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AP Bio: Evolution Introduction

Introduction and history of evolution. Images from Campbell Biology, 7th ed. Copyright Pearson 2005 and Wiki Commons. Used under fair-use rights.
by

Christopher Himmelheber

on 19 March 2015

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Transcript of AP Bio: Evolution Introduction

1795: James Hutton proposes uniformitarianism
1798: Thomas Malthus publishes "Essay on the Principle of Population"
1809: Jean-Baptiste Lamarck publishes his hypothesis of evolution
1809: Darwin (and Abe Lincoln) born
1812: Georges Cuvier publishes his extensive studies of vertebrate fossils
1830: Charles Lyell publishes "Principles of Geology"
1831-1836: Darwin travels the world on HMS Beagle
1844: Darwin writes his essay on descent with modification
1858: While studying species in the Malay Archipelago, Alfred Wallace sends Darwin his hypothesis of natural selection
1859: "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection is published
History of Evolutionary Thought
How Evolution Works
2.
Variation
among individuals (observation)
3.
Competition
for Limited Resources (inference)
4.Successful competitors survive, reproduce, & pass on their traits (observation)
1.
Overproduction
of Offspring (Malthus)
5. Repeat 1-4 every generation over millions of years (Lyell)..
No two are quite the same!
It's the "Struggle for Existence!"
FITNESS!!!
Most Babies won't grow up!
Introduction to Evolution
1844 - 1859 ?
Some Examples
About those finches...
The selective pressure of the Galapagos Environment has driven the evolution of the finches.
Beaks are very important for birds.
The environment determines fitness!
Any birds that survive pass on their beak traits to their offspring.

Repeat for millions of years.
Artificial Selection
Darwin provided many examples of "
artificial selection
"
Just like natural selection, but "fitness" is determined by human needs/wants.
Big changes can happen very fast.
Pesticide Resistance
Modern Science
Life will always adapt if it can.

Spraying of pesticides kills all of the pests who aren't resistant.
The resistant survivors reproduce...
...resistance increases (leading to more spraying, more resistance...)
Similar mechanisms drive the evolution of:
antibiotic resistance in bacteria
antiviral resistance in viruses
150 years later, we have a mountain of examples of natural selection in action.
In the modern age, the focus has been on quantifying the effects of natural selection on the characteristics of a population.

Take home message: Natural Selection is universal!
The effect of food type on the length of the beak of the soapberry bug:
"Endless forms most beautiful"
Evidence for Evolution
Ancient ideas about evolution:
Anaximander (610 - 546 BCE)
Plato (428 - 348 BCE)
Aristotle (384 - 322 BCE)
The Modern Synthesis
Genetics + Evolution
Evidence for evolution comes from four major sources
Anatomy
Biochemistry
Embryology
Homologous Structures = Divergent Evolution
Analogous Structures = Convergent Evolution
Fossils
Eusthenopteron
Panderichthys
Tiktaalik
Acanthostega
Ichthyostega
Pederpes
The fossil record is fairly complete, with many tranistional forms or "missing links"
DNA sequence and protein sequnce similarity
...& life will
adapt
to the environment
But...it's "Just a Theory" right??
Everything
is a theory
Theories must be
testable
and
falsifiable
Aristotle's "Scale of Nature"
Full transcript