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Building a National Identity

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jenn parker

on 16 March 2014

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Transcript of Building a National Identity

Three Important Supreme Court Rulings
Between 1819 and 1824 the Supreme Court made three important rulings. Each ruling helped to solidify the nations federal government, economic growth, and American life. Also in 1819, the Court ruled that Dartmouth College was a private contract and the government could not interfere with it.
Building the National Economy
After 1815, many Americans and even the Republicans believed that federal government should try to increase economic prosperity in every region. Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, and Daniel Webster were all members of Congress who favored federal actions.
The Tariff of 1816
After the War of 1812, America was having a problem with foreign competition. While British goods were kept out of America by the Embargo Act and the War of 1812 the America industry had expanded rapidly. After the war the British wanted to drive American competitors out of business by dumping their goods in America. Dumping is selling goods in another country below marketed prices. Many New England businesses started to fail as because of British dumping. Factory owners asked Congress to put tariffs on foreign goods. Congress then enacted The Tariff of 1816, later the tariffs got higher. The North liked the tariffs, whereas the South hated them, because they caused Southerners to have to pay more for their goods. John C. Calhoun argued that the tariffs made the North rich at the expense of the South.
The Era of Good Feelings
After the war of 1812, the Republicans had a strong hold on the government. President Monroe was elected in 1816. Monroe wanted to promote unity in the states. After the War of 1812 the Federalists lost its power and disappeared.
Building a National Identity
Clay's American System
Henry Clay came up with a plan to help with the tariffs which he called the American System. The system proposed high tariffs and a federal program of public works. Clay believed that because of the tariffs that the North would become wealthy allowing the people in the North to buy from the South. Clay also thought that the tariffs would help to build a good infrastructure in the South and West. President Madison did not support some of Clay's ideas, so the American System did not become a government policy.
The Second Bank of the United States
In 1811, the first bank of America ceased to exist because it charter had run out. A charter is a legal document giving rights to a person or company. In 1816, the government established a second bank, like the first bank it had a charter for twenty years. Having a bank boosted American businesses.
Chapter 10 Section 1
In 1819, Maryland wanted to put a tax on the branch of the Bank that operated in that state but the Bank refused to pay the tax. The Court ruled that no state was aloud to interfere with federal law.
Also in 1819, the Court ruled that Dartmouth College was a private contract and the government could not interfere with it. A contract is an agreement between two or more parties that can be enforced by law. When the Court did that it was protecting private businesses which promoted capitalism. Capitalism is the economic system in which privately owned businesses compete in a free market.
In 1824, the Court ruled that New York couldn't give a steamboat company a monopoly to carry passengers down the Hudson River, because that would involve travel through New Jersey, which is interstate commerce. Interstate commerce is trade between two or more states. And only Congress could regulate interstate commerce.
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