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Rise of Islam

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Mark Hladek

on 6 September 2012

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Transcript of Rise of Islam

The Rise of Islam (Pilgrimage) (Faith) (Prayer) (Alms) (Fasting) Arabian Peninsula
Trading hotbed
Mecca becomes multi-religious Pilgrimage center
Kaaba shrine set up to worship Jewish prophet - Abraham
Many religions brought idols to the building to workship 630, Muhammad returns (with 10,000 followers) and gains control of Mecca... The return... Converts Meccans to Islam Unites the entire Arabian peninsula under Islam 2000 2010 2005 2002 March (cc) image by jantik on Flickr Muhammad the man.... Born c. 570 Orphaned and raised by family (grandfather and uncles) Taught to be successful in business Married a wealthy business woman (Khadijah) and started a family Why wasn't he happy???? The problems of Arab society bothered Muhammad Before Muhammad...What were Arab societies like? Greed Dishonesty Gap in generocity and caring Wealthy were in control and took advantage Weren't unified. Tribes ruled by sheikhs
elected to rule the tribes Polytheistic but believed in decendence from Abraham (original Hebrew prophet) Believed Abraham and his family built Mecca and the Kaaba (worship place) What is the Kaaba? Trade eventually shifted and passed through Mecca Mecca became a religious and cultural hotbed
The Kaaba became a pilgrimage place for many religions What does Muhammad do? How would Mecca react? After hearing the angel's voice, Muhammad spoke with Khadijah about what he should do.
Khadijah pushed him to preach and became his first covert to Islam But...
Wealthy people who controlled Mecca didn't like what he was teaching
Muhammad struggled to find converts (only 30 after 3 years...mostly family) In 622, Muhammad and his followers left for Yathrib (later renamed Medina) This is known as the Hajrah In Medina.... He gathered support
grew to over 10,000 Became a 3 fold leader:
Military Plans his return to Mecca and his expansion beyond Declared the Kaaba a sacred shrine and destroyed all foreign idols (only to be used by Muslims) What is Islam? Monotheistic religion
Allah is supreme god Belief in heaven and hell
only believers will be saved Islam means "submission to Allah"
Muslim means "one who has submitted"
Qu'ran (Koran) is the holy book of Muhammad's teachings Follow the 5 Pillars Islam is not just a belief system, it is a way of life.
Shari'ah- religious law
Should not:
Eat pork
Be dishonest
Drink alcohol What did he do? Hears a voice from the Angel Gabriel Over 23 years, Gabriel's words are recorded
eventually become the Qu'ran (holy book) Gabriel Tells him to:
write down
spread the word At age 40
In a cave outside Mecca Believes Allah (god) was upset because people had rejected earlier prophets; Muhammad's are the final revelations! Meditates (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr Influence of Trade... Death of Muhammad Dies in 632 (only 2 years
after taking Mecca) Questions over who should take over Succeeded by Abu Bakr Rightly Guided Calips Caliph - successor; deputy

Jihad - "Struggle in the way of God" Abu Bakr 632-634 Umar 634-644 Uthman 644-656 Ali 656-661 Reasons for Military Success:
Willing to fight (spread Islam)
Disciplined and efficient
Weak surrounding empires
Welcomed by oppressed people Arab Expansion
Under the Caliphs Sunni/Shiite Split Sunni- followers of Muhammad's example
Accept Ummayads
Make up majority of Muslims Shi'a- followers of descendents of Muhammad
Predominantly in Iraq and Iran
Followers of Ali
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