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Living things

Unit 11. First of Secundary

Francisco García

on 17 May 2016

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Transcript of Living things

Diblastic animals
Triblastic animals
Phylum Poriphera
Phyllum Molusca
Phyllum Annelida
Phyllum Artropoda
Phyllum Echinodermata
Phyllum Chordata
Class Gastropoda
Class Cephalopoda
Class Lamellibrachia
Class Hirudinea
Class Olygochaeta
Class Polychaeta
Class Crustacea
Class Hexapoda
Class Miryapoda
Class Chelicerata
Subphyllum Vertebrata
It can be distinguished in their body is the difference between head, with a pair of antennas, and trunk, which arise numerous pairs of legs.
The insect body is divided into three regions: the head, with a pair of antennae, the thorax, which leave three pairs of legs and, in many cases, two pairs of wings, and abdomen
Crustaceans have two distinct body regions: the cephalothorax, which come two pairs of antennae and in many of these, five pairs of legs, and abdomen.
The chelicerae have a body divided into two regions: the cephalothorax, which come four pairs of legs and abdomen. Do not have antennas on the head.
Arthropods have segmented body, than they can from hard appendages highly variable forms, such as legs, antennae ...
Have appendices consisting of jointed legs, such as legs or antennae.
Have external skeleton or exoskeleton
Generally have highly developed sensory organs associated with hearing, touch, smell, balance or vision.
The annelid body is cylindrical and elongated, divided into rings or segments called metamerism. In each of these segments are repeated certain organs like the digestive tract and excretory, nerves and some blood vessels
Respiration is cutaneous.
Polychaetes (Polychaeta, gr. "many bristles") are a class of annelids . It is the largest group of that edge, with about 10,000 described species, and is the most primitive, ie, the one that would resemble in their features to the original type of edge. Water birds, almost exclusively marine, characterized by carrying in each segment a pair of parapodia, with its dorsal branch and ventral branch, equipped with numerous setae (which gives its name to the polychaetes, literally "many setae"). They are mostly carnivorous sandy bottoms, but there are specialized forms of eating sediment, the style that earthworms make the soil or filter the water.
Oligochaetes (Oligochaeta, the Greek oligos, little, small, and Latin chaetae, bristles) is a subclass of the phylum Annelida (annelids or segmented worms) Class Clitellata (which have a clitellum, or 'collar' which forms a cocoon reproductive), which includes 3,500 to 4,000 species, which are found in a wide variety of habitats: land (the majority), marine, and parasitic life dulciacuícolas (very few).

In contrast to the polychaetes, oligochaetes are devoid of parapodia and setae are small and few, in marine oligochaetes, these setae are longer and more abundant than in the land. The most representative is the oligochaete earthworm.
The hirudinea (Hirudinea) are a class of annelid phylum, popularly known as leeches. There are hirudinea marine, terrestrial and arboreal, but the vast majority are freshwater species. Like their close relatives, the Oligochaeta, they share the presence of a clitellum. They can measure 20 cm and weigh 30 g. Its elasticity and flexibility developed is amazing. Their average lifespan is 27 years.

Hirudo is capable of swallowing whole a worm as long as he is. They are predators and feed on small worms, gastropods, crustaceans, larvae, tadpoles, fish fry, etc.
Molluscs are animals that have the following characteristics:
- They present a soft body, consisting of an outer layer called the mantle, which surrounds a set of internal organs which are the visceral mass.
- They usually have one or two internal and external shells, which serve as support and fastening to the body.
- They have a muscular foot used to move.
- Molluscs have a hard body in their tongues, called radula
They are the largest class of Mollusks phyllum. They present cephalic area (head), a ventral muscular foot and a dorsal shell (which can be reduced or even lost in the more advanced gastropods) also when larvae undergo the phenomenon of torque, which is the rotation of the visceral mass foot and head. This allows them to hide before its head into the shell, giving a clear evolutionary advantage. The gastropods include popular species such as snails and sea slugs and land, limpets, sea hares ears, etc.

