorder in the United States.
When a person has Acondroplasia, abnormal cartilage at the growth plates of the bones in the body causes their short stature. Men with this disorder are usually less than 52 inches tall and women are somewhat shorter. Acondroplasia (Dwarfism) Affected if mom drank alcohol while pregnant
Appears at birth
Prenatal
Some form of mental retardation, facial abnormalities, deformed limbs
Special assistance Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Affects anyone
Appears at birth
Congenital malformation – Multi-factorial
Foot and ankle twisted, making it impossible to walk normally
Treatment - surgery Clubfoot Affects primarily blacks
Appears at birth
Recessive disorder, blood disorder
Abnormal blood cells, bout of pain, heart and kidney failure, less oxygen to all parts of the body. Death in childhood. Damage to adult vital organs.
Blood transfusions Sickle Cell Anemia Affects – anyone
Appears in childhood and adulthood
Multi-factorial, sex –linked
Weakening of muscles. Inability to walk, move, wasting away and sometimes death
No treatment Muscular Dystrophy Cystic fibrosis is an inherited chronic disease that affects the lungs and digestive system of about 30,000 children and adults in the U.S. A defective gene and its protein product cause the body to produce unusually thick, sticky mucus that:
Clogs the lungs and leads to life-threatening lung infections; and
Obstructs the pancreas and stops natural enzymes from helping the body break down and absorb food.
In the 1950s, few children with cystic fibrosis lived to attend elementary school. Today, many people with the disease can now expect to live into their 30s, 40s and beyond. Cystic Fibrosis Affects anyone
Appears at birth
Prenatal damage
Damage of one or more parts of the brain that control movement. Lack of control of movement and posture.
Special medication, physical therapy Cerebral Palsy Affects anyone
Appears at birth
Multi-factorial, Prenatal damage
Varying degrees from slight cyst to open spine (sores, infertile, legs paralyzed, poor bladder and bowel control, death)
Surgery and physical therapy Spina Bifida Affects anyone
Appears at birth
Recessive disorder
Abnormal digestion of protein, mental retardation, hyperactivity
Preventable diet PKU Common if baby has young or old parents
Appears at birth
Chromosomal error
Effects – Some form of mental retardation, oval shaped eyes, thick big tongue, short neck, back of head is flat, small ears, common heart problems
Surgery, special assistance Down’s Syndrome Can affect anyone
Appears at birth
Congenital malformation – Multi-factorial
Two sides of lip and/or pallet not joined
Treatment - surgery Cleft Lip/Cleft Palate Birth Defects Marfan syndrome is a heritable condition that affects the connective tissue. In Marfan syndrome, the connective tissue is defective and does not act as it should.
Marfan syndrome affects men, women, and children, and has been found among people of all races and ethnic backgrounds. It is estimated that at least 1 in 5,000 people in the United States have the disorder.
Marfan syndrome affects different people in different ways. The body systems most often affected by Marfan syndrome are:
Skeleton
Eyes
Heart and blood vessels (cardiovascular system)
Nervous system
Skin
Lungs Marfan’s Syndrome
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