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Rise of Islam
Transcript of Rise of Islam
Mecca becomes multi-religious Pilgrimage center
Kaaba shrine set up to worship Jewish prophet - Abraham
Many religions brought idols to the building to workship
630, Muhammad returns (with 10,000 followers) and gains control of Mecca...
Converts Meccans to Islam
Unites the entire Arabian peninsula under Islam
(cc) image by jantik on Flickr
Muhammad the man....
Born c. 570
Orphaned and raised by family (grandfather and uncles)
Taught to be successful in business
Married a wealthy business woman (Khadijah) and started a family
Why wasn't he happy????
The problems of Arab society bothered Muhammad
Before Muhammad...What were Arab societies like?
Gap in generocity and caring
Wealthy were in control and took advantage
Tribes ruled by sheikhs
elected to rule the tribes
Polytheistic but believed in decendence from Abraham (original Hebrew prophet)
Believed Abraham and his family built Mecca and the Kaaba (worship place)
What is the Kaaba?
Trade eventually shifted and passed through Mecca
Mecca became a religious and cultural hotbed
The Kaaba became a pilgrimage place for many religions
What does Muhammad do?
How would Mecca react?
After hearing the angel's voice, Muhammad spoke with Khadijah about what he should do.
Khadijah pushed him to preach and became his first covert to Islam
Wealthy people who controlled Mecca didn't like what he was teaching
Muhammad struggled to find converts (only 30 after 3 years...mostly family)
In 622, Muhammad and his followers left for Yathrib (later renamed Medina)
This is known as the Hajrah
He gathered support
grew to over 10,000
Became a 3 fold leader:
Plans his return to Mecca and his expansion beyond
Declared the Kaaba a sacred shrine and destroyed all foreign idols (only to be used by Muslims)
What is Islam?
Allah is supreme god
Belief in heaven and hell
only believers will be saved
Islam means "submission to Allah"
Muslim means "one who has submitted"
Qu'ran (Koran) is the holy book of Muhammad's teachings
Follow the 5 Pillars
Islam is not just a belief system, it is a way of life.
Shari'ah- religious law
What did he do?
Hears a voice from the Angel Gabriel
Over 23 years, Gabriel's words are recorded
eventually become the Qu'ran (holy book)
Gabriel Tells him to:
spread the word
At age 40
In a cave outside Mecca
Believes Allah (god) was upset because people had rejected earlier prophets; Muhammad's are the final revelations!
(cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr
Influence of Trade...
Death of Muhammad
Dies in 632 (only 2 years
after taking Mecca)
Questions over who should take over
Succeeded by Abu Bakr
Rightly Guided Calips
Caliph - successor; deputy
Jihad - "Struggle in the way of God"
Reasons for Military Success:
Willing to fight (spread Islam)
Disciplined and efficient
Weak surrounding empires
Welcomed by oppressed people
Under the Caliphs
Sunni- followers of Muhammad's example
Make up majority of Muslims
Shi'a- followers of descendents of Muhammad
Predominantly in Iraq and Iran
Followers of Ali