There are approximately more than 75,000 living and 15,000 fossil species described. Gasteropoda can be found in almost all environments (including desert), but mostly in salt water or fresh, although a few of them have managed to colonize the terrestrial environment, the only group of molluscs with representatives on the mainland.
Bivalves, also called lamellibranch or pelecypods, are a class of phylum Mollusca with some 13,000 species, generally marine. They present a shell with two side flaps, generally symmetrical, joined by a hinge and ligaments. These valves are closed by the action of one or two adductor muscles.

They are found buried in soft bottoms (infauna) as permanent inhabitants of surfaces and rigid structures or free on epifauna funds. Some species bore into the substrate (rock or wood) and some more are commensal or parasitic.
Cephalopods are a class of marine invertebrates within the phylum of the molluscs. There are about 700 species, commonly known as octopus, squid, cuttlefish and nautilus.
Its head is distinct and it put her eyes, well developed, and mouth.
Surrounding foot and mouth appears transformed into a funnel through which they can shed water. They have tentacles to catch prey.
Class Echinoidea
Class Asteroidea
Echinoderms have the following characteristics:
- They have an ambulacral apparatus, a conduit system consisting of a series of tubes that run throughout the body. For these tubes circulates seawater, and they leave other tubes ending in a vacuum, known as tube feet.
- They have a skeleton composed of calcareous plates that are covered with skin, which are called dermoesqueleto.
- They have pentaradial simmetry.
The echinoids are globose, and the plates of the skeleton are welded and moving them out long spines.
They get the oxygen they need through the gills and ambulacral apparatus.
The asteroids or sea stars are a class of symmetry edge pentaradial Echinodermata, flattened body formed by a pentagonal disk with five or more arms. About 2,000 known living species.

The plates that form their exoskeletons are articulated, giving them more mobility.

Most sea stars are carnivorous and feed on molluscs, crustaceans and other small invertebrates.
Vertebrates have bilateral symmetry and are equipped with a skull that protects the brain and skeletal cartilage or osseous, comprising a part metamerizada axial (spine). According to the authors, are known from 50,000 to nearly 62,000 living species.

Typical vertebrates have the body clearly divided into three regions: head, trunk and tail, the trunk is in turn subdivided into thorax and abdomen. Protruding stem tips, which have an odd number in lampreys and an even number on the other vertebrates. Notochord present in the embryo stage, which is replaced by the spine in the adult, the head is distinct, and shall gather and centralize the majority of sense organs and nervous. The cranial structure of fossilized vertebrates easily, which has been fundamental for the evolution.

During embryonic development, the body walls of vertebrates develop holes or gill slits, resulting in the gills of fish and different structures. The skeleton may be osseous, cartilage, and sometimes present dermoesqueleto, consisting of a skeletal cutaneous formations.
Superclass Agnatha
Superclass Gnathostomata
Superclass Tetrapoda
Class Amphibia
Class Reptilia
Class Aves
Class Mammalia
Class Chondrichthyan fishes
Class Bony fishes (Osteichtyes)
Amphibians are a group of vertebrates anamniotas (without amnion, such as fish), tetrapods, ectothermic, with gills during the larval stage and lung to reach the adult stage. Unlike other vertebrates, are distinguished by undergo a transformation during development. This change can be drastic and is called metamorphosis. Amphibians were the first vertebrates to adapt to a semi-terrestrial life, presenting now a cosmopolitan distribution copies found in virtually all the world, being absent only in the Arctic and Antarctic, in the driest deserts and in most oceanic islands. It is estimated that today there are more than 6,000 species of amphibians.
Most reptiles have adapted to terrestrial life, but eventually discovered that some live in water. A scaly tough skin and is one of their adaptations. Other adaptations that have contributed to the success of reptiles on land include well-developed lungs, a double-circuit circulatory system, excretory system to conserve water, strong limbs, internal fertilization and terrestrial eggs hatched. Moreover, the reptiles can control their body temperature by rearranging
Birds are vertebrate, warm-blooded, walking, jumping or maintained only on the hind limbs while the forelimbs are modified as wings, like many other anatomical features, are adaptations for flying, but not all fly. Their bodies are covered with feathers and today's birds, a toothless horny beak. To reproduce lay eggs, which hatch to hatch.

