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AP Bio: Evolution Introduction
Transcript of AP Bio: Evolution Introduction
1798: Thomas Malthus publishes "Essay on the Principle of Population"
1809: Jean-Baptiste Lamarck publishes his hypothesis of evolution
1809: Darwin (and Abe Lincoln) born
1812: Georges Cuvier publishes his extensive studies of vertebrate fossils
1830: Charles Lyell publishes "Principles of Geology"
1831-1836: Darwin travels the world on HMS Beagle
1844: Darwin writes his essay on descent with modification
1858: While studying species in the Malay Archipelago, Alfred Wallace sends Darwin his hypothesis of natural selection
1859: "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection is published
History of Evolutionary Thought
How Evolution Works
among individuals (observation)
for Limited Resources (inference)
4.Successful competitors survive, reproduce, & pass on their traits (observation)
of Offspring (Malthus)
5. Repeat 1-4 every generation over millions of years (Lyell)..
No two are quite the same!
It's the "Struggle for Existence!"
Most Babies won't grow up!
Introduction to Evolution
1844 - 1859 ?
About those finches...
The selective pressure of the Galapagos Environment has driven the evolution of the finches.
Beaks are very important for birds.
The environment determines fitness!
Any birds that survive pass on their beak traits to their offspring.
Repeat for millions of years.
Darwin provided many examples of "
Just like natural selection, but "fitness" is determined by human needs/wants.
Big changes can happen very fast.
Life will always adapt if it can.
Spraying of pesticides kills all of the pests who aren't resistant.
The resistant survivors reproduce...
...resistance increases (leading to more spraying, more resistance...)
Similar mechanisms drive the evolution of:
antibiotic resistance in bacteria
antiviral resistance in viruses
150 years later, we have a mountain of examples of natural selection in action.
In the modern age, the focus has been on quantifying the effects of natural selection on the characteristics of a population.
Take home message: Natural Selection is universal!
The effect of food type on the length of the beak of the soapberry bug:
"Endless forms most beautiful"
Evidence for Evolution
Ancient ideas about evolution:
Anaximander (610 - 546 BCE)
Plato (428 - 348 BCE)
Aristotle (384 - 322 BCE)
The Modern Synthesis
Genetics + Evolution
Evidence for evolution comes from four major sources
Homologous Structures = Divergent Evolution
Analogous Structures = Convergent Evolution
The fossil record is fairly complete, with many tranistional forms or "missing links"
DNA sequence and protein sequnce similarity
...& life will
to the environment
But...it's "Just a Theory" right??
is a theory
Theories must be
Aristotle's "Scale of Nature"