The birds originated from bipedal carnivorous dinosaurs of the Jurassic, 150-200 million years ago. Its subsequent evolution resulted, after a strong radiation at about 10,000 extant species. Birds are the most diverse tetrapod, however, have a great morphological homogeneity in comparison with mammals. Kinship of bird families can not always be defined by morphology, but DNA testing began to be unraveled.

Birds inhabit all terrestrial biomes, and in all oceans. The size can be from 6.4 cm in the hummingbird zunzuncito to 2.74 meters in the ostrich. The behaviors are diverse and remarkable as the nesting, feeding the young, migration, mating, and the tendency to association groups. Communication between these birds is variable and can involve visual signals, calls and songs. Some emit a variety of sounds, and are noted for their intelligence and capacity for cultural transmission of knowledge to new generations.
Mammals (Mammalia) are a class of warm-blooded vertebrate amniotes (of "hot blood "), with hair and mammary glands produce milk to feed the pups. Most are viviparous (with the notable exception of monotremes).
The Chondrichthyes are a class of aquatic vertebrates commonly known as cartilaginous fishes, a name that refers to its skeleton is cartilage, unlike bony fish, which are bone.

This class includes subclasses elasmobranchs (sharks, rays) and holocéfalos (chimeras).
The bony fishes are vertebrates gnathostomes that includes all fish fitted with internal skeleton bone that is made mainly of calcified and very few pieces of cartilage. Along with the Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish), are the two major groups comprising animals commonly called "fish" and there is still a third group, the jawless fish (lampreys and hagfish), with very few representatives.
Porifera or sponges (Porifera) are a phylum of aquatic invertebrates. They are mostly marine, sessile and lack of true tissues. They are filtering through an aquifer system developed pores, channels and chambers. There are about 8,000 species of sponges in the world, of which only about 150 live in fresh water.
The Porifera were considered plants until 1765, discovered the existence of internal water currents and they were recognized as animals and their digestion is intracellular.
Cnidarians is a phylum which includes about 10,000 species of relatively simple animals that live exclusively in aquatic environments, mostly marine. The phyllum name refers to a self-diagnostic feature of these animals, the presence of stinging cells called cnido-cells present in the tentacles of all members of the phyllum and that is injected when the cnidocilium of cnido-cell slash. They have radial symmetry and their body plan is shaped bag. They are the simplest animals and have nerve cells and sensory organs (statocysts, ocelli).

Within this group are animals such as polyps, jellyfish or corals.
Phylum Cnidaria
In the scientific classification of living beings, the kingdom Animalia (animals) or Metazoa (metazoans) is a large group of eukaryotic, heterotrophic, multicellular and tissue. They are characterized by their capacity for locomotion, the absence of chlorophyll and its cell wall, and its embryonic development through a blastula stage and determines a fixed body plan (although many species may be subsequently metamorphosis). Animals are a natural group closely related to fungi and plants. Animal is one of the five kingdoms of nature, and he belongs humans.
This kingdom includes
bacteria and archea.
Some bacteria are pathogens: they cause illnesses, but most of them are beneficial and many are used in pharmaceutical and food industries.
There are about three hundred
known species of bacteria
Ciliates have many cilia that they use to move with.
They also use them to move water; this move their food into a mouth-like opening they have and then into their cells. They have two nuclei. The most common example is the Paramecium. Ciliates can be parasites or live freely.
Flagellates are nearly all parasites, but some live freely.
They use one or two flagella to move around.
Trypanosoma brucei is a parasite found in the blood of vertebrates. In humans it produces sleeping sickness, which is transmitted by the tsetse fly.
Rhizopoda have cytoplam extensions called pseudopods
that they use to move around and catch food. Some of them live freely, such as the amoeba, and some are parasites, such as Entamoeba histolytica, wich causes amoebic dysentery
Sporozoa are non-motile organisms. They don´t have
any organs for movement. They are all parasites. They reproduce asexually through spores.
Plasmodium malariae causes malaria, which is endemic in many African countries. Malaria attacks the red blood cells and causes high fevers.
Algae are aquatic organisms. They can be single-celled or multicellular. Their cells contain chlorophyll and other photosynthetic pigments, so their nutrition is autotrophic.
Algae aren´t plants, because they don´t have
tissue with specialised cells for different
functions. In multicellular algae all the cells
are similar and have the same function.
Algae reproduce both sexually and asexually, using spores or fragmentation. Some are benthic, but other are planktonic and form part of phytoplankton.
Green algae
Brown algae
Red algae
Unicellular organisms characterized by a silica shell.
Most diatoms exist singly, although some join to form colonies. They can be found in fresh and salt water.
They are green because their cells have a lot of chlorophyll. Most of them live in fresh water, but they can live in all types of aquatic environments. They can be benthic or planktonic, single-celled or multicellular and they are found in many different shapes.
These can be single-celled or multicellular. They are usually attached to the sea floor or to the shells of other living beings. They mainly contain red pigment and are the only algae that can collect the small amount of sunlight that reaches the deep seas where they live.
These look brown because they have a lot of brown pigment. Most of them are marine and multicellular. The biggest ones are about 50 meters long.
They are mostly single-celled algae. Some of them contain chloroplasts and others are heterotrophics and they can ingest or absorb their food.
Some species are heterotrophic, but others are photosynthetic.
This kingdom includes many different types of organisms,
such as mushrooms, yeasts and moulds. Most of them are microscopic, but they are visible when appear in large numbers on food that starts to spoil, such as old bread or fruit.
Fungi are composed of eukariotic cells. Some species are single-celled, and other are multicellular. They can reproduce sexually and asexually.
Multicellular fungi are formed
by cell filaments called Hyphae.
Th whole of hyphae is called
Types of fungi
Single cell fungi
Multicellular fungi.
These don´t have real tissue. Some fungi, such as mushrooms, have a large surface which is visible above the ground. This is called the cap. The body of mushrooms is under the ground.
Caps are the productive apparatus of certain fungi. This is where the spores are formed. Spores only appear when the fungus is going to reproduce.
Plant tissues
of plants
Plants are multicellular organisms taht make their own food through photosynthesis. So, they are autotrophic.
These are the most primitive group of plants on the Earth.
Liverworts are non-vascular and mosses don´t have woody vascular conduits.
This means that these kind of plants don´t have strong stems and can´t grow straight up, so they are usually quite small and only grow at ground level.
Liverwort cells absorb the water and substances they need directly from the ground. These substances move from one cell to another by diffusion.
They have three parts: an axis (similar to a stem); phylloides (similar to leaves); and rhizoids (similar to roots), which attach the moss to the ground and absorb water.
Ferns have more developed roots, stems and leaves than mosses. They have woody vascular conduits, but they don´t have flowers or seeds.
The rhizome (stem) of ferns is under the ground: fronds (large leaves) come out of the rhizome and they are divided into blades (smaller leaves). The roots are on the lower part of the rhizome and have absorbent root hairs on them.
Flowering plants are named spermatophytes: they use seeds to reproduce. The seeds are produced by specialised organs structures, called flowers.
Flowering plants are classified into angiosperms and gymnosperms, according to the type of flowers they have, and if the seeds are or aren´t completely covered by the fruit.
Fruit and seeds
Sepals are leaves located below the petals. They are usually small and green. Collectively, the sepals are called the calyx: the calyx protects the internal parts of the flower.
Petals are the coloured leaves that attract insects carrying pollen. Collectively the petals are called the corolla.
Carpels (pistils) are the female reproductive organs of a plant. They are a group of fused leaves inside the flower. A carpel includes the ovary, the style and the stigma. Inside the ovary are the ovules, which contain the female reproductive cells.
Staments are the male reproductive organs of the flower. They are modified leaves which have a filament with an anther at the end: the anther produces the pollen grains. Stamens are protected by the corolla.
Angiosperms produce fruits: structures that come from the flower´s ovary and that contain one or several seeds. Fruit can be fleshy or dry.
They are woody plants; most of them are trees, although some are shrubs.
Many of these species have leaves shaped like needles (the pine tree) or like scales (the cypress tree). Gymnosperms are usually perennial: the trees don´t lose their leaves in winter.
The flowers are always unisexual: there are male flowers and female flowers grouped into inflorescences.
The don´t have any fruit, so their seeds are exposed to the outside.
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